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2003

Georgetown University Law Center

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Articles 1 - 30 of 87

Full-Text Articles in Law

Lbj's Ghost: A Contextual Approach To Targeting Decisions And The Commander In Chief, James E. Baker Oct 2003

Lbj's Ghost: A Contextual Approach To Targeting Decisions And The Commander In Chief, James E. Baker

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The moral imperative and relevance of the Law of Armed Conflict (“LOAC”) is more apparent today than before September 11, 2001. Law distinguishes democratic societies from the terrorists who attack them; nowhere is this more apparent than in the methods and means of warfare. Indeed, part of our revulsion and contempt for terrorism lies in the terrorists' indiscriminate, disproportionate, and unnecessary violence against civilians. In contrast, the enduring strength of the LOAC is its reliance on the principles of proportionality, necessity, and discrimination, which protect civilians and minimize combatant suffering. For these reasons, we should not begrudge the LOAC's ...


Regionalism Versus Globalism: A View From The Americas, Carlos Manuel Vázquez Jan 2003

Regionalism Versus Globalism: A View From The Americas, Carlos Manuel Vázquez

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The well-deserved celebration of UNIDROIT'S first seventy-five years focused on a topic that is of particular interest to the Organization of American States and to the organ of the OAS to which the author belongs, the Inter-American Juridical Committee. The topic of the 75th Anniversary Congress--"Worldwide Harmonization of Private Law and Regional Integration"--implicates one of the several dichotomies with which we in the Inter-American system who work on questions of private international law (and international private law) have been grappling in recent years, the problem of regional versus global approaches to the harmonization of private international law ...


Virtue Jurisprudence: A Virtue-Centered Theory Of Judging, Lawrence B. Solum Jan 2003

Virtue Jurisprudence: A Virtue-Centered Theory Of Judging, Lawrence B. Solum

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

"Virtue jurisprudence" is a normative and explanatory theory of law that utilizes the resources of virtue ethics to answer the central questions of legal theory. The main focus of the essay is the development of a virtue-centered theory of judging. The exposition of the theory begins with exploration of defects in judicial character such as corruption and incompetence. Next, an account of judicial virtue is introduced. This includes judicial wisdom, a form of phronesis, or sound practical judgment. A virtue-centered account of justice is defended against the argument that theories of fairness are prior to theories of justice. The centrality ...


Alternative Forms Of Judicial Review, Mark V. Tushnet Jan 2003

Alternative Forms Of Judicial Review, Mark V. Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The invention in the late twentieth century of what I call weak-form systems of judicial review provides us with the chance to see in a new light some traditional debates within U.S. constitutional law and theory, which are predicated on the fact that the United States has strong-form judicial review. Strong- and weak-form systems operate on the level of constitutional design, in the sense that their characteristics are specified in constitutional documents or in deep-rooted constitutional traditions. After sketching the differences between strong- and weak-form systems, I turn to design features that operate at the next lower level. Here ...


Lessons From Nepal: Partnership, Privilege And Potential, Jane H. Aiken Jan 2003

Lessons From Nepal: Partnership, Privilege And Potential, Jane H. Aiken

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Dramatic differences in culture present students with the opportunity to gain considerable perspective on their own perceptions and a chance to operate in a legal environment that, like most endeavors in the world today, has become increasingly globalized. This kind of experience has generally been missing in the training of our university law students. The students in Washington University's Civil Justice Clinic have provided legal services to women and children who have been victims of violence in a wide array of socio-economic settings. They have also worked on policy initiatives that shape government on city, state and federal levels ...


Celebrating Tahoe-Sierra, Richard J. Lazarus Jan 2003

Celebrating Tahoe-Sierra, Richard J. Lazarus

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The Court's ruling in Tahoe-Sierra is a realization of the current Court's potential to reach a sensible result in a regulatory takings case. Tahoe-Sierra is a major victory for government regulators and environmentalists, but not because it eliminates the takings issue as a substantial concern. Tahoe-Sierra instead finds its significance in its restoration of balance to the Court's takings jurisprudence, signified by a new Court majority with Justice Scalia relegated to a dissent. Without reversing the Court's recent rulings in favor of landowners in takings cases, the Court makes clear that a majority of the Justices ...


Non-Judicial Review, Mark V. Tushnet Jan 2003

Non-Judicial Review, Mark V. Tushnet

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Professor Mark Tushnet challenges the view that democratic constitutionalism requires courts to dominate constitutional review. He provides three diverse examples of non-judicial institutions involved in constitutional review and examines the institutional incentives to get the analysis" right." Through these examples, Professor Tushnet argues that non-judicial actors may perform constitutional review that is accurate, effective, and capable of gaining public acceptance. Professor Tushnet recommends that scholars conduct further research into non-judicial review to determine whether ultimately more or less judicial review is necessary in constitutional democracies.


