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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Law

Qalys And Policy Evaluation: A New Perspective, Matthew D. Adler Dec 2005

Qalys And Policy Evaluation: A New Perspective, Matthew D. Adler

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

“QALYs” (Quality-Adjusted Life Years) are a metric for health and longevity very widely employed by health researchers. Surveys are used to assign health states a quality ranking on zero-one scale, with zero representing a health state no better than death and one perfect health. The total QALY value of a health profile is calculated as the time spent in its component health states, each weighted by its quality. Until a few years ago, despite the huge academic literature on QALY measurement, this approach was seldom used by policymakers in the U.S. But there have been recent signs of governmental ...


Tradable Pollution Permits And The Regulatory Game, Jason S. Johnston Nov 2005

Tradable Pollution Permits And The Regulatory Game, Jason S. Johnston

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper analyzes polluters' incentives to move from a traditional command and control (CAC) environmental regulatory regime to a tradable permits (TPP) regime. Existing work in environmental economics does not model how firms contest and bargain over actual regulatory implementation in CAC regimes, and therefore fail to compare TPP regimes with any CAC regime that is actually observed. This paper models CAC environmental regulation as a bargaining game over pollution entitlements. Using a reduced form model of the regulatory contest, it shows that CAC regulatory bargaining likely generates a regulatory status quo under which firms with the highest compliance costs ...


The Promise And Limits Of Voluntary Management - Based Regulatory Reform: An Analysis Of Epa's Strategic Goals Program, Jason S. Johnston Aug 2005

The Promise And Limits Of Voluntary Management - Based Regulatory Reform: An Analysis Of Epa's Strategic Goals Program, Jason S. Johnston

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper presents a case study of a voluntary environmental program initiated by the U.S. EPA in the late 1990's, the Strategic Goals Program (SGP). This program was intended to create incentives for job shop metal finishers, an industry of small and medium sized enterprises, to improve and even go beyond compliance with existing federal regulations by investing in pollution prevention. The SGP's incentives included direct technical assistance and limited financial assistance, but the primary carrot it offered participants was more flexible regulatory treatment by state and local regulators. Although SGP clearly helped some firms discover ways ...


Dangerous Clients: A Phenomenological Solution To Bureaucratic Oppression, Edward L. Rubin Mar 2005

Dangerous Clients: A Phenomenological Solution To Bureaucratic Oppression, Edward L. Rubin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Modern administrative agencies are often unnecessarily oppressive in their day-to-day contact with people. This article traces such oppression to status differences between agency employees and clients, their relationship as strangers to one another, the institutional pathologies of the agency and the divergent incentives to which the agency employees are subject. The article then considers three solutions to this problem that have been discussed in the academic literature regarding government agencies: the imposition of due process requirements, the shift to client-centered management, and the use of market or quasi-market mechanisms. After critiquing all three solutions, the article proposes a new approach ...


Management-Based Strategies For Improving Private Sector Environmental Performance, Cary Coglianese, Jennifer Nash Mar 2005

Management-Based Strategies For Improving Private Sector Environmental Performance, Cary Coglianese, Jennifer Nash

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Improvements in environmental quality depend in large measure on changes in private sector management. In recognition of this fact, government and industry have begun in recent years to focus directly on shaping the internal management practices of private firms. New management-based strategies can take many forms, but unlike conventional regulatory approaches they are linked by their distinctive focus on management practices, rather than on environmental technologies or emissions targets. This article offers the first sustained analysis of both public and private sector initiatives designed specifically to improve firms' environmental management. Synthesizing the results of a conference of leading scholars and ...


Against 'Individual Risk': A Sympathetic Critique Of Risk Assessment, Matthew D. Adler Mar 2005

Against 'Individual Risk': A Sympathetic Critique Of Risk Assessment, Matthew D. Adler

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

"Individual risk" currently plays a major role in risk assessment and in the regulatory practices of the health and safety agencies that employ risk assessment, such as EPA, FDA, OSHA, NRC, CPSC, and others. Risk assessors use the term "population risk" to mean the number of deaths caused by some hazard. By contrast, "individual risk" is the incremental probability of death that the hazard imposes on some particular person. Regulatory decision procedures keyed to individual risk are widespread. This is true both for the regulation of toxic chemicals (the heartland of risk assessment), and for other health hazards, such as ...


The Internet And Citizen Participation In Rulemaking, Cary Coglianese Jan 2005

The Internet And Citizen Participation In Rulemaking, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Each year, regulatory agencies promulgate thousands of important rules through a process largely insulated from ordinary citizens. Many observers believe the Internet could help revolutionize the rulemaking process, allowing citizens to play a central role in the development of new government regulations. This paper expresses a contrary view. In it, I argue that existing efforts to apply information technology to rulemaking will not noticeably affect citizen participation, as these current efforts do little more than digitize the existing process without addressing the underlying obstacles to greater citizen participation. Although more innovative technologies may eventually enable the ordinary citizen to play ...


The Fda And The Tort System: Postmarketing Surveillance, Compensation, And The Role Of Litigation, Catherine T. Struve Jan 2005

The Fda And The Tort System: Postmarketing Surveillance, Compensation, And The Role Of Litigation, Catherine T. Struve

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Architectural Censorship And The Fcc, Christopher S. Yoo Jan 2005

Architectural Censorship And The Fcc, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.