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Full-Text Articles in Law

Robert Bork's Controversial Legacy, Robert H. Lande Dec 2012

Robert Bork's Controversial Legacy, Robert H. Lande

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Judge Robert Bork was undeniably one of the towering figures in antitrust history. He advanced the field positively in many respects, articulating a serious critique of excesses of an earlier social-political approach to antitrust. But as one of the conservative movement’s intellectual godfathers he also shares responsibility for many of their own excesses that have transformed our nation in harmful ways. This short essay explores some of the effects of his overall approach to antitrust: his preoccupation with economic efficiency.


Perfecting Criminal Markets, David Jaros Dec 2012

Perfecting Criminal Markets, David Jaros

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From illicit drugs to human smuggling to prostitution, legislators may actually be perfecting the very criminal markets they seek to destroy. Criminal laws often create new dangers and new criminal opportunities. Criminalizing drugs creates the opportunity to sell fake drugs. Raising the penalties for illegal immigration increases the risk that smugglers will rely on dangerous methods that can injure or kill their human cargo. Banning prostitution increases the underground spread of sexually transmitted disease. Lawmakers traditionally respond to these “second order” problems in predictable fashion — with a new wave of criminalization that imposes additional penalties on fake drug dealers, dangerous ...


Cartels As Rational Business Strategy: Crime Pays, John M. Connor, Robert H. Lande Dec 2012

Cartels As Rational Business Strategy: Crime Pays, John M. Connor, Robert H. Lande

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This article is the first to analyze whether cartel sanctions are optimal. The conventional wisdom is that the current level of sanctions is adequate or excessive. The article demonstrates, however, that the combined level of current United States cartel sanctions is only 9% to 21% as large as it should be to protect potential victims of cartelization optimally. Consequently, the average level of United States anti-cartel sanctions should be approximately quintupled.

The United States imposes a diverse arsenal of sanctions against collusion: criminal fines and restitution payments for the firms involved and prison, house arrest and fines for the corporate ...


Separate But Equal: Miranda's Rights To Silence And Counsel, Steven P. Grossman Oct 2012

Separate But Equal: Miranda's Rights To Silence And Counsel, Steven P. Grossman

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Three decades ago, the Supreme Court created a dubious distinction between the rights accorded to suspects in custody who invoke their right to silence and who invoke their right to counsel. This distinction significantly disadvantages those who do not have the good sense or good fortune to specify they want an attorney when they invoke their right to remain silent. This article argues that this distinction was flawed at its genesis and that it has led to judicial decisions that are inconsistent, make little sense, and permit police behavior that substantially diminishes the right to silence as described in Miranda ...


Expanding Stare Decisis: The Role Of Precedent In The Unfolding Dialectic Of Brady V. Maryland, Colin Starger Oct 2012

Expanding Stare Decisis: The Role Of Precedent In The Unfolding Dialectic Of Brady V. Maryland, Colin Starger

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Does stare decisis constrain the expansion of constitutional doctrine? Does existing precedent preclude the Supreme Court from expanding a criminal defendant’s right to exculpatory evidence? While commentators frequently clash on when stare decisis should prevent the Court from overruling its own precedents, the question of when fidelity to precedent should inhibit doctrinal expansion is surprisingly under-theorized. This Article begins to fill this gap through an in-depth case study of stare decisis and the expansion of criminal due process doctrine.

This Article analyzes the longstanding constitutional dialectic between procedural and substantive schools of criminal due process. Focus is on Brady ...


Tinkering Around The Edges: The Supreme Court's Death Penalty Jurisprudence, John Bessler Oct 2012

Tinkering Around The Edges: The Supreme Court's Death Penalty Jurisprudence, John Bessler

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This Essay examines America's death penalty forty years after Furman and provides a critique of the Supreme Court's existing Eighth Amendment case law. Part I briefly summarizes how the Court, to date, has approached death sentences, while Part II highlights the incongruous manner in which the Cruel and Unusual Punishments Clause has been read. For instance, Justice Antonin Scalia-one of the Court's most vocal proponents of "originalism" conceded that corporal punishments such as handbranding and public flogging are no longer constitutionally permissible; yet, he (and the Court itself) continues to allow death sentences to be imposed. The ...


How The Ftc Could Beat Google, Robert H. Lande, Jonathan L. Rubin Oct 2012

How The Ftc Could Beat Google, Robert H. Lande, Jonathan L. Rubin

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The U.S. Federal Trade Commission is rumored to be deciding whether to bring a “pure Section 5” case against Google as a result of complaints that the company unfairly favors its own offerings over those of its rivals in its search results. But the case will fail miserably at the hands of a reviewing court and the agency will be confined to relatively non-controversial enforcement violations if the FTC fails to impose upon itself a tightly bounded and constrained legal framework that contains clear limiting principles. The only way a court will allow the FTC to pursue a pure ...


