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Full-Text Articles in Law

Comparing & Contrasting Economic And Natural Law Approaches To Policymaking, Eric Kades Jan 2023

Comparing & Contrasting Economic And Natural Law Approaches To Policymaking, Eric Kades

Faculty Publications

Eric Claeys’s monograph, Natural Property Rights, offers a comprehensive and thoughtful articulation of a general theory of property rights rooted in the natural law tradition. This detailed review compares Claeys’s work with the consequentialist law and economics perspective on property. After contrasting their objectives, assumptions, and methodologies this article concludes that, unlike more absolutist approaches, Claeys’s flavor of natural property rights places a modicum of weight on the welfare effects central to economic analysis. This restrained nod in the direction of practicality, however, does not eliminate some of the long-known weaknesses of natural law. Perhaps the most glaring gap …


The Importance Of Viewing Property As A System, Lynda L. Butler Feb 2021

The Importance Of Viewing Property As A System, Lynda L. Butler

Faculty Publications

Can--or should--the American property system adapt to curb the excesses inherent in the dominant form of capitalism? Those extolling the virtues of privatization of resources would likely answer in the negative. Such a response would ignore the core functions and infrastructure of the American institution of property. This Article discusses the structure of property that enables property law to evolve over time, reacting to changing conditions, recognizing informal customs and usages, and otherwise taking into account important feedbacks. It explains how property provides an ordering system of concepts and principles that define and govern relations between a society and its …


Third-Party Interests And The Property Law Misfit In Patent Law, Sarah Rajec Jun 2020

Third-Party Interests And The Property Law Misfit In Patent Law, Sarah Rajec

Faculty Publications

Courts and scholars have long parsed the characteristics of patent grants and likened them, alternately, to real or personal property law, monopolies, public franchises and other regulatory grants, or a hybrid of these. The characterizations matter, because they can determine how patents are treated for the purposes of administrative review, limitations, and remedies, inter alia. And these varied treatments in turn affect incentives to innovate. Patents are often likened to real property in an effort to maximize rights and allow inventors to internalize all of the benefits from their activities. And courts often turn first to real property analogies when …


Property's Problem With Extremes, Lynda L. Butler Jan 2020

Property's Problem With Extremes, Lynda L. Butler

Faculty Publications

Western-style property systems are ill-equipped to deal with extremes--extreme poverty, extreme wealth, extreme environmental harm. Though they can effectively handle many problems, the current systems are inherently incapable of providing the types of reform needed to address extreme situations that are straining the fabric of societies--situations that are stressing the integrity of core societal and natural systems to the breaking point. The American property system, in particular, is problematic. The system has a long tradition of strong individual rights and relies primarily on the efficiency norm to operate and shape the incentives of rights holders. The economic model that now …


Right On Time: A Reply To Professors Allen, Claeys, Epstein, Gordon, Holbrook, Mossoff, Rose, And Van Houweling, Dotan Oliar, James Y. Stern Jan 2020

Right On Time: A Reply To Professors Allen, Claeys, Epstein, Gordon, Holbrook, Mossoff, Rose, And Van Houweling, Dotan Oliar, James Y. Stern

Faculty Publications

A simple observation started us off in writing Right on Time. Studying and teaching intellectual property law, we noticed striking parallels between traditional first possession rules in property law and analagous rules governing the acquisition of patent, copyright, and trademark rights. We thought that established first possession principles could illuminate the workings of IP law. As we dug in, however, it became increasingly clear that our premise wasn’t quite right. While many penetrating commentators had said many penetrating things about first possession, the leading treatments tended to focus on significant individual aspects of the overall issue. What we could …


Murr V. Wisconsin And The Inherent Limits Of Regulatory Takings, Lynda L. Butler Oct 2019

Murr V. Wisconsin And The Inherent Limits Of Regulatory Takings, Lynda L. Butler

Faculty Publications

This article examines the confusion surrounding constitutional protection of property under the substantive due process and takings clauses, using Murr as a springboard for reconsidering the substantive due process/takings distinction and asking whether the regulatory takings doctrine should remain a viable constitutional concept despite its muddled principles. While powerful reasons support treating as compensable economic regulations that are functionally equivalent to physical takings, important differences between physical and regulatory takings need to be recognized as limits to the degree of equivalence possible and therefore to the regulatory takings doctrine. A look back at the evolutionary paths of substantive due process, …


Right On Time: First Possession In Property And Intellectual Property, Dotan Oliar, James Y. Stern Mar 2019

Right On Time: First Possession In Property And Intellectual Property, Dotan Oliar, James Y. Stern

Faculty Publications

How should we allocate property rights in unowned tangible and intangible resources? This Article develops a model of original acquisition that draws together common law doctrines of first possession with original acquisition doctrines in patent, copyright, and trademark law. The common denominator is time: in each context, doctrine involves a trade-off between assigning entitlements to resources earlier or later in the process of their development and use. Early awards risk granting exclusivity to parties who may not be capable of putting resources to their best use. Late awards prolong contests for ownership, which may generate waste or discourage acquisition efforts …


