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Full-Text Articles in Law

International Red Cross Must Include Israel, Kenneth Lasson Nov 2001

International Red Cross Must Include Israel, Kenneth Lasson

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Israel's corresponding relief agency, the Mogen David Adom, has provided emergency services to countries all over the world since 1939, and it meets or surpasses every other standard for IFRC membership. Yet Israel remains the only nation left out of the 178- country federation. Why?

An IFRC spokesman says that it is "governments, not the federation, that give emblems the protective force of international law," and that "governments" are preparing to adopt an additional emblem, with no religious or national connotations, to stand alongside the Red Cross and the Red Crescent, one that Israel could adopt as its own ...


Why Are We So Reluctant To "Execute" Microsoft?, Robert H. Lande Nov 2001

Why Are We So Reluctant To "Execute" Microsoft?, Robert H. Lande

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On June 28, 2001, the D.C. Court of Appeals held that Microsoft has violated the antitrust laws repeatedly, relentlessly, and over a multi-year period. The court ruled eight separate times that Microsoft engaged in conduct that illegally maintained its monopoly in PC operating systems. Despite these strongly worded conclusions concerning Microsoft’s liability, the court was extremely cautious when it considered whether to break up the company. It held that divestiture was a “radical” remedy that should be imposed with “great caution.”


The Perfect Caper?: Private Damages And The Microsoft Case, Robert H. Lande, James Langenfeld Oct 2001

The Perfect Caper?: Private Damages And The Microsoft Case, Robert H. Lande, James Langenfeld

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As readers of crime novels know, there are many definitions of the perfect caper. Under most, the perpetrator gets to keep its ill-gotten gains and goes unpunished. Even if the perpetrator is arrested and brought to trial, he or she still typically escapes punishment completely due to a variety of unusual circumstances. This is essentially what Professors John E. Lopatka and William H. Page are arguing about Microsoft's actions. They assert that even though Microsoft has violated the antitrust laws, it will not be made to pay for its anticompetitive conduct, at least not by private plaintiffs.


Business Lawyer, Woman Warrior: An Allegory Of Feminine And Masculine Theories, Barbara Ann White Oct 2001

Business Lawyer, Woman Warrior: An Allegory Of Feminine And Masculine Theories, Barbara Ann White

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The first part of this essay is a discourse on how two of the last half century’s most influential contributions to legal thinking: Law and Economics Jurisprudence and Feminist Legal Theory, whose adherents are normally adversaries, can function synergistically to create a greater analytic power. Using business law issues as an example - historically law and economics’ terrain but recently explored by feminism - I comment on how each can unravel different knots but each standing alone leave other conundrums unresolved.

Expanding on the feminist concept of “masculine thinking,” I discuss how, just as law and economics’ analytic style (i.e ...


Persuasion: A Model Of Majoritarianism As Adjudication, Christopher J. Peters Oct 2001

Persuasion: A Model Of Majoritarianism As Adjudication, Christopher J. Peters

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This article, which has been published in slightly revised form at 96 Nw. U.L. Rev. 1 (2001), is an application and extension of my theory of adjudication as representation, which holds that the procedural elements of litigant participation and interest representation confer democratic legitimacy on court decisions. In the article, I first develop the notion of a "majoritarian difficulty": the often-ignored tension between democratic self-rule and majority domination of the political minority. Second, I offer a model of majoritarianism as a type of adjudication, in which interested parties lobby for favorable decisions by a neutral decisionmaker. Third, I contend ...


Invisible Markets Netting Visible Results: When Sub-Prime Lending Becomes Predatory, Cassandra Jones Havard Oct 2001

Invisible Markets Netting Visible Results: When Sub-Prime Lending Becomes Predatory, Cassandra Jones Havard

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In this article, I argue that Ellison's metaphor of social invisibility—the societal undervaluing of minorities—is analogous to economic invisibility—the denial of fair access to credit to minorities. I then use the metaphor of invisibility as a basis for understanding the contemporary legal problem of predatory lending, or making credit available to borrowers at unreasonably high interest rates. Disguised as credit access to high-risk, underserved borrowers, predatory lending helps to create risk by offering borrowers products that do not adequately measure risk and that are not fairly priced.


Attorney Fact-Finding, Ethical Decision-Making And The Methodology Of Law, Robert Rubinson Oct 2001

Attorney Fact-Finding, Ethical Decision-Making And The Methodology Of Law, Robert Rubinson

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This Article explores the significance, challenges, and complexities of attorney fact-finding in ethical decision-making. Almost all discourse about legal ethics, from the pedagogical to the scholarly to the practical, takes facts for granted in order to focus on issues about ethical rules. The factual dimension of ethical decision-making, however, is critical to the decision-making process and can be subjected to rigorous and systematic study. Indeed, it is lawyers in a situation who engage in ethical decision-making, and such a situation entails the assimilation and interpretation of many sources of information. Such a process necessarily includes the motivations and ambivalence of ...