Patents 101: Patentable Subject Matter And Separation Of Powers, Max Stul Oppenheimer Oct 2012

Patents 101: Patentable Subject Matter And Separation Of Powers, Max Stul Oppenheimer

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The definition of statutory subject matter lies at the heart of the

patent system. It is the reflection of Congress's policy decision as to

what types of inventions one may patent. While the congressional

definition of statutory subject matter (in what is now 35 U.S.C. § 101)

has remained fundamentally constant since 1790, the Supreme Court

has reinterpreted and redefined statutory subject matter several times,

leaving lower courts with the frustrating task of trying to develop a

coherent jurisprudence against a changing landscape. This

inconstancy has introduced uncertainty for inventors who are trying to

make the fundamental decision ...


Not All Defined Value Clauses Are Equal, Wendy G. Gerzog Oct 2012

Not All Defined Value Clauses Are Equal, Wendy G. Gerzog

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Defined value clauses used to value nonmarketable family limited partnership (FLP) interests create valuation distortions and other public policy issues. This paper describes these abuses and proposes the employment of restrictions similar to those applied to pecuniary formula marital deduction clauses.

The article explains how pecuniary formula marital deduction provisions created valuation distortions by allowing for undervaluation of the marital share that were remedied by the IRS’s Rev. Proc. 64-19 and the enactment of section 2056(b)(10). The article analyzes recent case law expanding the use of defined value clauses into the FLP area and criticizes the courts ...


Compelling Orthodoxy: Myth And Mystique In The Marketing Of Legal Education, Kenneth Lasson Oct 2012

Compelling Orthodoxy: Myth And Mystique In The Marketing Of Legal Education, Kenneth Lasson

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This article seeks to demonstrate the negative effects of law schools’ preoccupations with enhancing their image and marketing strategy, especially as they are reflected in both scholarship and academic freedom.


Price-Fixing: Hefty Penalties On Big-Biz Cartels Will Provide Level Playing Field To Small Businesses, John M. Connor, Robert H. Lande Aug 2012

Price-Fixing: Hefty Penalties On Big-Biz Cartels Will Provide Level Playing Field To Small Businesses, John M. Connor, Robert H. Lande

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Cartels are illegal in India, as they are almost everywhere. They are subject to heavy fines. Why, then, do businesses frequently try to fix prices? Because doing so usually is profitable. On average cartels raise prices by more than 20%, and probably face less than a 25% chance of being caught and convicted. Based upon a sample of 75 international cartels, the authors calculate that the expected profits from price fixing almost always exceed the penalties. No wonder businesses often try to fix prices.


Consumer Choice As The Best Way To Describe The Goals Of Competition Law, Robert H. Lande Aug 2012

Consumer Choice As The Best Way To Describe The Goals Of Competition Law, Robert H. Lande

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This article is both a short introduction to the Consumer Choice explanation for Competition Law or Antitrust Law, and also a short advocacy piece suggesting that Consumer Choice is the best way to articulate the goals of European Competition Law and United States Antitrust Law.

This article briefly:

  1. defines the consumer choice approach to antitrust or competition law and shows how it differs from other approaches;
  2. shows that the antitrust statutes and theories of violation embody a concern for optimal levels of consumer choice;
  3. shows that the United States antitrust case law embodies a concern for optimal levels of consumer ...


Facade Easement: Inexpert Valuation, Wendy G. Gerzog Jul 2012

Facade Easement: Inexpert Valuation, Wendy G. Gerzog

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The article discusses the recent Dunlap decision, which involved facade easement transfers to the National Architectural Trust, a qualified charity that preserves building easements across the country, although most are in New York City. Although allowing a deduction for their cash contributions to NAT to enforce the easement and not finding any penalties applicable, the Tax Court held that despite two valuation reports written by accepted valuation experts, the taxpayers had not established any value for their easement.


The Class Differential In Privacy Law, Michele E. Gilman Jul 2012

The Class Differential In Privacy Law, Michele E. Gilman

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This article analyzes how privacy law fails the poor. Due to advanced technologies, all Americans are facing corporate and governmental surveillance. However, privacy law is focused on middle-class concerns about limiting the disclosure of personal data so that it is not misused. By contrast, along the welfare-to-work continuum, poor people face privacy intrusions at the time that the state or their employers gather data. This data collection tends to be stigmatizing and humiliating, and it thus not only compounds the harmful effects of living in poverty, but also dampens democratic participation by the poor. The poor interact with the government ...