Cutting Pension Rights For Public Workers: Don't Look To The Courts For Help, Ronald H. Rosenberg Jan 2019

Cutting Pension Rights For Public Workers: Don't Look To The Courts For Help, Ronald H. Rosenberg

Faculty Publications

Every day we rely on public employees to provide us with a broad range of services necessary to daily life. These workers include public school teachers, fire and police, emergency medical technicians, park rangers, nurses just to name a few. As public employees, these people work for local and state government and they are compensated by us for their services through the taxes we pay. In general, these are modestly paid workers who also receive pensions when they retire after many years of work. Following the financial crisis of 2008-2009, government retirement trust funds significantly lost value and their long-term …


How Bitcoin Functions As Property Law, Eric D. Chason Jan 2019

How Bitcoin Functions As Property Law, Eric D. Chason

Faculty Publications

Bitcoin replicates many of the formal aspects of real estate transactions. Bitcoin transactions have features that closely resemble grantor names, grantee names, legal descriptions, and signatures found in real property deeds. While these “Bitcoin deeds” may be interesting, they are not profound. Bitcoin goes beyond creating simple digital deeds, however, and replicates important institutional aspects of real estate transactions, in particular recordation and title assurance. Deeds to real property are recorded in a central repository (e.g., the public records office), which the parties (and the public) can search to determine title. When one grantor executes more than one deed covering …


A Prudential Take On A Prudential Takings Doctrine, Katherine Mims Crocker Nov 2018

A Prudential Take On A Prudential Takings Doctrine, Katherine Mims Crocker

Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court is set to decide a case requesting reconsideration of a doctrine that has long bedeviled constitutional litigants and commentators. The case is Knick v. Township of Scott, and the doctrine is the "ripeness" rule from Williamson County Regional Planning Commission v. Hamilton Bank that plaint~ffs seeking to raise takings claims under the Fifth Amendment must pursue state-created remedies first- the so-called "compensation prong" (as distinguished from a separate "takings prong"). This Essay argues that to put the compensation prong in the best light possible, the Court should view the requirement as a "prudential" rule rather than (as …


The Natural Property Rights Straitjacket: The Takings Clause, Taxation, And Excessive Rigidity, Eric Kades Apr 2018

The Natural Property Rights Straitjacket: The Takings Clause, Taxation, And Excessive Rigidity, Eric Kades

Faculty Publications

Natural property rights theories have become the primary lens through which conservative jurists and scholars view the Constitution’s main property rights provision, the Takings Clause. One of their most striking arguments is that progressive income taxation — applying higher tax rates to higher incomes — is an unconstitutional taking of wealthy taxpayers’ property. This has become part and parcel of well-established battle lines between conservative property rights advocates and their liberal counterparts. What has gone unnoticed is that the very same argument deployed against progressive taxation also deems regressive taxation — applying lower tax rates to higher incomes — an …


Property As A Management Institution, Lynda L. Butler Apr 2017

Property As A Management Institution, Lynda L. Butler

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Fixing A Broken Common Law -- Has The Property Law Of Easements And Covenants Been Reformed By A Restatement, Ronald H. Rosenberg Oct 2016

Fixing A Broken Common Law -- Has The Property Law Of Easements And Covenants Been Reformed By A Restatement, Ronald H. Rosenberg

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Horne Dilemma: Protecting Property's Richness And Frontiers, Lynda L. Butler Apr 2016

The Horne Dilemma: Protecting Property's Richness And Frontiers, Lynda L. Butler

Faculty Publications

In a 2015 decision, the Supreme Court concluded that real and personal property should not be treated differently under the Takings Clause and that a government condition requiring raisin growers, in certain years, to reserve a percentage of their crop for the government to manage in noncompetitive venues was a per se physical taking. The decision to treat both real and personal property as equally worthy of protection under the Takings Clause has merit given the weak historical evidence suggesting stronger protection for land and the importance of personal property to income generation and capital development in a modern society. …


The Governance Function Of Constitutional Property, Lynda L. Butler Jun 2015

The Governance Function Of Constitutional Property, Lynda L. Butler

Faculty Publications

Contemporary takings scholarship has devoted much attention to the problem of regulatory takings and has largely assumed that physical takings are resolved under a clear but simplistic per se rule. Under that rule, modern courts automatically find a physical taking whenever government action causes a permanent physical invasion of property, regardless of the context or the importance of the public interest. Applying this bright-line rule has proved to be difficult because it ignores the nuances of physical takings situations and the complexities of modern property arrangements. Should the physical takings concept apply to a rent control law that limits the …


