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Judicial Independence And Accountability: Withstanding Political Stress, Leah Wortham Jan 2019

Judicial Independence And Accountability: Withstanding Political Stress, Leah Wortham

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

For democracy and the rule of law to function and flourish, important actors in the justice system need sufficient independence from politicians in power to act under rule of law rather than political pressure. The court system must offer a place where government action can be reviewed, challenged, and, when necessary, limited to protect constitutional and legal bounds, safeguard internationally-recognized human rights, and prevent departures from a fair and impartial system of law enforcement and dispute resolution. Courts also should offer a place where government officials can be held accountable. People within and outside a country need faith that court ...


“Let Them Eat Cake”: Examining United States Retirement Savings Policy Through The Lens Of International Human Rights Principles, Regina T. Jefferson Jan 2018

“Let Them Eat Cake”: Examining United States Retirement Savings Policy Through The Lens Of International Human Rights Principles, Regina T. Jefferson

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

This article uses an international human rights framework to analyze and critique the effectiveness of the United States' retirement system and its underlying policies. The article challenges the ongoing pension reform debate to include considerations outside traditional economic theory, such as income inequality, the dignity of the elderly, and the irreducible mutuality of people. While a human rights analysis will not yield a precise policy prescription for the retirement savings crisis, it will serve as an additional framework within which the government's economic and social policies regarding the treatment of the elderly can be evaluated, expanding the focus and ...


International Law And The Balfour Decision, Geoffrey R. Watson Jan 2018

International Law And The Balfour Decision, Geoffrey R. Watson

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

The Balfour Declaration had enormous political significance, but did it have any legal force? Was it legally binding, exposing Britain to legal remedies for its breach, or was it merely an expression of policy that could be disregarded without legal consequences? These questions are of intense interest to legal historians, but they also have contemporary political relevance. The issue is not so much whether Britain might be liable to the Palestinians for failing to safeguard the “civil and religious rights” of non-Jewish residents of Palestine, though that is a theoretical possibility. Instead, the question is whether the Declaration is legally ...


Democracy Clauses In The Americas: The Challenge Of Venezuela’S Withdrawal From The Oas, Antonio F. Perez Jan 2017

Democracy Clauses In The Americas: The Challenge Of Venezuela’S Withdrawal From The Oas, Antonio F. Perez

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

In light of Venezuela’s unprecedented notice of its intention to withdraw from the Organization of American States, this essay by a former member of the Juridical Committee of the OAS explores the range of discretion available to the OAS and its Member States in interpreting and applying the OAS’s unique provision for withdrawal. Presenting the first extensive analysis of this provision of the OAS Charter, the essay argues that the withdrawal clause can plausibly be interpreted to require Venezuela to fulfill all its obligations under the OAS Charter, including its obligations to respect democracy, before its unprecedented withdrawal ...


Lincoln’S Legacy For American International Law, Antonio F. Perez Jan 2014

Lincoln’S Legacy For American International Law, Antonio F. Perez

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

Is the United States, as an international actor, different from all other international actors? If so, how is it different? What makes it different? How does American sovereignty fit into a larger conception of international law? These questions go back to the beginning of the Republic, and they remain pressing today. Many have debated this question in terms of the legacy of the Founding. Some find in the Founding the seeds of multilateralism and perhaps even cosmopolitanism; others, rejecting this interpretation, advance a nationalist and unilateralist account of the Founding. But the Founding is not the whole story.

This Article ...


Or A Treaty Of The United States: Treaties And The Alien Tort Statute After Kiobel, Geoffrey R. Watson Jan 2013

Or A Treaty Of The United States: Treaties And The Alien Tort Statute After Kiobel, Geoffrey R. Watson

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

The decision in Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. left open a number of questions about the scope of the Alien Tort Statute (ATS). One such question is the extent to which Kiobel ’s holding on extraterritoriality applies to the oft-neglected final words of the ATS: “The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action by an alien for a tort only, committed in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States.” What if one such treaty obliged the United States to provide a civil forum for litigation ofhumanrights violations that occurred abroad ...


The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities: Reflection On Four Flaws That Tarnish Its Promise, Lucia A. Silecchia Jan 2013

The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities: Reflection On Four Flaws That Tarnish Its Promise, Lucia A. Silecchia

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

On December 13, 2006, the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (“CRPD”). Widely touted as the “first comprehensive human rights treaty of the 21st century,” and effusively praised for its open negotiation process, the CRPD was opened for signature on March 30, 2007. The CRPD quickly entered into force on May 3, 2008. As it rapidly amassed signatories, the CRPD inspired great hope that its comprehensive approach would do much to overcome the consistent failure to promote the dignity of those with disabilities in meaningfully concrete ways.

