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Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

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Community Leadership For Healthy Lakes In New York, Nicholas A. Robinson May 2024

Community Leadership For Healthy Lakes In New York, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This is the text of a speech given at the 2024 New York State Federation of Lake Associations annual conference on May 3, 2024 in Lake George, New York.


Powerless Beings: Solitary Confinement Of Humans And Nonhumans In America, Michael B. Mushlin, David N. Cassuto Jan 2024

Powerless Beings: Solitary Confinement Of Humans And Nonhumans In America, Michael B. Mushlin, David N. Cassuto

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Every day, thousands of humans and millions of nonhumans endure solitary confinement. Human prisoners held this way are confined for twenty-two to twenty-four hours a day for weeks, months, or even years on end in cells the size of a parking space. For these humans, the experience is tortuous. Captive animals held in solitary confinement similarly spend much of their lives locked into tiny spaces, isolated, and deprived of the types of interactions and environment essential to their wellbeing. And, like humans, they are driven mad. In human and nonhuman settings, the agony of solitary is chillingly alike and harmful. …


Just Extracurriculars?, Emily Gold Waldman Dec 2023

Just Extracurriculars?, Emily Gold Waldman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Extracurricular activities have been the battleground for a striking number of Supreme Court cases set at public schools, from cases involving speech to religion to drug testing. Indeed, the two most recent Supreme Court cases involving constitutional rights at public schools--Kennedy v. Bremerton School District (2022) and Mahanoy Area School District v. B.L. (2021)--both arose in the extracurricular context of school sports. Even so, the Supreme Court has never fully clarified the status of extracurricular activities themselves. Once a school offers an extracurricular activity, is participation merely a privilege? Does the fact that extracurricular activities are voluntary for students affect …


How Gender And Other Identity Factors Influence Attitudes Toward Will Making: Lessons From Australia, Bridget J. Crawford, Tina Cockburn, Kelly Purser, Ho Fai Chan, Stephen Whyte, Uwe Dulleck Oct 2023

How Gender And Other Identity Factors Influence Attitudes Toward Will Making: Lessons From Australia, Bridget J. Crawford, Tina Cockburn, Kelly Purser, Ho Fai Chan, Stephen Whyte, Uwe Dulleck

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This essay aims to stimulate interest in further empirical study of attitudes toward will making by reporting the results of a 2022 survey conducted in Australia of the general population (n=1202) and legal professionals (n=112). We asked participants for their views about the ideal age at which to begin the will-making process and the relative contributions of the client and attorney to any resulting will. There was a discernible gender-based difference in views on both questions. Women preferred to initiate those conversations approximately six years earlier than men did and, especially at earlier life stages, preferred less professional input into …


Destroying Defamation, Leslie Y. Garfield Tenzer Jul 2023

Destroying Defamation, Leslie Y. Garfield Tenzer

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Fake News is destroying defamation. The recent proliferation of rushed journalism, online conspiracy theories that almost every news story is, in fact, “Fake News,” have created a desert of veracity. Widespread public skepticism about even the most mainstream Internet reporting means plaintiffs will have difficulty convincing jurors that third parties believed any reported statement to be true. Without such proof, it is almost impossible for a plaintiff to prove the elements of defamation.

To establish defamation, a plaintiff must show defendant published an assertion of fact that is false and damages the plaintiff's reputation Hyperbolic language or other indications that …


Fostering Resilience Within Ecological Civilization: Contributions Of Environmental Law, Nicholas A. Robinson Jul 2023

Fostering Resilience Within Ecological Civilization: Contributions Of Environmental Law, Nicholas A. Robinson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

My presentation will examine water, to illustrate the questions that Ecological Civilization presents. I shall address five points: (1) Often proposals for attaining Ecological Civilization raise issues relevant to environmental law, but do not examine the roles that environmental law can serve; (2) environmental law is essential to resolving unsustainable water management issues; (3) scientific studies indicate that trends in global environmental degradation limit the time available for implementing reforms to attain Ecological Civilization; (4) environmental legal systems for environmental impact assessment (EIA) can accelerate efforts to attain Ecological Civilization; and (5) For Ecological Civilization to ensure a firm foundation …


A Behavioral Economics Analysis Of Will Making Preferences: When To Begin And Who Should Have The Most Input, Bridget J. Crawford, Tina Cockburn, Kelly Purser, Ho Fai Chan, Uwe Dulleck Jul 2023

