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Full-Text Articles in Law

Uncommon Carriage, Blake Reid Jan 2024

Uncommon Carriage, Blake Reid

Publications

As states have begun regulating the carriage of speech by “Big Tech” internet platforms, scholars, advocates, and policymakers have increasingly focused their attention on the law of common carriage. Legislators have invoked common carriage to defend social media regulations against First Amendment challenges, making arguments set to take center stage in the Supreme Court’s impending consideration of the NetChoice saga.

This Article challenges the coherence of common carriage as a field and its utility for assessing the constitutionality and policy wisdom of internet regulation. Evaluating the post-Civil War history of common carriage regimes in telecommunications law, this Article illustrates that …


Contract Customization, Sex, And Islamic Law, Rabea N. Benhalim Jan 2024

Contract Customization, Sex, And Islamic Law, Rabea N. Benhalim

Publications

Common law has historically deemed marriage and sex outside the right to contract. Yet, couples increasingly use contracts to provide legal rights to the unmarried in a variety of contexts ranging from same-sex relationships to surrogacy. Islamic law, on the other hand, has always conceived of marriage and sexual relationships as exclusively under the realm of contract law governed by private actors. This Article brings Islamic law into the larger conversation on the use of contracts for sexual and relationship agreements. It further proposes that Islamic law has something to offer Muslims and non-Muslims alike by empowering individuals to use …


Risky Speech Systems: Tort Liability For Ai-Generated Illegal Speech, Margot E. Kaminski Jan 2024

Risky Speech Systems: Tort Liability For Ai-Generated Illegal Speech, Margot E. Kaminski

Publications

No abstract provided.


The Minerals Challenge For Renewable Energy, Mark Squillace Jan 2024

The Minerals Challenge For Renewable Energy, Mark Squillace

Publications

One potential obstacle to a successful energy transition involves the critical minerals used in production of photovoltaic solar panels, wind turbines, electric vehicles, and batteries. A substantial portion of these will have to come from new and expanded mining operations around the world. But mining is controversial, in part due to the past failures of operators to protect communities and the environment. This Article considers how nations can responsibly identify, source, and process these minerals, and then deploy them in renewable energy products. Its scope is global, but U.S. laws and policies take center stage with a nod to the …


The Structure Of U.S. Climate Policy, Michael Pappas Jan 2024

The Structure Of U.S. Climate Policy, Michael Pappas

Publications

Urgent emission reduction and community adaptation efforts are necessary to avert catastrophic climate-change harms. To assess our nation’s progress toward such efforts, this Article develops a comprehensive structural analysis of U.S. climate policy at the federal, state, and local levels. It observes that current climate policies reflect disparate federal, state, and local strategies around emissions regulation, emission reduction subsidies, adaptation, and liability approaches. The Article then analyzes the dynamics between federal, state, and local strategies in these policy areas.

This examination leads to some surprising conclusions. Under current policy alignments, further emission regulation measures do not appear to be realistic …


Second Amendment Immigration Exceptionalism, Pratheepan Gulasekaram Jan 2024

Second Amendment Immigration Exceptionalism, Pratheepan Gulasekaram

Publications

This Essay critiques the decision to uphold federal gun restrictions on unlawfully present noncitizens on the basis of "immigration exceptionalism." It argues that courts should avoid applying bespoke constitutionalism to criminal laws, including gun laws, simply because the law regulates noncitizens. This Essay shows why such exceptional modes misapprehend long-decided Supreme Court cases and well-established legal doctrine. Further, it warns that an exceptional approach to Second Amendment claims by unlawfully present noncitizens cannot be cabined to either firearms or the unlawfully present. Rather, it portends a wider gulf in constitutional protections for all noncitizens across a variety of fundamental criminal …


Corporate Climate Targets: Between Science And Climate Washing, Nadav Orian Peer Jan 2024

Corporate Climate Targets: Between Science And Climate Washing, Nadav Orian Peer

Publications

The use of corporate climate targets has exploded in recent years. Over three thousand corporations, including the largest and most profitable in the world, have adopted corporate climate targets as commitments to align their actions with climate science and the Paris Agreement. However, the broad adoption of these targets raises important questions: are these commitments truly aligned with science in the way they are advertised, or do they raise “climate washing” concerns, i.e., do they exaggerate the benefits and significance of the climate targets? This Article investigates the role that science actually plays within targets, and explores potential theories of …


Constructing Ai Speech, Margot E. Kaminski, Meg Leta Jones Jan 2024

Constructing Ai Speech, Margot E. Kaminski, Meg Leta Jones

Publications

Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems such as ChatGPT can now produce convincingly human speech, at scale. It is tempting to ask whether such AI-generated content “disrupts” the law. That, we claim, is the wrong question. It characterizes the law as inherently reactive, rather than proactive, and fails to reveal how what may look like “disruption” in one area of the law is business as usual in another. We challenge the prevailing notion that technology inherently disrupts law, proposing instead that law and technology co-construct each other in a dynamic interplay reflective of societal priorities and political power. This Essay instead deploys …


Consider Buffalo, Pierre Schlag Jan 2024

Consider Buffalo, Pierre Schlag

Publications

No abstract provided.