How To Steal A Trillion: The Uses Of Laws About Lawmaking In 2001, Charles Tiefer Jul 2001

How To Steal A Trillion: The Uses Of Laws About Lawmaking In 2001, Charles Tiefer

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How did Congress pass President Bush's 2001 trillion-dollar tax cut pass without the necessary consensus shape and without the 60 Senate votes required to overcome resistance? How was the House able to give "fast track" treatment to laws designed to implement future trade deals? How was the 2001 Congress able to reject a new workplace ergonomic rule that would otherwise become law? In 2001, American lawmakers passed laws to make controversial laws, forcing the important question about whether laws about lawmaking actually serve the public interest.

In this article, the author explores the constitutional limits on laws about lawmaking ...


Last Gasp Estate Planning: The Formation Of Family Limited Liability Entities Shortly Before Death, Walter D. Schwidetzky Jul 2001

Last Gasp Estate Planning: The Formation Of Family Limited Liability Entities Shortly Before Death, Walter D. Schwidetzky

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Family limited partnerships have been popular gift and estate tax planning vehicles for many years. In recent years, family limited liability companies (LLCs) have also become common, particularly in those states that have updated their statutes to take the check-the-box regulations into account. LLCs with more than one member are usually classified as partnerships for federal income tax purposes. In a typical structure, when there is adequate planning, the donors form a limited partnership or an LLC (jointly, 'family limited liability entity' or FLLE), to which they contribute assets expected to appreciate in value. This article will focus on such ...


Rethink The Laws Relating To Fathers (Change: With The Decline In Married Mothers And Traditional Families, The Legal Image Of Dads Needs Re-Examination), Jane C. Murphy Jun 2001

Rethink The Laws Relating To Fathers (Change: With The Decline In Married Mothers And Traditional Families, The Legal Image Of Dads Needs Re-Examination), Jane C. Murphy

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This "marital presumption" permitted courts to assume a set of biological facts in the name of preserving the sanctity and stability of what was assumed to be the cornerstone of a healthy society — the traditional family of husband, wife and children. In the last decades of the 20th century, science developed paternity testing with results approaching certainty. Despite the availability of DNA testing, the marital presumption is still used in many courtrooms to answer the question of who is the legal father. What one scholar has called "the law's struggle to preserve the fiction of an older moral order ...


Legal Accountability In An Era Of Privatized Welfare, Michele E. Gilman May 2001

Legal Accountability In An Era Of Privatized Welfare, Michele E. Gilman

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When the federal welfare system was reformed in 1996, Congress devolved much of the authority over welfare delivery to the states and gave them the option of contracting out administration of their programs to private entities. Moreover, after welfare reform, enacted as the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRA), welfare recipients are expected to work to receive benefits. This means that front-line workers must engage in intensive interpersonal counseling rather than simply confirm objective eligibility criteria and dispense checks. As a result, front-line workers have vastly increased discretion. When privatization is layered over this discretionary scheme, issues of ...


Consumer Choice As The Ultimate Goal Of Antitrust, Robert H. Lande Apr 2001

Consumer Choice As The Ultimate Goal Of Antitrust, Robert H. Lande

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The mission of the antitrust laws need to be clarified, and this article asserts that the best way to do this is to interpret and enforce these laws in terms of consumer choice. This reformulation is necessary due to uncertainty and instability that exists in the field. This article will 1. define the consumer choice approach to antitrust or competition law and show how it differs from other approaches; 2. show that the antitrust statutes and theories of violation embody a concern for optimal levels of consumer choice; 3. show that the antitrust case law embodies a concern for optimal ...


Innocence Protection Act: Death Penalty Reform On The Horizon, Ronald Weich Apr 2001

Innocence Protection Act: Death Penalty Reform On The Horizon, Ronald Weich

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The criminal justice pendulum may be swinging back in the direction of fairness. The Innocence Protection Act of 2001, introduced in both the Senate and the House of Representatives earlier this year, promises meaningful reforms in the administration of capital punishment in the United States.

Unlike previous slabs at reform, the Innocence Protection Act (lPA) has a real chance to become law because it commands unusually broad bipartisan support. The Senate bill (S. 486) is sponsored by Democrat Pat Leahy of Vermont and Republican Gordon Smith of Oregon. The House bill (H.R. 912) is sponsored by Democrat Bill Delahunt ...