Justifying A Prudential Solution To The Williamson County Ripeness Puzzle, Katherine Mims Crocker Oct 2014

Justifying A Prudential Solution To The Williamson County Ripeness Puzzle, Katherine Mims Crocker

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Property, Exclusivity, And Jurisdiction, James Y. Stern Mar 2014

Property, Exclusivity, And Jurisdiction, James Y. Stern

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Resilience Of Property, Lynda L. Butler Dec 2013

The Resilience Of Property, Lynda L. Butler

Faculty Publications

Resilience is essential to the ability of property to face transforming social and environmental change. For centuries, property has responded to such change through a dialectical process that identifies emerging disciplinary perspectives and debates conflicting values and norms. This dialectic promotes the resilience of property, allowing it to adapt to changing conditions and needs. Today the mainstream economic theory dominating common law property is progressively being intertwined with constitutionally protected property, undermining its long-term resilience. The coupling of the economic vision of ordinary property with constitutional property embeds the assumptions, choices, and values of the economic theory into both realms …


Property's Constitution, James Y. Stern Apr 2013

Property's Constitution, James Y. Stern

Faculty Publications

Long-standing disagreements over the definition of property as a matter of legal theory present a special problem in constitutional law. The Due Process and Takings Clauses establish individual rights that can be asserted only if “property” is at stake. Yet the leading cases interpreting constitutional property doctrines have never managed to articulate a coherent general view of property, and in some instances have reached opposite conclusions about its meaning. Most notably, government benefits provided in the form of individual legal entitlements are considered “property” for purposes of due process but not takings doctrines, a conflict the cases acknowledge but do …


Informal Institutions And Property Rights, Lan Cao Sep 2012

Informal Institutions And Property Rights, Lan Cao

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Property Before Property: Romanizing The English Law Of Land, Thomas J. Mcsweeney Aug 2012

Property Before Property: Romanizing The English Law Of Land, Thomas J. Mcsweeney

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Introduction: Comparative Property Rights, Lynda L. Butler Sep 2011

Introduction: Comparative Property Rights, Lynda L. Butler

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Property As/And Constitutional Settlement, Timothy Zick Jan 2010

Property As/And Constitutional Settlement, Timothy Zick

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The "Middle Ground" Perspective On The Expropriation Of Indian Lands, Eric Kades Jul 2008

The "Middle Ground" Perspective On The Expropriation Of Indian Lands, Eric Kades

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


A Windfall For The Magnates: The Development Of Woodland Ownership In Denmark, Eric Kades Apr 2007

A Windfall For The Magnates: The Development Of Woodland Ownership In Denmark, Eric Kades

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Palazzolo, The Public Trust, And The Property Owner's Reasonable Expectations: Takings And The South Carolina Marsh Island Bridge Debate, Erin Ryan Oct 2006

Palazzolo, The Public Trust, And The Property Owner's Reasonable Expectations: Takings And The South Carolina Marsh Island Bridge Debate, Erin Ryan

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Changing Culture Of American Land Use Regulation: Paying For Growth With Impact Fees, Ronald H. Rosenberg Jan 2006

The Changing Culture Of American Land Use Regulation: Paying For Growth With Impact Fees, Ronald H. Rosenberg

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Property, Aspen, And Refusals To Deal, Alan J. Meese Jan 2005

Property, Aspen, And Refusals To Deal, Alan J. Meese

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Unique Benefits Of Treating Personal Goodwill As Property In Corporate Acquisitions, Darian M. Ibrahim Jan 2005

The Unique Benefits Of Treating Personal Goodwill As Property In Corporate Acquisitions, Darian M. Ibrahim

Faculty Publications

Corporate acquisition talks may not get far if buyer and seller disagree over transaction structure, which can have significant after-tax effects. But the parties may have overlooked an item that, due to its potential tax treatment, could be the key to facilitating the acquisition. That item is the selling shareholder's "personal goodwill."

Personal goodwill exists when the shareholder's reputation, expertise, or contacts gives the corporation its intrinsic value. It is most likely to be found in closely held businesses, especially those that are technical, specialized, orprofessional in nature or have few customers and suppliers. If personal goodwill is treated as …


Property Rights And Intrabrand Restraints, Alan J. Meese Jan 2004

Property Rights And Intrabrand Restraints, Alan J. Meese

Faculty Publications

Intrabrand restraints limit the discretion of one or more sellers-usually dealers-with respect to the disposition of a product sold under a single brand. While most scholars believe that such contracts can help assure optimal promotion of a manufacturer's products, there is disagreement about the exact manner in which such restraints accomplish this objective. Many scholars believe that such restraints themselves induce dealers to engage in promotional activities desired by the manufacturer. Others believe that such restraints merely serve as "performance bonds," which dealers will forfeit if they fail to follow the manufacturer's precise promotional instructions. Some scholars reject both approaches, …