Trans Animus, Scott Skinner-Thompson Jan 2024

Trans Animus, Scott Skinner-Thompson

Publications

No abstract provided.


Chatgpt, Ai Large Language Models, And Law, Harry Surden Jan 2024

Chatgpt, Ai Large Language Models, And Law, Harry Surden

Publications

This Essay explores Artificial Intelligence (AI) Large Language Models (LLMs) like ChatGPT/GPT-4, detailing the advances and challenges in applying AI to law. It first explains how these AI technologies work at an understandable level. It then examines the significant evolution of LLMs since 2022 and their improved capabilities in understanding and generating complex documents, such as legal texts. Finally, this Essay discusses the limitations of these technologies, offering a balanced view of their potential role in legal work.


Protecting Water, Sustaining Communities: Transforming Groundwater Management Entities Into Sources Of Power During And After Environmental Crises, Sarah Matsumoto Jan 2024

Protecting Water, Sustaining Communities: Transforming Groundwater Management Entities Into Sources Of Power During And After Environmental Crises, Sarah Matsumoto

Publications

No abstract provided.


Transitioning To Regenerative Agriculture One French Fry At A Time, Alexia Brunet Marks Jan 2024

Transitioning To Regenerative Agriculture One French Fry At A Time, Alexia Brunet Marks

Publications

Regenerative agriculture—a farming practice that sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) into the soil—has potential to turn into big business in this climate crisis. If farmers can accurately measure the amount of trapped carbon in their soil, they can sell that stored carbon as a “carbon credit,” a tradeable certificate representing the right to emit one metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) or the equivalent amount of another greenhouse gas. As more than seventy countries race to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 in order to meet Paris Agreement1 goals, carbon credits are becoming the “new currency” to meet or exceed …


The Significance Of The Un Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples, S. James Anaya Jan 2024

The Significance Of The Un Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples, S. James Anaya

Publications

No abstract provided.


Introduction To The Symposium On Rabiat Akande, "An Imperial History Of Race-Religion In International Law", S. James Anaya, Adrien K. Wing Jan 2024

Introduction To The Symposium On Rabiat Akande, "An Imperial History Of Race-Religion In International Law", S. James Anaya, Adrien K. Wing

Publications

No abstract provided.


Getting Real About Protecting Privacy, Scott Skinner-Thompson Jan 2024

Getting Real About Protecting Privacy, Scott Skinner-Thompson

Publications

No abstract provided.


Solidifying Students' Right To Gender Expression, Scott Skinner-Thompson Jan 2024

Solidifying Students' Right To Gender Expression, Scott Skinner-Thompson

Publications

No abstract provided.


Policies Regulating Gender In Schools: Companion To Identity By Committee (2022), Scott Skinner-Thompson Feb 2023

Policies Regulating Gender In Schools: Companion To Identity By Committee (2022), Scott Skinner-Thompson

Research Data

This document, Policies Regulating Gender in Schools: Companion to Identity by Committee (2022), https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1K6iUkLnmDfaSVykyRaZ3Yqt7XNM9leGO-MQA6p2VbV4/edit?usp=Sharing, was published as an electronic supplement to the article, Scott Skinner-Thompson, Identity by Committee, 57 Harv. C.R.-C.L. L. Rev. 657 (2022), available at https://scholar.law.colorado.edu/faculty-articles/1586.


The Future Of Intersectionality In Employment Law, Suzette Malveaux Jan 2023

The Future Of Intersectionality In Employment Law, Suzette Malveaux

Publications

No abstract provided.


Reconsidering The Public Square, Helen L. Norton Jan 2023

Reconsidering The Public Square, Helen L. Norton

Publications

No abstract provided.


Regulating The Risks Of Ai, Margot E. Kaminski Jan 2023

Regulating The Risks Of Ai, Margot E. Kaminski

Publications

Companies and governments now use Artificial Intelligence (“AI”) in a wide range of settings. But using AI leads to well-known risks that arguably present challenges for a traditional liability model. It is thus unsurprising that lawmakers in both the United States and the European Union (“EU”) have turned to the tools of risk regulation in governing AI systems.

