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Full-Text Articles in Law

Roman Law In Modern Life And Education, Joseph H. Drake Dec 1919

Roman Law In Modern Life And Education, Joseph H. Drake

Articles

"This discussion might be entitled, an experiment in classical education and how it failed... It is in a way an Apologia pro Mea Vita Paedagogica. The excess of ego dixi et meus filius respondit in it may, therefore, perhaps be pardoned by a confession at the outset that it is an account of failure on the part of the speaker to solve a troublesome pedagogical question and a very satisfactory solution of the same problem by one of his colleagues in the Latin Department."


Mutual Wills, Edwin C. Goddard Jun 1919

Mutual Wills, Edwin C. Goddard

Articles

SO LATE as 1822 Sir John Nicholl is reported to have said in Hobson v. Blackburn, that a mutual, or conjoint will is an instrument "unknown to the testamentary law of this country; or, in other words, that it is upknown, as a will, to the law of this country at all. It may, for aught that I know, be valid as a compact." In Darlington v. "Pulteney, Lord MANSFIELD said, "there cannot be a joint will." Following these distinguished and learned judges, Jarman and Williams in their classical treatises accepted the statement of Sir John, and some early American ...


Extraterritorial Effect Of The Equitable Decree, Willard T. Barbour May 1919

Extraterritorial Effect Of The Equitable Decree, Willard T. Barbour

Articles

ANYONE whom the study of equity has led into the by-paths of V Canon Law will recall that the Sext ends with a splendid array of imposing maxims, not improbably the source of the Latin maxims with which every lawyer is familiar. The inveterate habit formed by the ecclesiastics of expressing a legal principle in a short and crisp formula persisted when they came into the courts of law and is peculiarly in evidence among the chancellors of the fifteenth century. What may at first have been merely casual became through repetition a habit and the result has been to ...


Real Significance Of The Proposed Michigan Beer And Wine Amendment, Edwin C. Goddard Apr 1919

Real Significance Of The Proposed Michigan Beer And Wine Amendment, Edwin C. Goddard

Articles

DISCUSSION of proposed prohibitory amendments to Constitutions, State or Federal, are usually regarded as part of the wet and dry fight in which lawyers are interested only as citizens. Before the recent Cleveland Meeting of the American Bar Association the bar of the country was circularized by a protest, signed by a number of very well known lawyers, urging the bar to take action against putting into the fundamental law, the Constitution, such matters as the regulation of what the people shall drink. These lawyers presented their case at the Cleveland meeting and vigorously attempted to induce the American Bar ...


The Domicil Of Persons Residing Abroad Under Consular Jurisdiction, Edwin D. Dickinson Apr 1919

The Domicil Of Persons Residing Abroad Under Consular Jurisdiction, Edwin D. Dickinson

Articles

THE domicil of persons living under consular jurisdiction in foreign countries presents a problem of unique importance, not only because of the concern which a large number of people have in its proper solution, but also because of its relation to the conception of domicil and to the requisites by which the existence of donricil is to be determined. This problem may be concisely stated in the form of a question as follows: Is it possible for a person residing abroad under consular protection to acquire a domicil of choice in the country of residence? There are no apparent obstacles ...


The Seller's Action For The Price, John B. Waite Feb 1919

The Seller's Action For The Price, John B. Waite

Articles

WHEN a contract of sale has been broken by the buyer, before title has passed according to the usual rules of presumption, there arises the very practical question whether the seller can sue him for the purchase price, as such, or is limited to a suit for damages only. In the latter case his damage may happen to equal the purchase price, but it is usually considerably less than that amount. If the seller can recover the purchase price, as such, it must be because that price is legally due him as a consequence of the contract. The ultimate inquiry ...


Patent Law: Secret Use As Affecting Right To A Patent, John B. Waite Jan 1919

Patent Law: Secret Use As Affecting Right To A Patent, John B. Waite

Articles

An unusually obvious piece of judicial legislation, of practical importance to the manufacturing world, was promulgated in the case of Macbeth-Evans Glass Co. v. General Electric Co., 246 Fed. 695. The facts were that in 1903 Macbeth had invented a process for making glass. Since that time the plaintiff company, of which Macbeth was president, had been using that process. This use had, however, been "secret". In 1910 an employee of the plaintiff revealed the process to the Jefferson Glass Co., which at once began to use it, but on application of the Macbeth Co. the state court enjoined the ...