A Behavioral Economics Analysis Of Will Making Preferences: When To Begin And Who Should Have The Most Input, Bridget J. Crawford, Tina Cockburn, Kelly Purser, Ho Fai Chan, Uwe Dulleck

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The global COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need to plan for death, including the transmission of property through a valid will. Surprisingly little is known, however, about when people tend to make wills, how they go about doing so, and whether those practices vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. To begin building a foundation of knowledge, a research team comprised of United States and Australian lawyers and economists recently conducted the first-ever behavioral economics empirical study exploring these questions. This Article reports the results of the team's survey of both members of the Australian general public and estate planning lawyers in …


Exploring Democratic Accountability In The Administrative State, Joshua Ulan Galperin Jul 2023

Exploring Democratic Accountability In The Administrative State, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This essay seeks to add to the ongoing effort of defining accountability in practical terms by presenting an inconspicuous but directly on-point case study about administrative accountability. This is the story of the United States Department of Agriculture farmer committee system, which seems to be the one and only experiment in federal administrative elections. The experiment, however, has been a failure both as a matter of practical policy and constitutional validity. Indeed, in advance of legislative debate on the 2023 Farm Bill, a USDA advisory committee publicly recommended that Congress abolish the committee system. Nevertheless, there is much to learn …


Climate Migration And Displacement: A Case Study Of Puerto Rican Women In Connecticut, Camila Bustos, Bruni Pizarro, Tabitha Sookdeo Jun 2023

Climate Migration And Displacement: A Case Study Of Puerto Rican Women In Connecticut, Camila Bustos, Bruni Pizarro, Tabitha Sookdeo

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The climate crisis is increasingly forcing people to flee their homes, whether internally or across state borders. However, existing international and domestic law does not provide sufficient protection for those forcibly displaced by extreme weather events. In 2021, the Biden administration issued an executive order and subsequently a report on the impact of climate change on migration, which marked a first step in federal policy toward recognition of the nexus between climate change and displacement. At the local level, Connecticut has already become a destination for climate-displaced people. For instance, after Hurricane Maria landed in Puerto Rico in 2017, approximately …


Post-Pandemic Finra Arbitration: To Zoom Or Not To Zoom?, Jill I. Gross Apr 2023

Post-Pandemic Finra Arbitration: To Zoom Or Not To Zoom?, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article contributes to the literature exploring the impact of the pandemic on arbitration and explores whether parties arbitrating their disputes during the pandemic have had access to justice equivalent to the justice that was available pre-pandemic. Though it is difficult to draw any conclusions about FINRA arbitration due to the confidential and non-reasoned nature of awards, the Article focuses on arbitration of securities industry disputes at one forum, FINRA DRS. In particular, the Article analyzes data about FINRA customer arbitrations over the course of the pandemic, from onset in March 2020 through mid-2022, when most municipalities had lifted COVID-19 …


Property's Boundaries, James Toomey Mar 2023

Property's Boundaries, James Toomey

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Property law has a boundary problem. Courts are routinely called upon to decide whether certain kinds of things can be owned--cells, genes, organs, gametes, embryos, corpses, personal data, and more. Under prevailing contemporary theories of property law, questions like these have no justiciable answers. Because property has no conceptual essence, they maintain, its boundaries are arbitrary--a flexible normative choice more properly legislative than judicial.

This Article instead offers a straightforward descriptive theory of property's boundaries. The common law of property is legitimated by its basis in the concept of ownership, a descriptive relationship of absolute control that exists outside of …


Menstruation In A Post-Dobbs World, Emily Gold Waldman, Bridget J. Crawford Jan 2023

Menstruation In A Post-Dobbs World, Emily Gold Waldman, Bridget J. Crawford

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In this Essay, we re-examine our 2022 book, Menstruation Matters: Challenging the Law's Silence on Periods, through multiple related lenses, including the human rights, sustainability, and workplace issues emphasized by our three reviewers; the COVID-19 pandemic; and the Supreme Court's decision in Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization. All of these perspectives converge on the inherent dignity and autonomy interests in being able to manage one's own body. Menstruation and related conditions like breastfeeding, pregnancy, and menopause should not be sources of shame or stigma. Nor should they be vectors of formal control by the government or de facto exclusion …


The Age Of Fraud, James Toomey Jan 2023

The Age Of Fraud, James Toomey

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

We think of scams primarily as a problem for older adults. Indeed, in the past few years, states and the federal government have undertaken a range of legal actions designed to prevent seniors, as a distinct class, from scams-- from more harshly punishing perpetrators of scams directed towards older adults to authorizing financial institutions to closely monitor and rapidly freeze the accounts of their older clients. But this successful, popular, and bipartisan law reform movement has taken place without a thorough empirical understanding of whether, in fact, seniors fall victim to scams more frequently than other age groups.

