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Ask The Smart Money: Shareholder Votes By A "Majority Of The Quality Shareholders", Lawrence A. Cunningham Jan 2021

Ask The Smart Money: Shareholder Votes By A "Majority Of The Quality Shareholders", Lawrence A. Cunningham

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Corporate directors, shareholders, judges and scholars are on edge. Directors yearn for a certain kind of shareholder, especially one that is patient and focused on the company, as opposed to indexers, who must hold it as part of their basket, or traders, who own fleetingly. Shareholders want a voice, and that patient-focused cohort has the softest one today, crowded out by indexers, like BlackRock, and legions of day traders, like those stalking GameStop. Courts, struggling under the conflicting weight of the business judgment rule and fairness scrutiny, look to shareholder voice as a solution. Yet scholars are troubled by the ...


Emerging Policy And Practice Issues (2020), Steven L. Schooner, David J. Berteau Jan 2021

Emerging Policy And Practice Issues (2020), Steven L. Schooner, David J. Berteau

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This paper/chapter, presented at the Thomson Reuters Government Contracts Year in Review Conference (covering 2020), attempts to identify the key evolving trends and issues in U.S. federal procurement for 2020-2021 and beyond. Consistent with prior practice, this chapter offers extensive coverage of the federal procurement (and grant) and defense spending trends and attempts to predict what lies ahead, particularly with regard to legislative and executive activity. This year's paper discusses, among other things, special emergency procurement authorities deployed during the coronavirus pandemic, the high degree of uncertainty currently being experienced in the public procurement sphere as the ...


Privacy Harms, Daniel J. Solove, Danielle Keats Citron Jan 2021

Privacy Harms, Daniel J. Solove, Danielle Keats Citron

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Privacy harms have become one of the largest impediments in privacy law enforcement. In most tort and contract cases, plaintiffs must establish that they have been harmed. Even when legislation does not require it, courts have taken it upon themselves to add a harm element. Harm is also a requirement to establish standing in federal court. In Spokeo v. Robins, the U.S. Supreme Court has held that courts can override Congress’s judgments about what harm should be cognizable and dismiss cases brought for privacy statute violations.

The caselaw is an inconsistent, incoherent jumble, with no guiding principles. Countless ...


The Government Contracts Reference Book: A Comprehensive Guide To The Language Of Procurement, Ralph C. Nash, Steven L. Schooner, Karen R. O'Brien-Debakey, Vernon J. Edwards Jan 2021

The Government Contracts Reference Book: A Comprehensive Guide To The Language Of Procurement, Ralph C. Nash, Steven L. Schooner, Karen R. O'Brien-Debakey, Vernon J. Edwards

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This book - first published in 1992 and now in its fifth edition - is intended to offer concise, comprehensive information to the practitioner of the art of government contracting. Looking up a key term, the reader can find a definition, followed by a summary of where the term is used in the statutes or regulations dealing with the procurement process. The book also includes references to literature where the term is more fully discussed. The book is not designed as a standalone encyclopedia: it is a first reference, pointing the user to additional sources as needed. The book makes it clear ...


Judges And The Deregulation Of The Lawyer's Monopoly, Jessica Steinberg, Anna E. Carpenter, Colleen F. Shanahan, Alyx Mark Jan 2021

Judges And The Deregulation Of The Lawyer's Monopoly, Jessica Steinberg, Anna E. Carpenter, Colleen F. Shanahan, Alyx Mark

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

In a revolutionary moment for the legal profession, the deregulation of legal services is taking hold in many parts of the country. Utah and Arizona, for instance, are experimenting with new regulations that permit nonlawyer advocates to play an active role in assisting citizens who may not otherwise have access to legal services. In addition, amendments to the Rules of Professional Conduct in both states, as well as those being contemplated in California, now allow nonlawyers to have a partnership stake in law firms, which may dramatically change the way capital for the delivery of legal services is raised as ...


Wirecard And Greensill Scandals Confirm Dangers Of Mixing Banking And Commerce, Arthur E. Wilmarth Jr. Jan 2021

Wirecard And Greensill Scandals Confirm Dangers Of Mixing Banking And Commerce, Arthur E. Wilmarth Jr.

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The pandemic crisis has accelerated the entry of financial technology (“fintech”) firms into the banking industry. Some of the new fintech banks are owned or controlled by commercial enterprises. Affiliations between commercial firms and fintech banks raise fresh concerns about the dangers of mixing banking and commerce. Recent scandals surrounding the failures of Wirecard and Greensill Capital (Greensill) reveal the potential magnitude of those perils.