Pre-Legal Education, John B. Waite Jan 1919

Pre-Legal Education, John B. Waite

Articles

It was once thought that a lawyer's vocation was chiefly to serve his clients, so that he might bring fame and fortune to himself. The profession of law was considered only a means of livelihood, merely more difficult than clerking and more remunerative, sometimes, than carpentry. To require study for the law was thought an unfair preclusion of embryo breadwinners from an adventure with that particular occupation. Fortunately, the public mind has changed; the practice of law is no longer only a means of livelihood, but has become an important agency in promoting civilization. Some one has likened law ...


Verdicts, General And Special, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1919

Verdicts, General And Special, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

The most remarkable thing about this case of Georgia v. Brailsford is that a matter of such elementary importance in the daily administration of the law, after being announced in so dramatic a way by the Supreme Court of the United States at the very threshold of its career, could have dropped into oblivion for a hundred years only to be repudiated in a way hardly less dramatic by a sharply divided court. The controversy here disclosed goes to the very heart of the jury system as it has been developed by the common law and is still almost universally ...


Liability Of Manufacturer To Remote Vender For Defective Automobile Wheel, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1919

Liability Of Manufacturer To Remote Vender For Defective Automobile Wheel, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

Plaintiff. in February, 19O9. purchased from the Utica Motor Car Company, a Cadillac six-passenger touring car, manufactured by the Cadillac Motor Car Company, of Michigan. The Utica company was a dealer in motor cars, and purchased to resell; it was the original vendee, and the plaintiff was the sub-vendee. The car was used very little until July 31, 1909, when the plaintiff, an experienced driver, while driving the car on a main public road in good condition, at a speed of 12 to 15 miles per hour, was severely and permanently injured by the right front wheel suddenly breaking down ...


The Scintilla Rule Of Evidence, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1919

The Scintilla Rule Of Evidence, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

In analyzing the reasons why "trial by jury has declined to such an extent that it has come in many cases to be an avowed maxim of professional action,--a good case is for the court; a bad case is for the jury,"-JUDGE DILLON, in his LAWS AND JURISPRUDENCE, pp. 130-2, credits "the false principle known as the scintilla doctrine" with a large degree of responsibility.


Determinable Fee - Possibility Of Reverter, Edwin C. Goddard Jan 1919

Determinable Fee - Possibility Of Reverter, Edwin C. Goddard

Articles

Professor Gray, in the first edition of his great work, "The Rule Against Perpetuities," Section 31 and following, contended that the Statute Quia Emptores by putting an end to tenure between feoffor and feoffee of an estate in fee simple, incidentally put an end to possibility of reverter to the feoffer on failure of the condition in a determihable fee. Specifically he says that upon dissolution of an eleemosynary corporation a terminable gift to such corporation does not revert to the donor, as is said by Lord Coke, Co. LITT. 13b, but escheats. For reversion depends on tenure, and the ...


Effect At The Situs Rei, Of A Decree Ordering Conveyance Of Foreign Land, Edgar N. Durfee Jan 1919

Effect At The Situs Rei, Of A Decree Ordering Conveyance Of Foreign Land, Edgar N. Durfee

Articles

In a recent article in this Review, Prof. Willard Barbour discussed the question indicated by the above title. His cbnclusions may be-briefly slated as follows: that such a decree of a competent court having jurisdiction of the person of the defendant creates a personal obligation upon the defendant which a court of equity at the situs should enforce just as it would a contract or trust concerning this land made in the foreign jurisdiction: and that, as between the States of this Union, the "full faith and credit" clause of the Constitution makes such enforcement of the foreign decree obligatory ...


Liquidation Of Damages By Pre-Estimate, Joseph H. Drake Jan 1919

Liquidation Of Damages By Pre-Estimate, Joseph H. Drake

Articles

A freshly minted phrase, if attractive in form, even though it connotes no new idea, will frequently have as extensive a circulation, even in our supreme courts, as would a real concept. In a contract for building two laboratories for the Department of Agriculture, the contractor had agreed that the United States should be entitled to the "fixed sum of $200, as liquidated damages * * * for each and every day's delay" in the completion of the buildings. The court decided that this was a stipulation for liquidated damage because it was the result of a "genuine pre-estimate" of the anticipated ...


Referendum As Applied To Proposed Amendments Of The Federal Constitution, Ralph W. Aigler Jan 1919

Referendum As Applied To Proposed Amendments Of The Federal Constitution, Ralph W. Aigler

Articles

That various aspects of the fight against the National Prohibition (the i8th) Amendment would result in litigation was to be expected. The attack at present seem& to be based on the use of the provisions for referendum found in a dozen or more of the states the votes of which went to make up the necessary three-fourths. Three very recent decisions or expressions of opinion by state courts of last resort are in this respect extremely interesting.