This study …


A Human Rights Approach To Climate-Induced Displacement: A Case Study In Central America And Colombia, Camila Bustos, Juliana Vélez-Echeverri Jan 2023

A Human Rights Approach To Climate-Induced Displacement: A Case Study In Central America And Colombia, Camila Bustos, Juliana Vélez-Echeverri

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The past decade was the warmest decade ever recorded. As climate impacts intensify, numbers of people displaced and in need of relocation increase. International law has yet to adapt to a changing climate and its implications for those most vulnerable. Experts still debate whether the existing refugee regime could provide a solution for those displaced by climate across international borders, while national governments continue to reckon with the domestic implications of internal displacement fueled by climate impacts. In this article, we apply a human rights lens to climate induced displacement, drawing from two case studies to highlight the human rights …


Teaching Sustainable Business Law & The Role Of Esg Lawyers, Jason J. Czarnezki, Joshua Ulan Galperin, Brianna M. Grimes Jan 2023

Teaching Sustainable Business Law & The Role Of Esg Lawyers, Jason J. Czarnezki, Joshua Ulan Galperin, Brianna M. Grimes

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article is the second paper in a series laying out the emergence of sustainable business law and the role of ESG lawyers. The first paper, Sustainable Business Law? The Key Role of Corporate Governance and Finance, argues “that ‘sustainable business law’ has emerged as a distinct area of law” and “serves as an introductory explanation to define and understand the growing subject matter at the intersection of sustainability, business, and the law.” That paper also explores the key role that corporate governance and finance play in achieving sustainability, and suggests that “[a] future project for scholars ... is to …


Pink Tax And Other Tropes, Bridget J. Crawford Jan 2023

Pink Tax And Other Tropes, Bridget J. Crawford

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Law reform advocates should be strategic in deploying tax tropes. Through an examination of five common tax phrases—the “nanny tax,” “death tax,” “soda tax,” “Black tax,” and “pink tax”—this Article demonstrates that tax rhetoric is more likely to influence law when used to describe specific economic injustices resulting from actual government duties, as opposed to figurative inequalities. In comparison, slogans describing figurative taxes are less likely to influence law and human behavior, even if they have descriptive force in both popular and academic literature as a short-hand for group-based disparities. This Article catalogues and evaluates what makes for effective tax …


Against A Uniform Law On The Income Taxation Of Trusts, Michelle S. Simon Jan 2023

Against A Uniform Law On The Income Taxation Of Trusts, Michelle S. Simon

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In many areas, uniformity of state law is both practical and desirable. The Uniform Commercial Code, for example, brought harmony to conflicting state laws regarding the sale of goods and secured transactions, smoothing the way for interstate commerce. The law of trusts and estates is another area to which the Uniform Law Commissioners have recently turned their attention. Given the multitude of conflicts in state law regarding intestacy, fiduciary powers, and remote notarization, greater consistency between the states would be welcome. One area that should be off-limits to uniform lawmaking is the state income taxation of trusts. Despite complex and …


Monuments Without Faces?, Shelby D. Green Jan 2023

Monuments Without Faces?, Shelby D. Green

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Monuments take many forms and can serve several purposes. Typically associated with honor and a need to commemorate significant events, monuments seem to represent the ideas of the communities which house them. However, it remains to be seen whether all monuments represent a “good” memory. In this essay, the author seeks to comment on the concept of collective memory, specifically in the context of the history and experiences of marginalized groups in the United States. The author argues that monuments are a tool of promoting a collective memory: monuments are not part of history but rather part of the creation …


The Intentional Community: Toward Inclusion And Climate-Cognizance, Shelby D. Green Jan 2023

The Intentional Community: Toward Inclusion And Climate-Cognizance, Shelby D. Green

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In adapting communities to new levels of fairness, we must resist the notion that building equitable and accessible communities is antagonistic to building climate-cognizant communities. This paper will raise some of the core points in this endeavor and will offer suggestions for finding harmony between the two ends through creating communities with intention.