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) have encouraged commercial enterprises to acquire fintech banks. The FDIC has authorized commercial firms to acquire FDIC-insured industrial banks ...


Structured To Fail: Lessons From The Trump Administration's Faulty Pandemic Planning And Response, Alejandro E. Camacho, Robert L. Glicksman Jan 2021

Structured To Fail: Lessons From The Trump Administration's Faulty Pandemic Planning And Response, Alejandro E. Camacho, Robert L. Glicksman

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The Trump Administration’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic is a stark reminder that poorly designed government can be a matter of life and death. This article explains how the Administration’s careless and delayed response to the crisis was made immeasurably worse by its confused and confusing reallocation of authority to perform or supervise tasks essential to reducing the virus’s ravages.

After exploring the rationale for and impact of prior federal reorganizations responding to public health crises, the article shows how a combination of unnecessary and unhelpful overlapping authority and a thoughtless mix of centralized and decentralized authority ...


Officer-Created Jeopardy: Broadening The Time Frame For Assessing A Police Officer’S Use Of Deadly Force, Cynthia Lee Jan 2021

Officer-Created Jeopardy: Broadening The Time Frame For Assessing A Police Officer’S Use Of Deadly Force, Cynthia Lee

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

When a police officer’s use of deadly force kills or seriously injures a civilian, that officer may face civil liability or criminal prosecution. In both civil and criminal cases, a critical question that the jury must decide is whether the officer’s use of force was reasonable or excessive. As a general matter, the jury will be advised that it should consider all the relevant facts and circumstances—the totality of the circumstances—to answer this question.

An officer’s decisions and conduct prior to that officer’s use of deadly force can create jeopardy for the civilian and ...


Assessing The Trade Agenda For Government Procurement In The Biden Administration, Christopher R. Yukins Jan 2021

Assessing The Trade Agenda For Government Procurement In The Biden Administration, Christopher R. Yukins

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This paper, prepared shortly before President Joe Biden was inaugurated, discussed key trade issues for the incoming administration in public procurement. The piece reviewed major trade measures in procurement taken during the Trump administration – most of which were predictable from the time Trump was elected. The paper turned to the major trade challenges that faced the Biden administration, in areas as diverse as climate change, cybersecurity and the protectionism in post-Brexit Europe, and then assessed how the Biden administration might address these challenges, especially given Joe Biden’s support for “Buy American” policies during the 2020 campaign. The paper also ...


Denial Of Family Violence In Court: An Empirical Analysis And Path Forward For Family Law, Joan S. Meier Jan 2021

Denial Of Family Violence In Court: An Empirical Analysis And Path Forward For Family Law, Joan S. Meier

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Scores of women and children have suffered grave harm from courts’ punitive responses to mothers’ requests to protect their children from paternal abuse in the context of custody litigation. Rather than responding protectively, family courts frequently turn on the protective parent, ordering the children removed from the protective parent and sending them to live with or spend unprotected time with their allegedly abusive parent. In the worst of these cases, the abusive parent has used this court-ordered access to murder the child(ren), in the ultimate act of revenge against his adult victim. While courts’ resistance to mothers’ and children ...


The Expanding Labor Dimension Of Us-Negotiated Regional Trade Agreements: Tpp And Usmca, Steve Charnovitz Jan 2021

The Expanding Labor Dimension Of Us-Negotiated Regional Trade Agreements: Tpp And Usmca, Steve Charnovitz

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

During the past several years, the US government has negotiated two regional trade agreements with far reaching labor provisions — the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA). Signed in early 2016, the TPP labor chapter enhances second-generation worker rights in several significant ways: First, the TPP obligates each party to "adopt and maintain" statutes, regulations, and practices governing acceptable conditions of work with respect to minimum wages, hours of work, and occupational safety and health, as determined by that party. Second, the obligation not to waive or derogate from fundamental labor rights or conditions of work is specifically ...


When The Math Matters: Improving Statistical Advocacy In Gerrymandering Litigation, Robin L. Juni Jan 2021

When The Math Matters: Improving Statistical Advocacy In Gerrymandering Litigation, Robin L. Juni

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Lawyers regularly joke about their supposed inability to address mathematical issues. However, mathematical concepts sometimes are at the core of a legal dispute, and lawyers do a disservice to their clients if they are not able to engage in effective advocacy in these contexts. This article discusses a gerrymandering dispute involving an important mathematical idea – the core statistical concept of regression analysis, particularly multivariable regression analysis – then explaining the underlying math involved and connecting it to the legal issues. The case involved is Gill v. Whitford, in which Chief Justice Roberts referred to the multivariable regression analysis that showed the ...