Rewriting Near V. Minnesota: Creating A Complete Definition Of Prior Restraint, Michael I. Meyerson Apr 2001

Rewriting Near V. Minnesota: Creating A Complete Definition Of Prior Restraint, Michael I. Meyerson

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The decision in Near v. Minnesota, while establishing the prior restraint doctrine as a critical element for First Amendment analysis, failed to give a definition of prior restraint. The result has been inconsistent and unpredictable application of the doctrine as well as diminished protection of free expression. This article takes the next critical step in the journey begun by Near v. Minnesota; it attempts to create a comprehensive definition of prior restraint using the principles of separation of powers. Because all three branches can create 'prior restraints,' the prevention of unconstitutional restraints will necessitate different safeguards depending on which branch ...


Current Developments In Cyberspace, Eric Easton Apr 2001

Current Developments In Cyberspace, Eric Easton

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No abstract provided.


African-American Farmers And Fair Lending: Racializing Rural Economic Space, Cassandra Jones Havard Apr 2001

African-American Farmers And Fair Lending: Racializing Rural Economic Space, Cassandra Jones Havard

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This article critiques the federal policy and legislation that makes USDA a financial intermediary designed to give farmers access to credit in light of the federal class action settlement of claims between African-American farmers and USDA. The challenged statutory scheme allows locally elected farmers to make decisions regarding these low-cost loan funds. USDA's approach has both federalist and economic underpinnings. The article identifies the arguments supporting devolution of power from the federal government to local jurisdictions and examines the competing theories of information costs, transaction costs, and agency costs as they relate to USDA as a financial intermediary. Finally ...


The Judiciary In The United States: A Search For Fairness, Independence And Competence, Stephen J. Shapiro Apr 2001

The Judiciary In The United States: A Search For Fairness, Independence And Competence, Stephen J. Shapiro

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Alexander Hamilton referred to the judiciary as “the least dangerous branch” because it could neither make nor enforce the law without help from the other two branches of government. In the years since then, however, courts and judges in the United States have assumed a much more prominent role in society. American judges preside over criminal trials and sentence those convicted, decide all kinds of civil disputes, both large and small, and make important decisions involving families, such as child custody. They have also become the primary guarantors of the civil and constitutional rights of American citizens.

The case of ...


Letting Federal Unions Protest Improper Contracting-Out, Charles Tiefer Apr 2001

Letting Federal Unions Protest Improper Contracting-Out, Charles Tiefer

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In 2000 - 2001, a judicial and General Accounting Office (GAO) ruling precluded federal employee unions from protesting the government's alleged violation of the rules governing the contracting-out procedure because the parties lacked standing. These rulings illustrate how outdated procedures have insulated the government from challenge, and have become matters of particular importance as the government increases its practice of contracting-out. Although these rulings have not closed the tribunal doors to federal employee unions, they have made protests much more difficult, leaving federal employee unions without a forum to protest violations. To better serve the needs of contractors - and the ...


Law Reviews And Technology: Copyright Law From Noah Webster To Tasini And The Importance Of Written Contracts, Lynn Mclain Mar 2001

Law Reviews And Technology: Copyright Law From Noah Webster To Tasini And The Importance Of Written Contracts, Lynn Mclain

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This handout from a 2001 presentation for the National Conference of Law Reviews outlines the intersection between copyright and contract law, particularly as it pertains to authors assigning the copyright of law review articles to the journal publishing the article.


Accountability Solutions In The Consent Search And Seizure Wasteland, José F. Anderson Mar 2001

Accountability Solutions In The Consent Search And Seizure Wasteland, José F. Anderson

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The legal and social issues that have emerged out of the doctrine that people in America have a right against unreasonable government instituted searches and seizures have dominated the dialogue and controversy in the American criminal justice system over the last three decades. A large portion of the debate has centered around the controversial exclusionary rule, which frees the sometimes unmistakably guilty because of irregularities in police procedure.

The notion that society suffers when criminals go free because of the constable's blunder has struck a decidedly political note in the discussion over criminal justice reform. Many observers are quick ...


The Strange History Of Adult Adoptee Access To Original Birth Records, Elizabeth Samuels Jan 2001

The Strange History Of Adult Adoptee Access To Original Birth Records, Elizabeth Samuels

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In the late 1940s and early 1950s, contemporary accounts reported that most states had sealed adoption court records completely but, typically, had sealed original birth certificates from all persons except adult adoptees. Through the 1950s influential experts recommended that original birth certificates remain available to adult adoptees, while birth and court records otherwise be closed to all persons except upon court order. In 1960 the laws in some 40 percent of the states still permitted adult adoptees to inspect them, but between 1960 and 1990 all but a handful of the rest of the states closed the birth records to ...