In Part I, I offer some details on what climate change, if unheeded, portends most in our daily lives. In Part II, I tell tales of two cities to frame the larger discussion. In Part III, I highlight some social, political, and economic history that produced a …


Implementing Nature's Rights In Colombia: The Arato And Amazon Experiences, Camila Bustos, Whitney Richardson Jan 2023

Implementing Nature's Rights In Colombia: The Arato And Amazon Experiences, Camila Bustos, Whitney Richardson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Nature's rights approaches are being developed as an alternative legal means to enable justice for nature and, oftentimes, humans, too. This study examines Colombia's two seminal court-ordered nature's rights approaches which recognize ecosystems-the Atrato River Basin (2016) and the Colombian Amazon (2018)-as a legal subject with rights to protection, maintenance, conservation, and restoration. Developed as remedies for human rights violations, both cases offer opportunities to explore variations in nature's rights approaches and the relationship between efforts to enable justice for humans and nature. We build on existing scholarly engagement with the cases by contributing a detailed archival study on their …


Title Ix And "Menstruation Or Related Conditions", Bridget J. Crawford, Emily Gold Waldman, Marcy L. Karin, Naomi R. Cahn, Elizabeth B. Cooper, Margaret E. Johnson Jan 2023

Title Ix And "Menstruation Or Related Conditions", Bridget J. Crawford, Emily Gold Waldman, Marcy L. Karin, Naomi R. Cahn, Elizabeth B. Cooper, Margaret E. Johnson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 (“Title IX”) prohibits sex discrimination in educational programs or activities receiving federal financial assistance. Neither the statute nor its implementing regulations explicitly define “sex” to include discrimination on the basis of menstruation or related conditions such as perimenopause and menopause. This textual absence has caused confusion over whether Title IX must be interpreted to protect students and other community members from all types of sex-based discrimination. It also calls into question the law's ability to break down systemic sex-based barriers related to menstruation in educational spaces. Absent an interpretation that there …


Yesterday's Protester May Be Tomorrow's Saint: Reimagining The Tax System Through The Work Of Dorothy Day, Bridget J. Crawford, W. Edward Afield Jan 2023

Yesterday's Protester May Be Tomorrow's Saint: Reimagining The Tax System Through The Work Of Dorothy Day, Bridget J. Crawford, W. Edward Afield

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article offers a critical exploration of Day's views on the relationship between the tax system and Catholic social theory. Part I of this Article provides a biographical sketch of Dorothy Day and an overview of the Catholic Worker movement. Part II explores Day's views on taxation, pacifism, and social justice. It attempts to reconcile her belief in wealth redistribution with her nonpayment of federal income taxes and her failure to seek tax-exempt status for the Catholic Worker. Part III examines Day's tax resistance in the context of Catholic social teaching, particularly as that thought was developing during Day's lifetime …


Confronting State Violence: Lessons From India's Farmer Protests, Smita Narula Oct 2022

Confronting State Violence: Lessons From India's Farmer Protests, Smita Narula

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In December 2021, following a year of sustained mass protests, farmers in India forced the repeal of three controversial Farm Laws that attempted to deregulate India’s agricultural sector in service of corporate interests. Farmers feared that the laws would dismantle price supports for key crops, jeopardize their livelihoods, and facilitate a corporate takeover of India’s agrarian economy. This Article situates India’s historic farmer protests in the context of the country’s longstanding agrarian crisis and the corporate capture of agriculture worldwide. I argue that the protests arose in response not only to the Farm Laws, but also to decades of state-sponsored …


Social Media Harms And The Common Law, Leslie Y. Garfield Tenzer Oct 2022

Social Media Harms And The Common Law, Leslie Y. Garfield Tenzer

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article finds fault with the judiciaries' failure to create a set of common law norms for social media wrongs. In cases concerning social media harms, the Supreme Court and lower courts have consistently adhered to traditional pre-social media principles, failing to use the power of the common law to create a kind of Internet Justice.