Tribute To Harold Jacobson, John H. Jackson Jan 2003

Tribute To Harold Jacobson, John H. Jackson

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Harold Jacobson was not only a fine scholar and excellent teacher who devoted a career to the University of Michigan, but he was also a very trusted colleague and a close friend. His scholarly work was very well recognized and admired. He was one of my colleagues while I taught at Michigan, to whom I willingly recommended students for a multidisciplinary approach to international relations. He was a theorist of political science and international relations who was willing and able to come to grips with the role of law in those fields.


New Evidence Of The Original Meaning Of The Commerce Clause, Randy E. Barnett Jan 2003

New Evidence Of The Original Meaning Of The Commerce Clause, Randy E. Barnett

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In this paper, the author advances the debate on the original meaning, interpretation, and usage of the word "commerce" in the context of the Commerce Clause. First, he distinguishes between terms that are vague and those that are ambiguous. He contends that realizing the dispute is over the ambiguity rather than the vagueness of "commerce" helps resolve the conflict between interpretations. Second, he presents the results of new empirical research into the original public meaning of "commerce" that extends well beyond the sources immediately surrounding the Constitution. Finally, the author reports the results of a similar survey of the use ...


Constitutional Legitimacy, Randy E. Barnett Jan 2003

Constitutional Legitimacy, Randy E. Barnett

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The problem of constitutional legitimacy is to establish why anyone should obey the command of a constitutionally-valid law. A lawmaking system is legitimate if there is a prima facie duty to obey the laws it makes. Neither "consent of the governed" nor "benefits received" justifies obedience. Rather, a prima facie duty of obedience exists either (a) if there is actual unanimous consent to the jurisdiction of the lawmaker or, in the absence of consent, (b) f laws are made by procedures which assure that they are not unjust. In the absence of unanimous consent, a written constitution should be assessed ...


The Invention Of Health Law, Maxwell Gregg Bloche Jan 2003

The Invention Of Health Law, Maxwell Gregg Bloche

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

By default, the courts are inventing health law. The law governing the American health system arises from an unruly mix of statutes, regulations, and judge-crafted doctrines conceived, in the main, without medical care in mind. Courts are ill-equipped to put order to this chaos, and until recently they have been disinclined to try. But political gridlock and popular ire over managed care have pushed them into the breach, and the Supreme Court has become a proactive health policy player. How might judges make sense of health law's disparate doctrinal strands? Scholars from diverse ideological starting points have converged toward ...


David Feller, Senior Partner, Michael H. Gottesman Jan 2003

David Feller, Senior Partner, Michael H. Gottesman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

While in law school, in the late 1950's, I decided that I wanted a career in labor law, representing unions. I asked my labor law professor what firms I should consider. He told me there was one firm nationwide that stood out from all the rest: Goldberg, Feller and Bredhoff. He warned, though, that the firm was very small, and the chances of getting a job there remote. I did some research and discovered that the firm had only four lawyers: three partners (Arthur Goldberg, Dave Feller, and Elliot Bredhoft), and one associate (Jerry Anker). The firm was General ...


Pushing Drugs: Genomics And Genetics, The Pharmaceutical Industry, And The Law Of Negligence, Heidi Li Feldman Jan 2003

Pushing Drugs: Genomics And Genetics, The Pharmaceutical Industry, And The Law Of Negligence, Heidi Li Feldman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article presents a piece of a larger, ongoing project on the phenomenon of market-driven manufacturing (MDM) and how tort law should address it. In contrast to the larger project, this article provides a relatively brief overview of the general phenomenon of MDM, but zeros in on how pharmaceutical manufacturers specifically practice MDM. MDM is a well-documented, much practiced activity, although American courts do not recognize MDM as a discrete category of conduct. The basic idea of MDM is that marketing considerations should continuously control every aspect and stage of a product's lifecycle. When a company engages in MDM ...


Law And Force After Iraq: A Transitional Moment, Jane E. Stromseth Jan 2003

Law And Force After Iraq: A Transitional Moment, Jane E. Stromseth

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

What impact will the Iraq war of 2003 have on international law governing the use of force and on the future of the United Nations Security Council? Some commentators have proclaimed that the military intervention led by the United States amounted to the "death" of the UN Charter and the end of "the grand attempt to subject the use of force to the rule of law." The Security Council's failure to reach agreement--in the face of French-U.S. antagonisms--spells the end, they argue, of an effective Council role in addressing major threats to peace and security. My own view ...