The CRPD has garnered much recent and ...


The Kosovo Crisis: A Dostoievskian Dialogue On International Law, Statecraft, And Soulcraft, Antonio F. Perez, Robert J. Delahunty Jan 2009

The Kosovo Crisis: A Dostoievskian Dialogue On International Law, Statecraft, And Soulcraft, Antonio F. Perez, Robert J. Delahunty

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

The secession of Kosovo from Serbia in February 2008 represents a stage in the unfolding of a revolution of "constitutional" dimensions in International Law that began with NATO's 1999 intervention in Kosovo against Serbia. NATO's intervention called into question the authority and viability of U.N. Charter system for maintaining international peace. Likewise, the West's decision in 2008 to support Kosovo's secession from Serbia dealt a further blow to the central post-War legal rules and institutions for controlling and mitigating Great power rivalry. Russia's later support for South Ossetia's secession from Georgia demonstrated the ...


Consumer Protection In The Americas: A Second Wave Of American Revolutions?, Antonio F. Perez Jan 2008

Consumer Protection In The Americas: A Second Wave Of American Revolutions?, Antonio F. Perez

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

This article, which draws on the author's experience as a member of the Inter-American Juridical Committee of the Organization of American States, focuses on the problem of crafting an appropriate hemispheric regime for the protection of consumer rights. The subject is now a major element in the agenda of the OAS Specialized Conference on Private International Law (know also under its Spanish acronym as the CIDIP process), in part because of the increased salience of the issue in light of increasing e-commerce. The article, based on the author's presentation at a symposium at the St. Thomas School of ...


Mara’Abe V. Prime Minister Of Israel, Geoffrey R. Watson Jan 2006

Mara’Abe V. Prime Minister Of Israel, Geoffrey R. Watson

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

No abstract provided.


Legal Frameworks For Economic Transition In Iraq – Occupation Under The Law Of War Vs. Global Governance Under The Law Of Peace, Antonio F. Perez Jan 2005

Legal Frameworks For Economic Transition In Iraq – Occupation Under The Law Of War Vs. Global Governance Under The Law Of Peace, Antonio F. Perez

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

After over a decade as the ruling conventional wisdom under the rubric of the so-called Washington Consensus, the prospect of reconstruction and development through fiscal austerity, privatization and liberalization of markets is under considerable attack today from many quarters. One common theme of these challenges-to what has been received wisdom-focuses not on the technical characteristics of development, but rather its connection to political development.


Universal Human Rights, The United Nations, And The Telos Of Human Dignity, William J. Wagner Jan 2005

Universal Human Rights, The United Nations, And The Telos Of Human Dignity, William J. Wagner

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

In this short essay, I seek to provide a description of the way the rights framework, by its nature, functions to unify global practice around normative ideals. I then outline obstacles, both theoretical and practical, to the effective functioning of this framework and the advancement of its purpose. Next, I lay out and critique the means that the Church, in its official teaching, proposes for overcoming these obstacles. I conclude by sketching briefly what I understand to be a more adequate program for addressing the impediments that exist to the realization of the aspiration of universal respect for human dignity ...


Human Rights And Bioethics: Formulating A Universal Right To Health, Health Care, Or Health Protection?, George P. Smith Ii Jan 2005

Human Rights And Bioethics: Formulating A Universal Right To Health, Health Care, Or Health Protection?, George P. Smith Ii

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

Codifying, and then implementing, an international right to health, health care, or protection is beset with serious roadblocks - foremost among them being contentious issues of indeterminacy, justiciability, and progressive realization. Although advanced - and to some degree recognized under the rubric of a social or cultural entitlement within the law of human rights and, more particularly, the U.S. Declaration on Human Rights, together with International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights, and presently UNESCO's Draft Declaration on Universal Norms on Bioethics - attainment of ...


The ‘Wall’ Decisions In Legal And Political Context, Geoffrey R. Watson Jan 2005

The ‘Wall’ Decisions In Legal And Political Context, Geoffrey R. Watson

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

No abstract provided.