Part I of this article reviews social media history and explores how judicial decisions created a fertile bed for social media harm to blossom. Part II illustrates social media harms across several doctrinal disciplines and highlights judicial reluctance to embrace the realities of social …


Narrative Capacity, James Toomey May 2022

Narrative Capacity, James Toomey

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The doctrine of capacity is a fundamental threshold to the protections of private law. The law only recognizes private decision-making—from exercising the right to transfer or bequeath property and entering into a contract to getting married or divorced—made with the level of cognitive functioning that the capacity doctrine demands. When the doctrine goes wrong, it denies individuals, particularly older adults, access to basic private-law rights on the one hand and ratifies decision-making that may tear apart families and tarnish legacies on the other.

The capacity doctrine in private law is built on a fundamental philosophical mismatch. It is grounded in …


Working Through Menopause, Bridget J. Crawford, Emily Gold Waldman, Naomi R. Cahn Apr 2022

Working Through Menopause, Bridget J. Crawford, Emily Gold Waldman, Naomi R. Cahn

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

There are over thirty million people ages 44 to 55 in the civilian labor force in the United States, but the law and legal scholarship are largely silent about a health condition that approximately half of those workers inevitably will experience. Both in the United States and elsewhere, menopause remains mostly a taboo topic, because of cultural stigmas and attitudes about aging and gender. Yet menopause raises critical issues at the intersections of gender equity, disability, aging, transgender rights, and reproductive justice. This Article imagines how the law would change if it accounted for menopause and the associated unequal burdens …


Informational Regulation, The Environment, And The Public, Katrina F. Kuh Apr 2022

Informational Regulation, The Environment, And The Public, Katrina F. Kuh

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Informational Regulation, the Environment, and the Public generates a typology to analyze how public disclosure functions in informational regulation. In the environmental context, informational regulation compels the public disclosure of environmental information without mandating substantive environmental outcomes in the expectation that disclosure itself will prompt beneficial change in the environmental context. Application of the Article's typology reveals that the emperor has no clothes: Communication of environmental information to the public is considered central to policies employing informational regulation, but the information produced pursuant to these measures largely fails to reach or be understood by lay individuals. For example, empirical data …


A Random Stroll Amongst Anthony Trollope's Lawyers, James J. Fishman Apr 2022

A Random Stroll Amongst Anthony Trollope's Lawyers, James J. Fishman

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Anthony Trollope (1815-1882) resides in the pantheon of nineteenth century English literature. Overcoming a miserable childhood, he became an official with the post office and is credited with introducing the familiar red mailbox. While working full time in his postal position until 1867, he still managed to publish 47 novels, travel books, biographies, short stories, collections of essays, and articles on various topics. Trollope has been described as the novelist of the ordinary for his realistic description of English society. Law and legal issues flow through Trollope’s fiction. The legal system held a special importance to him as the skeleton …


Pandemics And Housing Insecurity: A Blueprint For Land Use Law Reform, John R. Nolon Apr 2022

Pandemics And Housing Insecurity: A Blueprint For Land Use Law Reform, John R. Nolon

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

COVID-19, racial inequity, housing insecurity, and climate change have come together to create widespread, large-scale crises. This Article introduces these four pandemics and describes in detail what local governments are doing to combat one of them: housing insecurity. It reviews recent progress with traditional inclusionary zoning requirements, discusses the move toward greater density in single-family zoning, lists strategies being used to remediate distressed housing, and notes the importance of affordable housing as a necessary strategy for preventing lower-income household displacement caused by gentrification. The reciprocal impacts of these four pandemics are clear; local land use leaders should examine how mitigating …


Contextualizing Menopause In The Law, Bridget J. Crawford, Emily Gold Waldman, Naomi R. Cahn Apr 2022

Contextualizing Menopause In The Law, Bridget J. Crawford, Emily Gold Waldman, Naomi R. Cahn

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

“It is horrendous, but then it’s magnificent,” says one character about menopause in an episode of the 2019 Netflix comedy Fleabag. Her younger interlocutor is incredulous at this proclamation. That younger character, and even the audience, may be somewhat taken aback by this frank discussion. After all, menopause is not a subject that is commonly discussed, let alone praised. Whether among friends, acquaintances, or colleagues (fictional or not), silence about menopause is more likely the norm. This is true in the law, too. The law mostly ignores menopause.

The law’s silence about menopause is linked to a broader cultural silence …