Law As Social Work, Jane H. Aiken, Stephen Wizner Jan 2003

Law As Social Work, Jane H. Aiken, Stephen Wizner

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In our work as lawyers for low income clients and as clinical teachers, we are sometimes told by our professional counterparts in private practice - especially those who work in large corporate firms - that what we do "isn't law, it's social work." Similarly, our students sometimes complain that the work they do on behalf of low income clients "isn't law, it's social work." In the past we have tended to respond to this "social worker" charge defensively. We insisted that what we and our students do is "law," that it is really no different from what private ...


The Imperative Of Natural Rights In Today's World, Randy E. Barnett Jan 2003

The Imperative Of Natural Rights In Today's World, Randy E. Barnett

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

If there is any group that really needs to understand the concept of natural rights, it is professors of constitutional law. The document they teach was written by a generation who uniformly believed in natural rights, used the concept to justify a violent revolution from their mother country, and professed their continued commitment to natural rights long after the separation—a commitment that only intensified in the years that culminated in the Civil War and the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment.

Yet few constitutional law professors know much, if anything, about this fundamental concept even as a historical matter, much ...


Their Liberties, Our Security: Democracy And Double Standards, David Cole Jan 2003

Their Liberties, Our Security: Democracy And Double Standards, David Cole

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Some maintain that a "double standard" for citizens and noncitizens is perfectly justified. The attacks of September 11 were perpetrated by nineteen Arab noncitizens, and we have reason to believe that other Arab noncitizens are associated with the attackers and will seek to attack again. Citizens, it is said, are presumptively loyal; noncitizens are not. Thus, it is not irrational to focus on Arab noncitizens. Moreover, on a normative level, if citizens and noncitizens were treated identically, citizenship itself might be rendered meaningless. The very essence of war involves the drawing of lines in the sand between citizens of our ...


Two Cheers For Gentrification, J. Peter Byrne Jan 2003

Two Cheers For Gentrification, J. Peter Byrne

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The very word "gentrification" implies distaste. Advocates for the poor and ethnic minorities see affluent whites bidding up the prices for urban housing to levels that force poor families out, depriving them of affordable housing, perhaps rendering them homeless, and changing the character of a neighborhood from one that reflects distinct ethnic and class needs and cultural traditions into a bland emporium for expensive consumer goods. Sometimes historic preservation laws are indicted as particular culprits in setting this dynamic in motion. A result of these perceptions is that the legal literature on gentrification, in general, and historic preservation both reflect ...


Rhetoric And Realities Of Gentrification: Reply To Powell And Spencer, J. Peter Byrne Jan 2003

Rhetoric And Realities Of Gentrification: Reply To Powell And Spencer, J. Peter Byrne

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Gentrification represents one of the most encouraging trends in city life since the 1960s. That may be a sad commentary on the fate of American cities or on our urban policies, but it is nevertheless true. The return of affluent people to urban living offers the possibility of reversing declining populations and municipal revenues, permitting enhanced spending on basic services, and increasing employment and educational opportunities. It also brings greater ethnic and economic diversity, which can contribute to a more humane social and cultural life. The great drawback to gentrification is that increased demand for housing increases rents, at least ...


Looking Ahead: The Future Of Affirmative Action, Susan Low Bloch Jan 2003

Looking Ahead: The Future Of Affirmative Action, Susan Low Bloch

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education, race is still a serious issue in this country. Fortunately, we no longer debate whether it is legal for the government to operate segregated schools or to treat blacks as second-class citizens. We finally answered that question correctly—it is unconstitutional for the law to segregate and to treat blacks worse than whites.

Today, we face the more difficult question of ascertaining the constitutionality of “affirmative action” or “benign discrimination” programs. The Supreme Court first addressed this issue in 1978 in the landmark case Regents of the University of California v. Bakke ...


The Effect Of The Supreme Court's Eleventh Amendment Jurisprudence On Environmental Citizen Suits: Gotcha!, Hope M. Babcock Jan 2003

The Effect Of The Supreme Court's Eleventh Amendment Jurisprudence On Environmental Citizen Suits: Gotcha!, Hope M. Babcock

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The current Supreme Court has substantially expanded the scope of protection from lawsuits accorded to states by the Eleventh Amendment and narrowed the exceptions to its application. As a result, many people are finding they are unable to vindicate federal rights in any court when the defendant is a state or a state agency. The most recent example of this is the Court's decision in South Carolina State Ports Authority v. Federal Maritime Commission, in which the Court extended the reach of the Eleventh Amendment to private administrative enforcement actions against states, thus forsaking completely any connection to the ...


Re-Imagining Justice: Progressive Interpretations Of Formal Equality, Rights, And The Rule Of Law, Robin West Jan 2003

Re-Imagining Justice: Progressive Interpretations Of Formal Equality, Rights, And The Rule Of Law, Robin West

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Resurrecting the neglected question of what we mean by legal justice, this book seeks to re-imagine rather than simply critique contemporary notions of the rule of law, rights and legal equality. A work of reconstruction, it offers a progressive and egalitarian approach to concepts that have become overly associated with the idea of limited government and social conservatism. Focusing on the necessary conditions of cooperative community life, the book presents a vision of law that facilitates rather than frustrates politics, an analysis of rights that boosts our capacities for caring, and an idea of equality that captures a cosmopolitan vision ...