Traditional Paradisms For The Causes Of War Applied To The International Trading System: Nation-State Institutions In A World Of Market-States, Antonio F. Perez Jan 2005

Traditional Paradisms For The Causes Of War Applied To The International Trading System: Nation-State Institutions In A World Of Market-States, Antonio F. Perez

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

The first object of this paper, therefore, is to consider in very general terms the intellectual history of the study of the relation between trade and peace, using two key texts from the beginning and the end of the Cold War - first, Kenneth Waltz's "Man, the State, and War: A Theoretical Analysis" 3; and, second, Philip Bobbitt's "The Shield of Achilles: War, Peace, and the Course of History.

The second part of this paper will argue that Waltz's normative commitments are revealed in the order of his presentation and Bobbitt's normative commitments are revealed in the ...


The Geneva Proposals For Peace: Still Viable, Ziad J. Asali, Marshall J. Breger, Milton Viorst, Philip C. Wilcox Jr. Jan 2004

The Geneva Proposals For Peace: Still Viable, Ziad J. Asali, Marshall J. Breger, Milton Viorst, Philip C. Wilcox Jr.

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

No abstract provided.


The Changing Jurisprudence Of The International Criminal Tribunal For The Former Yugoslavia, Geoffrey R. Watson Jan 2003

The Changing Jurisprudence Of The International Criminal Tribunal For The Former Yugoslavia, Geoffrey R. Watson

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

No abstract provided.


Delegalization Of Arms Control – A Democracy Deficit In De Facto Treaties Of Peace, Antonio F. Perez Jan 2003

Delegalization Of Arms Control – A Democracy Deficit In De Facto Treaties Of Peace, Antonio F. Perez

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

Delegalization of arms control is now an accomplished fact. In this period of potential dramatic revision of the international order, it is not surprising that the US is seeking increased flexibility in pursuing several strategies, including the full use of military and technological advantages. The motivations behind this include US interests, as well as long run global interests. What may be surprising, however, is the potential risk to our democratic processes from delegalization of arms control-that is to say, the danger posed by reduced use of arms control treaties with built-in processes of transparency and democratic accountability.

The potential risk ...


International Antitrust At The Crossroads: The End Of Antitrust History Or The Clash Of Competition Policy Civlizations, Antonio F. Perez Jan 2002

International Antitrust At The Crossroads: The End Of Antitrust History Or The Clash Of Competition Policy Civlizations, Antonio F. Perez

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

This Review will suggest a theoretical explanation for the essentially pragmatic conclusion that the United States should continue to oppose negotiations at the WTO. This explanation has the virtue of drawing on the special quasi-constitutional role of antitrust policy in U.S. history, one that is in fact deeply connected to the political economy of U.S. federalism and which, therefore, leaves less room for U.S. acquiescence in the institutionalization of competition policy at the WTO than does even the pragmatic argument for continued U.S. opposition to multilateral and institutional approaches.

This argument draws on the continuing centrality ...


The Adequacy Of International Law For Arms Control – Post Sept. 11: Arms Control And Nonproliferation, Antonio F. Perez Jan 2002

The Adequacy Of International Law For Arms Control – Post Sept. 11: Arms Control And Nonproliferation, Antonio F. Perez

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

Arms control was never an end in itself. Arms control and nonproliferation policy always had as their goals increasing international security. It may be worth recalling that, in response to having it called to his attention that he had changed his views on a matter, Lord Keynes is widely reported to have quipped, "When the facts change, what do you do?" Indeed, as Lord Keynes also once said, "There is no harm in sometimes being wrong-especially if one is promptly found out."

The question for this panel is whether the sea change in strategic thinking reflected in the arms control ...


Article 36 Of The Vienna Convention On Consular Relations: Private Enforcement In American Courts After Lagrand, Cara H. Drinan Jan 2002

Article 36 Of The Vienna Convention On Consular Relations: Private Enforcement In American Courts After Lagrand, Cara H. Drinan

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

In this Note, I explore the potential impact of LaGrand upon domestic American criminal jurisprudence with an eye toward what the case demonstrates for America as a member of international institutions more generally. In Part I, I describe the central holdings of the ICJ in LaGrand, noting how dramatically LaGrand departs from what American courts have previously interpreted the VCCR to require. Having demonstrated the enormity of LaGrand's procedural implications, I examine early cases after LaGrand and what they suggest about the American judicial response to the ICJ decision in Part II. I argue that American courts err to ...