Judges In Lawyerless Courts, Anna E. Carpenter, Colleen F. Shanahan, Jessica Steinberg, Alyx Mark Jan 2021

Judges In Lawyerless Courts, Anna E. Carpenter, Colleen F. Shanahan, Jessica Steinberg, Alyx Mark

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The typical American civil trial court is lawyerless. In response to the challenge of pro se litigation, scholars, advocates, judges, and courts have embraced a key solution: reforming the judge’s traditional role. The prevailing vision calls on trial judges to set aside traditional judicial passivity, simplify court procedures, and offer a range of assistance and accommodation to people without counsel.

Despite widespread support for judicial role reform, we know little of whether and how judges are implementing pro se assistance recommendations. Our lack of knowledge stands in stark contrast to the responsibility civil trial judges bear – and the power ...


The Case For Empowering Quality Shareholders, Lawrence A. Cunningham Jan 2020

The Case For Empowering Quality Shareholders, Lawrence A. Cunningham

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Abstract Anyone can buy stock in a public company, but not all shareholders are equally committed to a company’s long-term success. In an increasingly fragmented financial world, shareholders’ attitudes toward the companies in which they invest vary widely, from time horizon to conviction. Faced with indexers, short-term traders, and activists, it is more important than ever for businesses to ensure that their shareholders are dedicated to their missions. Today’s companies need “quality shareholders,” as Warren Buffett called those who “load up and stick around,” or buy large stakes and hold for long periods. While scholars in recent years ...


Brand Name Or Equal: Without "Equal," It's Not Competitive, Steven L. Schooner Jan 2020

Brand Name Or Equal: Without "Equal," It's Not Competitive, Steven L. Schooner

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

One of the more common rules in federal government procurement is that the Government may describe its needs to the private sector by specifying a “brand name” product, as long as the Government adds the words “or equal” to the brand name and articulates the product’s salient physical, functional, or performance characteristics that are essential to the Government’s needs. This broadens the potential for competition and helps reduce the government's reliance on unduly restrictive specifications.
Two recent examples - one the subject of a GAO bid protest decision, the other a recently posted commercial-item procurement - suggest that, while ...


The Occ's And Fdic's Attempts To Confer Banking Privileges On Nonbanks And Commercial Firms Violate Federal Laws And Are Contrary To Public Policy, Arthur E. Wilmarth Jr. Jan 2020

The Occ's And Fdic's Attempts To Confer Banking Privileges On Nonbanks And Commercial Firms Violate Federal Laws And Are Contrary To Public Policy, Arthur E. Wilmarth Jr.

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) have adopted several recent measures that attempt to confer benefits and privileges of banks on nonbank providers of financial services and commercial firms. The OCC’s and FDIC’s initiatives are unlawful and dangerous because they would allow nonbanks and commercial firms to subvert fundamental public policies embodied in federal laws governing banks and bank holding companies.

In 2018, the OCC announced that it would approve national bank charters for “fintech” firms that provide lending and payment services but do not accept deposits. The ...


Gsa’S Commercial Marketplaces Initiative: Opening Amazon And Other Private Marketplaces To Direct Purchases By Government Users, Christopher R. Yukins, Abraham Young, Kristen Ittig, Eric Valle Jan 2020

Gsa’S Commercial Marketplaces Initiative: Opening Amazon And Other Private Marketplaces To Direct Purchases By Government Users, Christopher R. Yukins, Abraham Young, Kristen Ittig, Eric Valle

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) opened a new chapter in public procurement by awarding three contracts—to Amazon Business, Overstock.com, and Fisher Scientific—that will allow federal users to buy directly from online electronic marketplaces, with sales anticipated to total $6 billion annually. This proof-of-concept effort, dubbed the “commercial platforms” initiative by GSA, marks a radical departure from traditional procurement practices because it will allow individual Government users (not necessarily procurement officials) to make “micro-purchases” (generally up to $10,000) using Government purchase cards. By removing the federal procurement system as an intermediary in the purchasing process ...