Corporations, Shareholders' Right To Have A Dividend Declared And Paid Out Of Surplus, Horace Lafayette Wilgus Jan 1919

Corporations, Shareholders' Right To Have A Dividend Declared And Paid Out Of Surplus, Horace Lafayette Wilgus

Articles

In Dodge v. Ford Motor Co. (Mich. 1919), 170, N. W. 668, the questions were not new, and with one exception, the decision was not unusual, but the sums involved were enormos. The Motor Company was incorporated in 1903, under the general manufacturing incorporating act of Michigan (P. A. 232, 1903), for the manufacture and sale of automobiles, motors and devices incident to their construction and operation, with an authorized Capital Stock of $150,000-$100,000 then paid up, $49,000 in cash, $40,000 in letters patent issued and applied for, and $11,000 in machinery and contracts ...


A New Function For Courts - Declaring The Rights Of Parties, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1919

A New Function For Courts - Declaring The Rights Of Parties, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

In a recent opinion of the Supreme Court of the United States Justice Holmes makes this interesting observation:- "The foundation of jurisdiction is physical power, although in civilized times it is not necessary to maintain that power throughout proceedings properly begun." Paraphrased, the statement comes to this: In early times the basis of jurisdiction is the existence and the constant assertion of physical power over the parties to the action, but as civilization advances the mere existence of such power tends to make its exercise less and less essential.


Sales: Liability For The Presence Of Mice And Other Uncommon Things In Food, John B. Waite Jan 1919

Sales: Liability For The Presence Of Mice And Other Uncommon Things In Food, John B. Waite

Articles

A group of recent decisions presents a somewhat farcical conformity with Montesquieu's thesis that "law" may vary with time and geography. It strikingly illustrates, also, the importance of the particular theory of liability upon which a suit is predicated. The unusual similarity in detail of the operative facts of these cases lends peculiar emphasis to the difference in the judgments rendered.


Stare Decisis - Liability Of Municipal Corporations For Tort, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1919

Stare Decisis - Liability Of Municipal Corporations For Tort, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

Courts are charged with the duty of declaring the law. They are also required to decide cases. Either one of those functions might be performed with comparative ease if it were divorced from the other, but when the court is simultaneously obliged to do both, the difficulties are very apparent. To decide a case and at the same time to declare the law means that the court is required to generalize every legal proposition upon which it acts in making its decision. But judges are not omniscient. Who can so fully understand the logical implications and the latent possibilities of ...


Presumptions--Burden Of Proof, Victor H. Lane Jan 1919

Presumptions--Burden Of Proof, Victor H. Lane

Articles

The case of Gillett v. Michigan United Traction Co. (Michigan, April 3rd, 1919), 171 N. W. 536, arose out of the following facts: Plaintiff, driving a Ford car with the curtains down, turned from the curb at the side of the street where he had stopped, to cross the interurban car tracks which ran through the center of the street in the city of Marshall, and as he drove his machine upon the track was struck by an interurban car and seriously injured. The evidence established beyond question, negligence of the defendant, by showing that the car was, at the ...


Deeds To Take Effect After Death Of Grantor, Ralph W. Aigler Jan 1919

Deeds To Take Effect After Death Of Grantor, Ralph W. Aigler

Articles

That Instruments in form of wills may be effective as deeds of conveyance is clear. If a present interest is passed and execution is complete (which includes delivery), the instrument must take effect as a deed. On the other hand, If no interest is to vest until or after death of the maker and there has been no complete execution as a deed, the instrument, if operative at all, must take effect as a will. Difficulties arise when there is a fully executed deed, which, however, is to be postponed in its complete operation until the death of the grantor.


Should A Correct Verdict Be Set Aside Because The Jury Failed To Follow Erroneous Instructions?, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1919

Should A Correct Verdict Be Set Aside Because The Jury Failed To Follow Erroneous Instructions?, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

One of the common grounds of a new trial is that the verdict is contrary to law. What law is meant,--the law as it really is, or the law that was given to the jury by the court's instruction? Most cases hold to the latter view. It is the duty of the jury to take the law from the court, whether the court in so giving it is right or wrong. Hence, the jury violate their duty if they fail to follow instructions, even if the instructions are wrong, and a verdict based on a breach of the ...


Alienation Of Contingent Remainders, Ralph W. Aigler Jan 1919

Alienation Of Contingent Remainders, Ralph W. Aigler

Articles

The recent case of Bisby v. Walker, 169 N. W. 467, decided by the Supreme Court of Iowa November 23, 1918, is an interesting instance of an all too common lack of appreciation and understanding of the very fundamentals of property law. Under the will of her grandfather B became entitled to a contingent remainder (at least the court treated it as such) in certain lands; the contingency upon which her taking depended was her being one of the surviving children of her mother at the time of the death of the life tenant, the testator's widow. During the ...


