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Full-Text Articles in Law

Water Rights, Water Quality, And Regulatory Jurisdiction In Indian Country, Robert T. Anderson Jan 2015

Water Rights, Water Quality, And Regulatory Jurisdiction In Indian Country, Robert T. Anderson

Articles

In the seminal Indian water rights case, Winters v. United Slates (1908), the Court posed this question: "The Indians had command of the lands and the waters-command of all their beneficial use, whether kept for hunting, 'and grazing roving herds of stock,' or turned to agriculture and the arts of civilization. Did they give up all this?" The Court's answer was no, and since then a large body of law has developed around Indian water rights, although the primary focus has been on the amount of water reserved for various tribal purposes. While Indian nations use property rights theories ...


Negotiating Jurisdiction: Retroceding State Authority Over Indian Country Granted By Public Law 280, Robert T. Anderson Jan 2012

Negotiating Jurisdiction: Retroceding State Authority Over Indian Country Granted By Public Law 280, Robert T. Anderson

Articles

This Article canvasses the jurisdictional rules applicable in American Indian tribal territories-"Indian country." The focus is on a federal law passed in the 1950s, which granted some states a measure of jurisdiction over Indian country without tribal consent. The law is an aberration. Since the adoption of the Constitution, federal law preempted state authority over Indians in their territory. The federal law permitting some state jurisdiction, Public Law 280, is a relic of a policy repudiated by every President and Congress since 1970. States have authority to surrender, or retrocede, the authority granted by Public Law 280, but Indian ...


Indian Water Rights, Practical Reasoning, And Negotiated Settlements, Robert T. Anderson Jan 2010

Indian Water Rights, Practical Reasoning, And Negotiated Settlements, Robert T. Anderson

Articles

This Article first reviews the few Indian water rights cases that the U.S. Supreme Court has decided. The Article then traces a threshold issue common to Indian water rights litigation in the federal and state courts: how to determine the purposes of a reservation for which a reserved water right should be implied. A review of major Indian water rights cases demonstrates the generally confusing state of the law in significant respects, especially with regard to the "purposes" determination.

This Article posits that the relative uncertainty in this area has created an environment in which creative, practical solutions to ...


Alaska Native Rights, Statehood, And Unfinished Business, Robert T. Anderson Jan 2007

Alaska Native Rights, Statehood, And Unfinished Business, Robert T. Anderson

Articles

Alaska Native aboriginal rights to land and associated resources were never dealt with in a comprehensive fashion until 1971, when Congress passed the Alaska Native Lands Claims Settlement Act (ANILCA). Although general principles of federal Indian law provided strong support for the proposition that Alaska's Native people held aboriginal title to much of the new state, the Alaska Statehood Act itself carefully disclaimed any effect on aboriginal title. This approach was in keeping with the Congress's past dealings with Alaska Native property rights. This article outlines the history of Alaska Native aboriginal rights through the Statehood Act along ...


Indian Water Rights: Litigation And Settlements, Robert T. Anderson Jan 2006

Indian Water Rights: Litigation And Settlements, Robert T. Anderson

Articles

This article provides a brief overview of the law of Indian and federal reserved water rights and continues with an examination of the Snake River Water Rights Act. The Act serves as a vehicle for discussion of what is right and what is wrong with the current Indian water rights settlement process. Finally, the article suggests that the Administration modify the portion of its criteria and procedures for Indian water settlements dealing with federal financial contributions. These criteria and procedures need to more accurately reflect the realities of past settlements and promote more successes like the Snake River Water Rights ...


Indian Water Rights And The Federal Trust Responsibility, Robert T. Anderson Jan 2006

Indian Water Rights And The Federal Trust Responsibility, Robert T. Anderson

Articles

Although federal policy shifted from assimilation to pro-tribal positions, the federal courts have quite consistently supported Indian reserved water rights. Indian water rights, however, were neglected by Congress in favor of non-Indian agricultural development in the arid West. Modem litigation over tribal rights takes place primarily in state courts that are tempted to interpret the few U.S. Supreme Court cases in ways that protect existing non-Indian uses over senior tribal water rights. Modern Indian water rights settlements tend to protect existing non- Indian uses while providing substantial benefits for tribes, but in a haphazard manner. This article examines the ...