The Trans Panic Defense Revisited, Cynthia Lee Jan 2020

The Trans Panic Defense Revisited, Cynthia Lee

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Violence against transgender individuals in general, and trans women of color in particular, is a significant problem today. When a man is charged with murdering a transgender woman, a common defense strategy is to assert what is called the trans panic defense. The trans panic defense is not a traditional criminal law defense. Nor, despite its name, is it recognized as a stand-alone defense. Rather, trans panic is a defense strategy associated with the provocation or heat of passion defense. A murder defendant asserting trans panic will claim that the discovery that the victim was a transgender female—an individual ...


Look Up And Around: Musings On Mentors, Role Models, And Professionalism (Revised And Updated), Steven L. Schooner Jan 2020

Look Up And Around: Musings On Mentors, Role Models, And Professionalism (Revised And Updated), Steven L. Schooner

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

As part of Contract Management magazine's 2020 Professional Development issue, this (revised and updated) article offers a rather simple overarching suggestion for successful professionals and future leaders: look up and around. The article encourages readers to identify mentors, embrace the strengths of their role models, and open themselves up to learn from others, evolve, and grow. The article discusses, among other things, education, networking, professional development (and, of course, writing), and the power of optimism.


Withdrawing The United States From The Wto Government Procurement Agreement (Gpa): Assessing Potential Damage To The U.S. And Its Contracting Community, Christopher R. Yukins Jan 2020

Withdrawing The United States From The Wto Government Procurement Agreement (Gpa): Assessing Potential Damage To The U.S. And Its Contracting Community, Christopher R. Yukins

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The Trump administration is mulling an executive order that would trigger U.S. withdrawal from the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), according to reports from Bloomberg and POLITICO. Withdrawal from the GPA would deprive U.S. suppliers of a key point of access to public procurement markets internationally, under a world-wide agreement which has set global standards and opened over a trillion dollars annually in business opportunities. See, e.g., Anderson et al., “Assessing the Value of Future Accessions to the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA): Some New Data Sources, Provisional Estimates, and An Evaluative Framework for Individual ...


Comments Of Richard J. Pierce, Jr. On Promoting The Rule Of Law Through Transparency And Fairness In Civil Administrative Enforcement And Adjudication Docket Number Omb-2019-0006, Richard J. Pierce Jr Jan 2020

Comments Of Richard J. Pierce, Jr. On Promoting The Rule Of Law Through Transparency And Fairness In Civil Administrative Enforcement And Adjudication Docket Number Omb-2019-0006, Richard J. Pierce Jr

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

On January 30, 2020, OMB published a Notice entitled “on Promoting the Rule of Law Through Transparency and Fairness in Civil Administrative Enforcement and Adjudication.” OMB solicited comments by March 16 on the issues raised by eleven questions. The wording of the Notice and President Trump’s reference to it in his State of the Union address strongly suggest that the President plans to use the record created by the Notice as the basis for an Executive Order in which he will limit in many ways the actions that agencies can take in investigations and enforcement proceedings.

In these comments ...


Competition Policy Retrospective: The Formation Of The United Launch Alliance And The Ascent Of Spacex, William E. Kovacic Jan 2020

Competition Policy Retrospective: The Formation Of The United Launch Alliance And The Ascent Of Spacex, William E. Kovacic

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

In May 2005, Boeing and Lockheed Martin announced plans to form the United Launch Alliance, a joint venture which combined the only two suppliers of medium-to-heavy national security related launch services to the U.S. government. The Federal Trade Commission reviewed the transaction’s antitrust implications and, in consultation with the Department of Defense, approved the deal in October 2006 subject to restrictions governing ULA’s relationship other satellite manufacturers and providers of launch services. The DOD endorsed the transaction on the ground that the joint venture would increase launch reliability by concentrating production and launch services in a single ...


Order And Law In China, Donald C. Clarke Jan 2020

Order And Law In China, Donald C. Clarke

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The near half-century of the post-Mao era has almost universally been called one of construction of China’s legal system. But while great changes have taken place in China’s public order and dispute resolution institutions, other things have changed little or not at all. Most commentary focuses on the changes; this article, by contrast, will look at what has not changed—the important continuities that have persisted for over four decades.

This article argues that the scholarly community has accumulated over the past four decades a number of observations about China’s order maintenance institutions that are increasingly difficult ...