The Idea Of Adoption: An Inquiry Into The History Of Adult Adoptee Access To Birth Records, Elizabeth Samuels Jan 2001

The Idea Of Adoption: An Inquiry Into The History Of Adult Adoptee Access To Birth Records, Elizabeth Samuels

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There has been in recent years and there continues to be intense debate around the country about whether to open original birth records to adult adoptees. Our understanding of the legal history relevant to the debate has been incomplete and inaccurate. According to this understanding, the state laws that closed court and birth records to the parties to adoptions generally closed these records for all time to all parties; the laws had a primary purpose of insuring lifelong anonymity for birth parents; and the laws became nearly universal by about the middle of the twentieth century. In fact, the history ...


When Inclusion Leads To Exclusion: The Uncharted Terrain Of Community Participation In Economic Development, Audrey Mcfarlane Jan 2001

When Inclusion Leads To Exclusion: The Uncharted Terrain Of Community Participation In Economic Development, Audrey Mcfarlane

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Since the advent of federally-sponsored urban development, the federal government has sought to facilitate decentralized decision-making by local governments. These federal programs have also strongly encouraged local governments to include community participation in the development decision-making process. Participation evokes notions of democracy, egalitarianism, and inclusion and it is easy to support in principle. But participation is often less easy to support in practice because of its structural disconnect with urban development. This disconnect between principle and practice has been reflected in an ebb and flow of contrastingly strong and weak mandates for participation. This ebb and flow of federally-mandated participation ...


Resurrecting Incipiency: From Von's Grocery To Consumer Choice, Robert H. Lande Jan 2001

Resurrecting Incipiency: From Von's Grocery To Consumer Choice, Robert H. Lande

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The merger incipiency doctrine is virtually ignored in the courts today. This article argues that it should be resurrected, and it also explores the ways that effectuating Congressional intent in the area would reinvigorate merger policy.

The article documents how the legislative history of the antimerger statutes shows that Congress intended mergers to be evaluated under an incipiency approach, and explores the possible meanings of this idea. It then shows that this is a strong basis for reviving significantly stricter or more prophylactic merger enforcement.

The article shows how there are aspects of the doctrine that could be revived without ...


Exploitation Of The Elite: A Case For Physician Unionization, Dionne L. Koller Jan 2001

Exploitation Of The Elite: A Case For Physician Unionization, Dionne L. Koller

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Our intuition tells us that physicians are elites, and therefore they cannot be exploited. Relying on this intuition, we adopt policies which attempt to provide a health care system that gives first-quality care, at the lowest prices, delivered through a “free-market” system. As the key gatekeepers to health care, physicians are thus caught in the middle. Top-notch American health care costs money and for-profit MCOs must watch their bottom line. Rationing, therefore, is key. The issue is, assuming we have decided that free-market health care is the solution, how much should physicians have to sacrifice in the name of the ...


The Neglected History Of The Prior Restraint Doctrine: Rediscovering The Link Between The First Amendment And The Separation Of Powers, Michael I. Meyerson Jan 2001

The Neglected History Of The Prior Restraint Doctrine: Rediscovering The Link Between The First Amendment And The Separation Of Powers, Michael I. Meyerson

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The prior restraint doctrine, once so fundamental to Constitutional Jurisprudence, has lost much of its effectiveness over the years. Nevertheless, prior restraint doctrine is crucial to preserving the line between protected and unprotected speech. One of the fundamental problems that contribute to the current ineffectiveness of prior restraint doctrine is that there exists no comprehensive definition of "prior restraint". This article chronicles the historical roots of prior restraint in order to arrive at a generally accepted legal definition. Through the course of this historical journey, the article yields a heretofore unexplored aspect of prior restraint doctrine, namely that prior restraint ...


The Burdens And Benefits Of The American Jury, José F. Anderson Jan 2001

The Burdens And Benefits Of The American Jury, José F. Anderson

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There is no institution in the legal system more controversial than the American Jury. It has been praised and hated by people from all walks of life. James Madison once called it among "the most valuable" rights included in the Bill of Rights. Robert Allan Rutland, The Birth of the Bill of Rights 1776-1791, at 208 (2nd ed ., Northeastern Univ. Press 1991) (1955) (quoting 1 Annals of Cong. 755 (Joseph Gales ed., 1789)). The business community sometimes complains that it paralyzes its ability to grow. Politicians have used it as grist for their mills calling for jury reform. Television and ...