Exile On Main Street: Competing Traditions And Due Process Dissent, Colin Starger Jul 2012

Exile On Main Street: Competing Traditions And Due Process Dissent, Colin Starger

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Everybody loves great dissents. Professors teach them, students learn from them, and journalists quote them. Yet legal scholars have long puzzled over how dissents actually impact the development of doctrine. Recent work by notable empirical scholars proposes to measure the influence of dissents by reference to their subsequent citation in case law. This Article challenges the theoretical basis for this empirical approach and argues that it fails to account for the profound influence that uncited dissents have exerted in law. To overcome this gap in the empirical approach, this Article proposes an alternative method that permits analysis of contextual and ...


Wandering Far Afield With Defined Value Clauses, Wendy G. Gerzog May 2012

Wandering Far Afield With Defined Value Clauses, Wendy G. Gerzog

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The Wandry decision extends the application of defined value clauses beyond those family limited partnership cases that transfer any excess value to a charity. In Wandry, the Tax Court reads Procter narrowly and ignores the fundamental rationale of Robinette.


Flow Chart For Hearsay And The Confrontation Clause 'Crawford Through Bernadyn' (April 18, 2012). University Of Baltimore School Of Law Legal Studies Research Paper, Lynn Mclain Apr 2012

Flow Chart For Hearsay And The Confrontation Clause 'Crawford Through Bernadyn' (April 18, 2012). University Of Baltimore School Of Law Legal Studies Research Paper, Lynn Mclain

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A series of flowcharts outline the nuances of hearsay law and the Confrontation Clause.


Madness Alone Punishes The Madman: The Search For Moral Dignity In The Court's Competency Doctrine As Applied In Capital Cases, J. Amy Dillard Apr 2012

Madness Alone Punishes The Madman: The Search For Moral Dignity In The Court's Competency Doctrine As Applied In Capital Cases, J. Amy Dillard

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The purposes of the competency doctrine are to guarantee reliability in criminal prosecutions, to ensure that only those defendants who can appreciate punishment are subject to it, and to maintain moral dignity, both actual and apparent, in criminal proceedings. No matter his crime, the “madman” should not be forced to stand trial. Historically, courts viewed questions of competency as a binary choice, finding the defendant either competent or incompetent to stand trial. However, in Edwards v. Indiana, the Supreme Court conceded that it views competency on a spectrum and offered a new category of competency — borderline-competent. The Court held that ...


Defense Base Act Insurance: Allocating Wartime Contracting Risks Between Government And Private Industry, Hugh Barrett Mcclean Apr 2012

Defense Base Act Insurance: Allocating Wartime Contracting Risks Between Government And Private Industry, Hugh Barrett Mcclean

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More than ever before, the Department of Defense is relying on contactors to support our men and women in uniform. However, the cost of supporting these contractors has been paid not only with congressional funds but with an unprecedented number of contractor casualties. Sadly, while contractors are dying in record numbers in Iraq and Afghanistan, Congress has been preoccupied with paying less for the statutorily mandated workers’ compensation insurance that is intended to protect these workers. With the advent of Kevlar vests and armored-plated Humvees, contractors are returning home, but often with scars of war both visible and invisible. Rather ...


Purpose Vs. Power: Parens Patriae And Agency Self-Interest, Daniel L. Hatcher Apr 2012

Purpose Vs. Power: Parens Patriae And Agency Self-Interest, Daniel L. Hatcher

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The purpose of human service agencies to serve vulnerable populations such as abused and neglected children derives from the common law doctrine of parens patriae, embodying the inherent role of the state as parent of the country. However, along with this foundational purpose, the parens patriae doctrine also provides power that is illusive to public knowledge and oversight. To maintain their cloak of power, the very agencies created to fulfill the parens patriae obligations — to protect the rights of children — have systematically battled the children’s efforts to claim those rights as their own. Also, the agencies have now come ...


Teaching Social Justice Lawyering: Systematically Including Community Legal Education In Law School Clinics, Margaret Martin Barry, A. Rachel Camp, Margaret E. Johnson, Catherine F. Klein, Lisa V. Martin Apr 2012

Teaching Social Justice Lawyering: Systematically Including Community Legal Education In Law School Clinics, Margaret Martin Barry, A. Rachel Camp, Margaret E. Johnson, Catherine F. Klein, Lisa V. Martin

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There is a body of literature on clinical legal theory that urges a focus in clinics beyond the single client to an explicit teaching of social justice lawyering. This Article adds to this emerging body of work by discussing the valuable role community legal education plays as a vehicle for teaching skills and values essential to single client representation and social justice lawyering. The Article examines the theoretical underpinnings of clinical legal education, community organizing and community education and how they influenced the authors’ design and implementation of community legal education within their clinics. It then discusses two projects designed ...