Covid-19: Lessons Learned In Public Procurement. Time For A New Normal?, Laurence Folliot Lallion, Christopher R. Yukins Jan 2020

Covid-19: Lessons Learned In Public Procurement. Time For A New Normal?, Laurence Folliot Lallion, Christopher R. Yukins

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

The COVID-19 crisis upended markets and assumptions in public procurement, and posed an almost existential threat to traditional procurement systems. Seismic changes in economic relationships – governments were no longer monopsonists, government officials failed as economic intermediaries between suppliers and the public, and supplies that were traditionally treated as private (such as medical equipment) suddenly became “public” goods under worldwide demand. Traditional trade rules were rendered irrelevant, as the goal was no longer simply to open individual procurements but rather to open borders to intense global demand. Although the disruption was revolutionary, ironically the solution is to return to first principles ...


Cultivating Quality: Ten Tools Managers Can Use To Get Long-Term Committed Shareholders, Lawrence A. Cunningham Jan 2020

Cultivating Quality: Ten Tools Managers Can Use To Get Long-Term Committed Shareholders, Lawrence A. Cunningham

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Special Note: This Article is part of The Quality Shareholder Initiative at the Center for Law, Economics and Finance (C-LEAF), at The George Washington University Law School, Prof. Lawrence A. Cunningham, Faculty Director. Considerable effort goes into forging tools a corporation can use to shape its shareholder base. Much effort is geared toward promoting long investor time horizons, presumed to be a valuable but rare appetite among many shareholders. Less attention has been focused on promoting greater commitment, though attracting shareholders willing to stake large percentages of their portfolio in a given company’s stock may prove way more valuable ...


Initiative On Quality Shareholders Highlights, Lawrence A. Cunningham Jan 2020

Initiative On Quality Shareholders Highlights, Lawrence A. Cunningham

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Highlights of a research initiative that formalizes the longstanding intuition that the sorts of shareholders a company attracts influences its performance. Contains lists of the best shareholders in corporate America, measured by long holding periods and high portfolio concentration, and lists of the companies that attract such shareholders in high density. Notes and explains how such shareholders and companies have been prone to outperform rivals. Explores what quality shareholders look for in companies and a dozen of the practices and policies that, evidence shows, companies can use to attract quality shareholders. Includes bibliographic references and suggestions for further research.


Taming The Megabanks: Why We Need A New Glass-Steagall Act, Arthur E. Wilmarth Jr. Jan 2020

Taming The Megabanks: Why We Need A New Glass-Steagall Act, Arthur E. Wilmarth Jr.

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This blog post was published in The FinReg Blog (hosted by Duke’s Global Financial Markets Center) on September 24, 2020. It provides an overview of my book of the same title, published by Oxford University Press on October 2, 2020.


Material Liberty And The Administrative State: Market And Social Rights In American And German Law, Francesca Bignami Jan 2020

Material Liberty And The Administrative State: Market And Social Rights In American And German Law, Francesca Bignami

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

This chapter begins with a forgotten story from American constitutional law. Raymond Belcher worked for a coal mining company in Lynco, West Virginia. During his working life, he paid into the federal insurance scheme for disability—Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI). Belcher later broke his neck on the job and claimed on his federal SSDI insurance. But he was in for a bad surprise. In 1965, after he began contributing but before he became disabled, Congress enacted an “offset” provision to reduce benefits for individuals like him who qualified for both state-run worker’s compensation and federal SSDI. Belcher went ...


Race And The Criminal Law Curriculum, Cynthia Lee Jan 2020

Race And The Criminal Law Curriculum, Cynthia Lee

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

A growing number of law professors are interested in providing their students with tools to think critically about the law. One site for critical thinking involves the topic of race. This book chapter provides criminal law professors with concrete suggestions on how they can meaningfully incorporate discussions of race into the classroom. This chapter will be included in The Oxford Handbook of Race and Law in the United States.


The Surprising Views Of Montesquieu And Tocqueville About Juries: Juries Empower Judges, Renée Lettow Lerner Jan 2020

The Surprising Views Of Montesquieu And Tocqueville About Juries: Juries Empower Judges, Renée Lettow Lerner

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

Both Montesquieu and Tocqueville thought that an independent judiciary was key to maintaining a moderate government of ordered liberty. But judicial power should not be exercised too openly, or the people would view judges as tyrannical. In Montesquieu’s and Tocqueville’s view, the jury was an excellent mask for the power of judges. Both Montesquieu and Tocqueville thought that popular juries had many weaknesses in deciding cases. But, as Tocqueville made clear, the firm guidance of the judge in instructions on law and comments on evidence could prevent juries from going astray and make the institution a “free school ...