Deeds To Take Effect After Death Of Grantor, Ralph W. Aigler Jan 1919

Deeds To Take Effect After Death Of Grantor, Ralph W. Aigler

Articles

That Instruments in form of wills may be effective as deeds of conveyance is clear. If a present interest is passed and execution is complete (which includes delivery), the instrument must take effect as a deed. On the other hand, If no interest is to vest until or after death of the maker and there has been no complete execution as a deed, the instrument, if operative at all, must take effect as a will. Difficulties arise when there is a fully executed deed, which, however, is to be postponed in its complete operation until the death of the grantor.


Subsequent Impossibility As Affecting Contractual Obligations, Ralph W. Aigler Jan 1919

Subsequent Impossibility As Affecting Contractual Obligations, Ralph W. Aigler

Articles

Where the law creates a duty or charge and the party is disabled to perform it without any default in him, and hath no remedy over, there the law will excuse him. * * * But where the party by his own contract creates a duty or charge upon himself, he is bound to make it good, if he may, notwithstanding any accident by inevitable necessity, because he might have provided against it by his contract. Paradine v. Jane, Aleyn, 26, a case not really involving a question of impossibility. Most discussions of the effect of subsequent impossibility of performance upon contractual obligations ...


New Trials For Technical Errors, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1919

New Trials For Technical Errors, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

A witness called to testify is presumed to be of good character. Hence no proof of it is necessary. But out of abundant caution this presumption is fortified by evidence. The witness is thus shown to be in fact exactly what the law presumes him to be. Result-the case is reversed for the commission of this grave and prejudicial error.-Lockett v. State (Ark. 1918), 207 S. W. 55. No one but an American lawyer could treat the above statement seriously. Only an American court could announce so extraordinary a decision. In no other English speaking country would the people ...


Implied Condition Involving Impossibility Of Performance, Edson R. Sunderland Jan 1919

Implied Condition Involving Impossibility Of Performance, Edson R. Sunderland

Articles

Early in 1914 the defendants contracted to sell to the plaintiffs a quantity of Finland birch timber. The practice was to send the timber direct by sea from Finnish ports. Before any timber was delivered the war broke out and the presence of German warships in the Baltic made the direct shipment by water impossible. The contract contained no war, force majeure or suspension provision. Held, that the contract was not dissolved, and the defendants were liable for damages for non-delivery of the timber. Blackburn Robbin Co., Lim. v. Allen & Sons, Lim. (1918) 87 L. J. K. B. 1085. The ...


Burden Of Proof, Victor H. Lane Jan 1919

Burden Of Proof, Victor H. Lane

Articles

The case of Rowe, Adin.. v. Colorado and Southern R. R. Co. (Tex. Civ. App. 1918), 205 S. W. 731, is typical of the confusion all too common in the use of this term "burden of proof"


The Writing Required To Establish An Express Trust Of Land, Edgar N. Durfee Jan 1919

The Writing Required To Establish An Express Trust Of Land, Edgar N. Durfee

Articles

It has frequently been said that the Seventh Section of the Statute of Frauds, concerning Trusts of land, requires a writing containing "all the terms of the trust." Forster v. Hale, 3 Ves. 707; Smith v. Matthews, 3 DeG., F. & J. 139; Loring v. Palmer, 118 U. S. 321; Gaylord v. Lafayette, 115 Ind. 423; McClellan v. McClellan, 65 Me. 500; Blodgett v. Hildreth, 103 Mass. 484; York v. Perrine, 71 Mich. 567; Newkirk v. Place, 47 N. J. Eq. 477; Steere v. Steere, 5 Johns. Ch. 1; Cook v. Barr, 44 N. Y. 156; Dillaye v. Greenough, 45 N. Y. 438 ...


Termination Of A Continuing Guaranty, Edgar N. Durfee Jan 1919

Termination Of A Continuing Guaranty, Edgar N. Durfee

Articles

Several persons jointly and severally guaranteed to a bank the present and future obligations of a customer, stipulating that "the bank may grant extensions without lessening the liability" of the guarantors, that "this shall be a continuing guaranty, and shall cover all the liabilities which the customer may incur or come under until the undersigned, or the executors or administrators of the undersigned, shall have given the bank notice in writing to make no further advances on the security of this guaranty," and that "this guaranty shall not be affected by the death of the undersigned." One of the guarantors ...