The American Historical Review (April 2012) (Reviewing David Garland, Peculiar Institution: America’S Death Penalty In An Age Of Abolition, John Bessler Apr 2012

The American Historical Review (April 2012) (Reviewing David Garland, Peculiar Institution: America’S Death Penalty In An Age Of Abolition, John Bessler

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No abstract provided.


Defined Value Clauses And Fair Market Value, Wendy G. Gerzog Mar 2012

Defined Value Clauses And Fair Market Value, Wendy G. Gerzog

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In Hendrix the Tax Court considered the issues of whether defined value clauses were the result of arm’s-length transactions and whether they were void as against public policy. The underlying dispute was whether the taxpayers’ transfers of the John H. Hendrix Co. stock were valued at fair market value. With a decision favoring the taxpayers, the defined value clauses in both McCord and Hendrix impede the accurate valuation of taxable gifts to family members and of deductible charitable gifts.


Constitutional Rights And The Problem Of Legal Authority, Christopher J. Peters Mar 2012

Constitutional Rights And The Problem Of Legal Authority, Christopher J. Peters

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There are many good recent critiques, and at least as many good recent defenses,

of the idea of constitutional rights.4 Both the critiques and the defenses almost al-

ways assume a particular audience, one consisting of what we might call

institutional designers. Institutional designers are in a position either to invent or

reinvent the governing institutions of a society (like, say, the American Framers in

the 1780s or the post-Soviet and post-apartheid-South-African nation-builders of

the 1990s), or (far more often) to seriously reassess some of the governing

institutions the society already has (as happened during recent debates in Great ...


Significant Recent Developments In Maryland Regarding Character Evidence And Impeachment, Lynn Mclain Mar 2012

Significant Recent Developments In Maryland Regarding Character Evidence And Impeachment, Lynn Mclain

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No abstract provided.


Senate Bills 284-285 A "Bribery Exception" To Maryland's Legislative Privilege, Lynn Mclain Feb 2012

Senate Bills 284-285 A "Bribery Exception" To Maryland's Legislative Privilege, Lynn Mclain

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No abstract provided.


Boomer-Ang Eldercare: Deductible Claim?, Wendy G. Gerzog Jan 2012

Boomer-Ang Eldercare: Deductible Claim?, Wendy G. Gerzog

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In this article, Gerzog discusses Estate of Olivo, in which the Tax Court determined the deductibility under section 2053 of a claim against the decedent’s estate for eldercare services provided by a family member.


Antisemitism In The Academic Voice: Confronting Bigotry Under The First Amendment, Kenneth Lasson Jan 2012

Antisemitism In The Academic Voice: Confronting Bigotry Under The First Amendment, Kenneth Lasson

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The romanticized vision of life in the Ivory Tower - a peaceful haven where learned professors ponder higher thoughts and where students roam orderly quadrangles in quest of truth and other pleasures - has long been relegated to yesteryear. While universities like to nurture the perception that they are protectors of reasoned discourse, and indeed often perceive themselves as sacrosanct places of culture in a chaotic world, the modern campus, of course, is not quite so wonderful.

This chapter examines the relationship between antisemitic and anti-Zionist speech and conduct, how they both play out on contemporary university campuses - and suggests ways by ...


Big Brother Or Little Brother? Surrendering Seizure Privacy For The Benefits Of Communication Technology, José F. Anderson Jan 2012

Big Brother Or Little Brother? Surrendering Seizure Privacy For The Benefits Of Communication Technology, José F. Anderson

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Over two centuries have passed since Benjamin Franklin quipped that we should defend privacy over security if people wanted either privacy or security. Although his axiom did not become a rule of law in its original form, its principles found voice in the Fourth and Fifth Amendments of the Constitution's Bill of Rights. To a lesser extent, provisions against the quartering of troops in private homes found in the Third Amendment also support the idea that what a government can require you to do, or who you must have behind the doors of your home, is an area of ...


Professional Identity As Advocacy, Robert Rubinson Jan 2012

Professional Identity As Advocacy, Robert Rubinson

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The legal profession adheres to a story of a unified profession. Nevertheless, the profession has distinct professional sub-groups which repeatedly represent clients with interests adverse to those represented by attorneys who identify with other sub-groups. The idea of "professional identity as advocacy" describes how such professional sub-groups accuse opposing subgroups of greed, self-aggrandizement, or worse. This is most notable in two areas: personal injury litigation and criminal cases. This process has two seemingly contradictory consequences. First, it renders narrow areas extraordinarily visible, thus defining popular discourse and conceptions about lawyers and law. Second, it masks vast areas of litigation and ...