Dedication To Professor Ralph W. Johnson, David H. Getches Oct 1997

Dedication To Professor Ralph W. Johnson, David H. Getches

Articles

This Indian law symposium issue of the Washington Law Review was inspired by the work of Professor Ralph W. Johnson, whose teaching and personal commitment to the field have motivated hundreds, if not thousands, of law students. The decision of the Editorial Board to dedicate the symposium to him might have been made by as many as thirty classes that have passed through the University of Washington School of Law. Those students have been introduced to and moved by Professor Johnson's elucidation of a field that is at once intellectually challenging and morally significant. Johnson's alumni have spread ...


Indian Tribes And The Legal System, Ralph W. Johnson Oct 1997

Indian Tribes And The Legal System, Ralph W. Johnson

Articles

This article surveys the past and present role of lawyers in the field of Indian law, from the absence of attorneys in early treaty negotiations through the formative role lawyers played in developing the federal trust relationship, to their modem role as "legal warriors" for the increasingly independent, autonomous tribes of today. To understand all the changes now occurring in Indian law, a review of the background is helpful. What follows is a synopsis of the significant events in Indian history, focusing on how the U.S. government initially treated Indians and the role the legal profession played in this ...


Dedication To Professor Ralph W. Johnson, David H. Getches Jan 1997

Dedication To Professor Ralph W. Johnson, David H. Getches

Articles

This Indian law symposium issue of the Washington Law Review was inspired by the work of Professor Ralph W. Johnson, whose teaching and personal commitment to the field have motivated hundreds, if not thousands, of law students. The decision of the Editorial Board to dedicate the symposium to him might have been made by as many as thirty classes that have passed through the University of Washington School of Law. Those students have been introduced to and moved by Professor Johnson's elucidation of a field that is at once intellectually challenging and morally significant. Johnson's alumni have spread ...


Chief Justice Rehnquist And The Indian Cases, Ralph W. Johnson, Berrie Martinis Jan 1995

Chief Justice Rehnquist And The Indian Cases, Ralph W. Johnson, Berrie Martinis

Articles

Since his appointment to the United States Supreme Court, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist has guided significant changes in Indian law. He has articulated new tests for determining the status of tribes and their powers as sovereign nations. He has voted to disestablish tribes and limit their sovereign powers. He has voted to allow states to exercise jurisdiction over Indian and non-Indian activities and property on reservations.

The articulation of a legal philosophy is generally accepted, expected, and probably necessary for a Supreme Court Justice. At the same time it is instructive to know the views of the members of ...


Chief Justice Rehnquist And The Indian Cases, Ralph W. Johnson, Berrie Martinis Jan 1995

Chief Justice Rehnquist And The Indian Cases, Ralph W. Johnson, Berrie Martinis

Articles

Since his appointment to the United States Supreme Court, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist has guided significant changes m Indian law He has articulated new tests for determining the status of tribes and their powers as sovereign nations. He has voted to disestablish tribes and limit their sovereign powers. He has voted to allow states to exercise jurisdiction over Indian and non-Indian activities and property on reservations.

The articulation of a legal philosophy is generally accepted, expected, and probably necessary for a Supreme Court Justice. At the same time it is instructive to know the views of the members of ...


Fifth Amendment Takings Implications Of The 1990 Native American Graves Protection And Repatriation Act, Ralph W. Johnson, Sharon I. Haensly Apr 1992

Fifth Amendment Takings Implications Of The 1990 Native American Graves Protection And Repatriation Act, Ralph W. Johnson, Sharon I. Haensly

Articles

In November 1990, Congress passed the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act ("NAGPRA"). NAGPRA provides for the protection and disposition of Native American cultural items discovered on federal or tribal lands after NAGPRA's effective date. NAGPRA also addresses disposition of those objects currently held or controlled by federal agencies and museums. NAGPRA represents Congress' attempt to resolve years of debate between tribes, archaeologists, and museums. Like any legislative pronouncement, however, Congress left key issues to agencies and courts to resolve. This article focuses upon one such area, namely, Fifth Amendment takings questions that may arise when tribes or ...