Article 36 Of The Vienna Convention On Consular Relations: Private Enforcement In American Courts After Lagrand, Cara H. Drinan Jan 2002

Article 36 Of The Vienna Convention On Consular Relations: Private Enforcement In American Courts After Lagrand, Cara H. Drinan

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

On June 27, 2001, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) held in the case of Germany v. United States of America (LaGrand) that Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations ("VCCR") affords an individually enforceable right to consular access upon arrest or detention in a foreign country.' In the United States, death penalty opponents applauded the ICJ's finding for its promise of greater due process protection, while states' rights advocates criticized the decision as an unlawful exercise of criminal appellate jurisdiction. LaGrand, in theory, resolves many questions that have plagued American courts: whether Article 36 rights are ...


The International Recognition Of Judgments: The Debate Between Private And Public Law Solutions, Antonio F. Perez Jan 2001

The International Recognition Of Judgments: The Debate Between Private And Public Law Solutions, Antonio F. Perez

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

This article explores institutional alternatives for balancing the competing trade and non-trade concerns at the national and global levels in relation to the recognition and enforcement of judgments. It argues against a private international law convention of the kind that is currently being negotiated at the Hague Conference on Private International Law, and against quasi-constitutional and constitutional solutions, such as those employed by the European Union and the United States. Rather, the article argues that managing the tensions between trade and non-trade values and between state autonomy and globally established standards can best be achieved through a supplementary agreement in ...


The Perils Of Pinochet: Problems For Transnational Justice And A Supranational Governance Solution, Antonio F. Perez Jan 2000

The Perils Of Pinochet: Problems For Transnational Justice And A Supranational Governance Solution, Antonio F. Perez

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

No abstract provided.


Treaty Implementation: Lessons Taught By U.S./U.K. Cooperation Under The Nato Status Of Forces Agreement, Michael F. Noone Jr. Jan 2000

Treaty Implementation: Lessons Taught By U.S./U.K. Cooperation Under The Nato Status Of Forces Agreement, Michael F. Noone Jr.

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

No abstract provided.


International Commercial Arbitration: A Case Study Of The Areas Under Control Of The Palestinian Authority, Marshall J. Breger Jan 2000

International Commercial Arbitration: A Case Study Of The Areas Under Control Of The Palestinian Authority, Marshall J. Breger

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

One necessary component to the success of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process is economic development and growth in the area under the control of the Palestinian Authority (PA). One of the principal requirements for economic growth, and quite possibly for the Palestinian Authority's economic survival, is foreign investment in the West Bank and Gaza (WBG). As they currently exist, laws concerning foreign investment in WBG are a quagmire. Indeed, it is a challenge for an investor to simply identify which law applies to which area, let alone to interpret the law. At the same time many of the protections often ...


Why Likud Needs The Peace Process, Marshall J. Breger, Steven Speigel Jan 1999

Why Likud Needs The Peace Process, Marshall J. Breger, Steven Speigel

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

No abstract provided.


Wto And Un Law, Antonio F. Perez Jan 1998

Wto And Un Law, Antonio F. Perez

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

This Article argues that the U.S. and EC views of the national security interests exceptions reflect competing conceptions of the WTO legal order. Under the first, the WTO is viewed as merely an agreement between states governing a limited issue area, the disciplining of protectionist policies, under which other issue areas are reserved to sovereign state decisionmaking or, alternatively, whatever other international institutions states have separately granted competence for management of the issue. Under this view, the United States might well argue that its Helms-Burton sanctions are outside the jurisdiction of the WTO and instead within the jurisdiction of ...


Progress For Pilgrims: An Analysis Of The Holy See-Israel Fundamental Agreement, Geoffrey R. Watson Jan 1998

Progress For Pilgrims: An Analysis Of The Holy See-Israel Fundamental Agreement, Geoffrey R. Watson

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

This Article asks whether international human rights law obliges states to admit foreign pilgrims, and if so, whether the existence of such an obligation should influence interpretation of the Fundamental Agreement. Part I of this Article takes up a logically prior question: whether the Fundamental Agreement is a legally binding treaty, and whether it should be interpreted in accordance with treaty law. The Article rejects recent suggestions that one or both parties lack the capacity to make treaties, and it concludes that the Agreement is a binding treaty that should be interpreted in accordance with the Vienna Convention on the ...


The Fundamental Agreement Between The Holy See And The State Of Israel: A Symposium, Marshall J. Breger Jan 1998

The Fundamental Agreement Between The Holy See And The State Of Israel: A Symposium, Marshall J. Breger

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

No abstract provided.