This Article describes the growing convergence around risk regulation in AI governance. It then addresses the question: what does it mean to use risk regulation to govern AI systems? The primary contribution of this Article is to offer an analytic framework for …


Accounting For Climate Impacts In Decisionmaking, Mark S. Squillace Jan 2023

Accounting For Climate Impacts In Decisionmaking, Mark S. Squillace

Publications

Every significant decision made by government agencies, and many made by private organizations, impacts climate change. Ignoring those impacts is increasingly unacceptable. But how to account for a decision’s impact on the climate is far from clear. This article seeks to answer that question in the context of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that will likely result from a proposed action and begins with a detailed description of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process. EIA is crucial to understanding the likely consequences of a proposed action, including the climate-related consequences. EIA also serves as the primary vehicle for estimating GHG …


Racism Pays: How Racial Exploitation Gets Innovation Off The Ground, Daria Roithmayr Jan 2023

Racism Pays: How Racial Exploitation Gets Innovation Off The Ground, Daria Roithmayr

Publications

Recent work on the history of capitalism documents the key role that racial exploitation played in the launch of the global cotton economy and the construction of the transcontinental railroad. But racial exploitation is not a thing of the past. Drawing on three case studies, this Paper argues that some of our most celebrated innovations in the digital economy have gotten off the ground by racially exploiting workers of color, paying them less than the marginal revenue product of their labor for their essential contributions. Innovators like Apple and Uber have been able to racially exploit workers of color because …


Privacy Peg, Trade Hole: Why We (Still) Shouldn’T Put Data Privacy In Trade Law, Margot E. Kaminski, Kristina Irion, Svetlana Yakovleva Jan 2023

Privacy Peg, Trade Hole: Why We (Still) Shouldn’T Put Data Privacy In Trade Law, Margot E. Kaminski, Kristina Irion, Svetlana Yakovleva

Publications

No abstract provided.


Toward Stronger Data Protection Laws, Margot E. Kaminski Jan 2023

Toward Stronger Data Protection Laws, Margot E. Kaminski

Publications

No abstract provided.


Naïve Realism, Cognitive Bias, And The Benefits And Risks Of Ai, Harry Surden Jan 2023

Naïve Realism, Cognitive Bias, And The Benefits And Risks Of Ai, Harry Surden

Publications

In this short piece I comment on Orly Lobel's book on artificial intelligence (AI) and society "The Equality Machine." Here, I reflect on the complex topic of aI and its impact on society, and the importance of acknowledging both its positive and negative aspects. More broadly, I discuss the various cognitive biases, such as naïve realism, epistemic bubbles, negativity bias, extremity bias, and the availability heuristic, that influence individuals' perceptions of AI, often leading to polarized viewpoints. Technology can both exacerbate and ameliorate these biases, and I commend Lobel's balanced approach to AI analysis as an example to emulate.

Although …


Humans In The Loop, Rebecca Crootof, Margot E. Kaminski, W. Nicholson Price Ii Jan 2023

Humans In The Loop, Rebecca Crootof, Margot E. Kaminski, W. Nicholson Price Ii

Publications

From lethal drones to cancer diagnostics, humans are increasingly working with complex and artificially intelligent algorithms to make decisions which affect human lives, raising questions about how best to regulate these "human-in-the-loop" systems. We make four contributions to the discourse.

First, contrary to the popular narrative, law is already profoundly and often problematically involved in governing human-in-the-loop systems: it regularly affects whether humans are retained in or removed from the loop. Second, we identify "the MABA-MABA trap," which occurs when policymakers attempt to address concerns about algorithmic incapacities by inserting a human into a decision-making process. Regardless of whether the …


“Aspirations”: The United States And Indigenous Peoples’ Human Rights, Kristen A. Carpenter Jan 2023

“Aspirations”: The United States And Indigenous Peoples’ Human Rights, Kristen A. Carpenter

Publications

The United States has long positioned itself as a leader in global human rights. Yet, the United States lags curiously behind when it comes to the human rights of Indigenous Peoples. This recalcitrance is particularly apparent in diplomacy regarding the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2007, the Declaration affirms the rights of Indigenous Peoples to self-determination and equality, as well as religion, culture, land, health, family, and other aspects of human dignity necessary for individual life and collective survival. This instrument was advanced over several decades by Indigenous …


How Academic Law Librarian Fellowship Programs Benefit Participants & Sponsoring Institutions, Aamir S. Abdullah, Cody B. James Jan 2023

How Academic Law Librarian Fellowship Programs Benefit Participants & Sponsoring Institutions, Aamir S. Abdullah, Cody B. James

Publications

No abstract provided.


The Private Enforcement Of National Security, Maryam Jamshidi Jan 2023

The Private Enforcement Of National Security, Maryam Jamshidi

Publications

The private enforcement of public law is a central feature of the American administrative state. As various scholars have argued, the federal government depends upon private parties to enforce public laws through litigation in order to achieve the government’s regulatory objectives. This scholarship has, however, largely overlooked the phenomenon of private enforcement in the national security arena. This Article seeks to describe and analyze national security’s private enforcement for the first time. In doing so, it explores what national security’s private enforcement reveals about the costs of private enforcement more broadly. In particular, this Article identifies an important downside to …