Fragile Gains: Two Centuries Of Canadian And United States Policy Toward Indians, Ralph W. Johnson Jul 1991

Fragile Gains: Two Centuries Of Canadian And United States Policy Toward Indians, Ralph W. Johnson

Articles

The United States and Canada share a common history in their policies toward and legal treatment of the Native Americans that historically have occupied both countries. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 established a policy of recognizing Aboriginal title and treating with Indians that was binding on the colonies that preceded both countries, and influenced both governments in later dealings with tribes. Assimilationist themes are evident as well in the national policy toward Indians in both countries. Nevertheless, historically and in the present, national policies and laws of the two governments can be contrasted. This Article sets forth a detailed comparison ...


Law And Alaska Natives: The Warp And Woof Of A Field Of Law In Transition, Ralph W. Johnson Jan 1986

Law And Alaska Natives: The Warp And Woof Of A Field Of Law In Transition, Ralph W. Johnson

Articles

Reviewing Alaska Natives and American Laws, by David Case (1984).


Soverign Immunity In Indian Tribal Law, Ralph W. Johnson, James M. Madden Jan 1984

Soverign Immunity In Indian Tribal Law, Ralph W. Johnson, James M. Madden

Articles

An examination of the tribal courts' civil jurisdiction and sovereign immunity decisions, and a review of the doctrine's origins and purposes in federal and state law reveal the increasing importance of the sovereign immunity doctrine and suggest several options to tribal councils and courts in deciding which aspects of the doctrine to retain. The article concludes that:

(1) The doctrine of sovereign immunity is not part of the controlling federal law applicable to Indian tribal courts, except where trust property is involved.

(2) Each Indian tribe has inherent sovereign power to adopt, reject, or waive the doctrine of sovereign ...


Sovereign Immunity In Indian Tribal Law, Ralph W. Johnson, James M. Madden Jan 1984

Sovereign Immunity In Indian Tribal Law, Ralph W. Johnson, James M. Madden

Articles

An examination of the tribal courts' civil jurisdiction and sovereign immunity decisions, and a review of the doctrine's origins and purposes in federal and state law reveal the increasing importance of the sovereign immunity doctrine and suggest several options to tribal councils and courts in deciding which aspects of the doctrine to retain. The article concludes that:

(1) The doctrine of sovereign immunity is not part of the con-. trolling federal law applicable to Indian tribal courts, except where trust property is involved.

(2) Each Indian tribe has inherent sovereign power to adopt, reject, or waive the doctrine of ...


Indians And Equal Protection, Ralph W. Johnson, E. Susan Crystal Jun 1979

Indians And Equal Protection, Ralph W. Johnson, E. Susan Crystal

Articles

This article analyzes the recent Indian equal protection cases in an attempt to formulate the equal protection doctrine as applied to Indians, to examine the theoretical foundation for that doctrine, and to indicate how that doctrine will likely be applied in situations not yet addressed by the courts.


American Indian Courts And Tribal Self-Government, Richard B. Collins, Ralph W. Johnson, Kathy Imig Perkins Jun 1977

American Indian Courts And Tribal Self-Government, Richard B. Collins, Ralph W. Johnson, Kathy Imig Perkins

Articles

This article is intended to rebut several of Mr. Brakel's key assertions and to emphasize the wellestablished right of Indians to maintain their own courts. Each of the authors has had extensive contact and experience working with Indian courts. Mr. Collins is associated with the Native American Rights Fund. He formerly had many contacts with Indian courts when he practiced law on the Navajo Indian Reservation. Professor Johnson, who has taught law at the University of Washington School of Law for twenty-one years, has for the past six years been an instructor in the National American Indian Court Judges ...


The States Versus Indian Off-Reservation Fishing: A United States Supreme Court Error, Ralph W. Johnson Mar 1972

The States Versus Indian Off-Reservation Fishing: A United States Supreme Court Error, Ralph W. Johnson

Articles

Pacific Northwest Indian tribes signed treaties with the United States in the mid-1850's which guaranteed them the permanent right to fish at their usual and accustomed fishing sites off the reservations. The Indians believe these treaties mean that those states which did not exist in 1855 have no power to regulate Indian off-reservation fishing under any circumstances. State officials, on the other hand, have consistently argued that Indian off-reservation fishing is subject to the same state regulation as non-Indian fishing. The United States Supreme Court has basically accepted the states' position, holding that states can regulate off-reservation fishing when ...