Trade Sanctions And Human Rights–Past, Present, And Future, Carlos Manuel Vázquez Jan 2003

Trade Sanctions And Human Rights–Past, Present, And Future, Carlos Manuel Vázquez

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The relationship between the international law of trade and the international law of human rights has commanded an increasing amount of scholarly attention in the past few years, perhaps spurred by the well-known events at Seattle in 1999. This article offers some reflections on this relationship, focusing on the permissibility under international law of imposing trade sanctions against nations that commit violations of international human rights. Part I begins with some reflections on the historical relationship between these two bodies of law. Part I also considers why the human rights community appears to feel threatened by the international trade system ...


Reconceptualizing Criminal Law Defenses, Victoria Nourse Jan 2003

Reconceptualizing Criminal Law Defenses, Victoria Nourse

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In 1933, one of the leading theorists of the criminal law, Jerome Michael, wrote openly of the criminal law "as an instrument of the state." Today, criminal law is largely allergic to claims of political theory; commentators obsess about theories of deterrence and retribution, and the technical details of model codes and sentencing grids, but rarely speak of institutional effects or political commitments. In this article, the author aims to change that emphasis and to examine the criminal law as a tool for governance. Her approach is explicitly constructive: it accepts the criminal law that we have, places it in ...


A Tribute To Gene W. Matthews, Lawrence O. Gostin Jan 2003

A Tribute To Gene W. Matthews, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Conference Center, across the street from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on Clifton Road in Atlanta, I sat on a leather sofa with one of my oldest, dearest friends-Gene Matthews, Legal Adviser to the CDC. Gene asked to meet me to talk about how we might invigorate the field of public health law. Matthews and his colleagues at CDC were hatching an idea to commence a grass-roots movement in public health law.


When Terrorism Threatens Health: How Far Are Limitations On Personal And Ecomonic Liberties Justified, Lawrence O. Gostin Jan 2003

When Terrorism Threatens Health: How Far Are Limitations On Personal And Ecomonic Liberties Justified, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The government is engaged in a homeland-security project to safeguard the population's health from potential terrorist attacks. This project is politically charged because it affords the state enhanced powers to restrict personal and economic liberties. Just as governmental powers relating to intelligence, law enforcement, and criminal justice curtail individual interests, so too do public health powers.


American Servicemembers' Protection Act Of 2002, Lilian V. Faulhaber Jan 2003

American Servicemembers' Protection Act Of 2002, Lilian V. Faulhaber

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

On July 1, 2002, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court ("ICC") entered into force, establishing the first permanent international criminal tribunal. Although seventy-six countries had ratified the Rome Statute by that date, the United States was not among them. Instead, Congress responded to the creation of the ICC by passing a bill sponsored by House Majority Whip Tom DeLay (R-Tex.) that Republican legislators had been trying to get through the House and Senate for several years. On August 2, 2002, the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 ("ASPA") became law. The Act was designed to prevent United States ...


An Imperial Security Council? Implementing Security Council Resolutions 1373 And 1390, Jane E. Stromseth Jan 2003

An Imperial Security Council? Implementing Security Council Resolutions 1373 And 1390, Jane E. Stromseth

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The UN Security Council has taken important steps against terrorism since the attacks of September 11, 2001. Some of those steps build on previous Security Council counterterrorism efforts; others represent significant innovations. I will focus in particular on Resolution 1373, which the Council adopted on September 28, 2001, and on Resolution 1390, adopted four months later in January 2002.


Introduction: Global Intellectual Property Rights: Boundaries Of Access And Enforcement, William Michael Treanor Jan 2003

Introduction: Global Intellectual Property Rights: Boundaries Of Access And Enforcement, William Michael Treanor

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Introduction to the Global Intellectual Property Rights: Boundaries of Access and Enforcement Symposium.

The Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal put together a symposium that focused on three issues in intellectual property: patents, The End of Equivalents? Examining the Fallout from Festo; Eldred, a case argued before the Supreme Court; and the relationship between the First Amendment and Internet filters.


Introduction: Integrity In The Law: Symposium In Honor Of John D. Feerick, William Michael Treanor Jan 2003

Introduction: Integrity In The Law: Symposium In Honor Of John D. Feerick, William Michael Treanor

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Fordham Law School's Integrity in the Law Conference, which honored John Feerick on the occasion of his retirement from the deanship after twenty years of remarkable service to the School, to the University, to the legal profession, and to the law.