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Singapore Management University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1943

Full-Text Articles in Law

Assessing Impact Of Urban Densification On Outdoor Microclimate And Thermal Comfort Using Envi-Met Simulations For Combined Spatial-Climatic Design (Cscd) Approach, Shreya Banerjee, Rachel X.Y. Pek, Sin Kang Yik, Graces N. Ching, Xiang Tian Ho, Dzyuban Yuliya, Peter J. Crank, Juan A. Acero, Winston T. L. Chow Jun 2024

Assessing Impact Of Urban Densification On Outdoor Microclimate And Thermal Comfort Using Envi-Met Simulations For Combined Spatial-Climatic Design (Cscd) Approach, Shreya Banerjee, Rachel X.Y. Pek, Sin Kang Yik, Graces N. Ching, Xiang Tian Ho, Dzyuban Yuliya, Peter J. Crank, Juan A. Acero, Winston T. L. Chow

Research Collection College of Integrative Studies

Future urban planning requires context-specific integration of spatial design and microclimate especially for tropical cities with extreme weather conditions. Thus, we propose a Combined Spatial-Climatic Design approach to assess impact of urban densification on annual outdoor thermal comfort performance employing ENVI-met simulations for Singapore. We first consider building bylaws and residential site guidelines to develop eight urban-density site options for a target population range. We further classify annual weather data into seven weather-types and use them as boundary conditions for the simulations. Comparing such fifty-six combined spatial-climatic simulation outputs by analyzing Outdoor Thermal Comfort Autonomy, we report the influence of …


The Future Of The International Financial System: The Emerging Cbdc Network And Its Impact On Regulation, Heng Wang, Simin Gao Apr 2024

The Future Of The International Financial System: The Emerging Cbdc Network And Its Impact On Regulation, Heng Wang, Simin Gao

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Central bank digital currency (CBDC) is a digital form of fiat currency. CBDC has the potential to be a game challenger in the international financial system, bringing increased complexities arising from technology and regulatory considerations, as well as generating greater currency competition. As more states begin exploring CBDC, the interactions between actors may lead to the emergence of a new CBDC network. What shape would the emerging CBDC network take? What would its network effects be? What would be the impact of the CBDC network on the international financial system, or the global financial network? This article explores these questions …


Application Of Singapore's New Rules On Service Out Of Jurisdiction: Three Arrows Capital And Nw Corp, Adeline Chong Apr 2024

Application Of Singapore's New Rules On Service Out Of Jurisdiction: Three Arrows Capital And Nw Corp, Adeline Chong

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

No abstract provided.


Discovering Significant Topics From Legal Decisions With Selective Inference, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh Apr 2024

Discovering Significant Topics From Legal Decisions With Selective Inference, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

We propose and evaluate an automated pipeline for discovering significant topics from legal decision texts by passing features synthesized with topic models through penalized regressions and post-selection significance tests. The method identifies case topics significantly correlated with outcomes, topic-word distributions which can be manually interpreted to gain insights about significant topics, and case-topic weights which can be used to identify representative cases for each topic. We demonstrate the method on a new dataset of domain name disputes and a canonical dataset of European Court of Human Rights violation cases. Topic models based on latent semantic analysis as well as language …


Guest Editorial: Comparative Perspectives In Multi-Owned Developments Across City-States, Seng Wei, Edward Ti Feb 2024

Guest Editorial: Comparative Perspectives In Multi-Owned Developments Across City-States, Seng Wei, Edward Ti

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

I am delighted to have had the opportunity to be the guest editor of this special issue titled “Comparative perspectives in multi-owned developments across City-States”. The theme of the special issue seeks to explore the worldwide phenomenon of urbanisation across all major cities, which has inevitably led to the proportion of apartment or flat dwellers increasing significantly. Issues relating to creating multi-owned schemes, resolving disputes between neighbours and management corporations and eventually the termination of the development to facilitate urban renewal are thus shared commonalities for owners, tenants, landlords and developers across jurisdictions. The aim of the special issue is …


Caroline E. Foster, Global Regulatory Standards In Environmental And Health Disputes: Regulatory Coherence, Due Regard, And Due Diligence, Henry S. Gao Feb 2024

Caroline E. Foster, Global Regulatory Standards In Environmental And Health Disputes: Regulatory Coherence, Due Regard, And Due Diligence, Henry S. Gao

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

With ‘The Rise of the Regulatory State’ 1 at the beginning of the twentieth century, regulation replaced litigation as the main method of social control in the United States. Over the past few decades, more and more countries around the world started to follow the example of the United States, which led to the global expansion of the regulatory state. This in turn spurred more international disputes due to divergences in the respective regulatory standards. Theoretically speaking, global regulation might be the best solution. However, so far this not happened, partly due to the paralysis of the law-making functions of …


Data Sovereignty And Trade Agreements: Three Digital Kingdoms, Henry S. Gao Feb 2024

Data Sovereignty And Trade Agreements: Three Digital Kingdoms, Henry S. Gao

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

For centuries, international lawyers have wrestled with the relationship between national sovereignty and international law. This is also the case of international trade law, where the tension between trade liberalization and national sovereignty culminated in the famous “Great 1994 Sovereignty Debate” between the late Prof. John Jackson and other leading scholars when the WTO came into being. As we enter the digital age, the issue of sovereignty resurfaced once again in the form of data sovereignty. In this paper, I will examine provisions in trade agreements which deal with data sovereignty issues, such as restrictions on data flow such as …


Public Offices In Processes Of Constitutional Development, J.G. Allen Feb 2024

Public Offices In Processes Of Constitutional Development, J.G. Allen

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

What factors drive constitutional change and sustain positive transformation? How are democratic values recognised, restored, and preserved through constitutional change? How can these questions be answered in a manner that is relevant to most of the world? This collection brings together leading and emerging scholars and practitioners to explore the relationship between democratic consolidation and constitutional endurance through consideration of recent experiences in seven African and Asian states that have undergone an understudied democratising event in the past decade: Ethiopia, The Gambia, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Building on the empirical surveys, seven thematic chapters offer analytical insights …


Similar Fact Evidence In Contractual Interpretation: Bhoomatidevi D/O Kishinchand Chugani Mrs Kavita Gope Mirwani V Nantakumar S/O V Ramachandra And Another [2023] Sghc 37, Calvin John Kaiwen Chirnside Jan 2024

Similar Fact Evidence In Contractual Interpretation: Bhoomatidevi D/O Kishinchand Chugani Mrs Kavita Gope Mirwani V Nantakumar S/O V Ramachandra And Another [2023] Sghc 37, Calvin John Kaiwen Chirnside

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In the recent Singapore High Court case of Bhoomatidevi d/o Kishinchand Chugani Mrs Kavita Gope Mirwani v Nantakumar s/o v Ramachandra and another [2023] SGHC 37, the claimant argued, inter alia, that evidence of a prior contract between the first defendant and a third party should be admitted to prove that the defendant had entered into a loan agreement with her in his personal capacity. Justice Lee Seiu Kin dismissed her claim, applying s. 14 of the Evidence Act.


Belt And Road Initiative: Legal Mechanism To Recover Stolen Assets, Veltrice Tan Jan 2024

Belt And Road Initiative: Legal Mechanism To Recover Stolen Assets, Veltrice Tan

Singapore International Dispute Resolution Academy

Purpose: This paper aims to determine the types of legal mechanisms that authorities can use to recover stolen assets for and from China. Design/methodology/approach: Newspaper articles and books are examined as are relevant reports by various regulatory authorities and academic institutions. Findings: The effectiveness of legal mechanisms in the recovery of stolen assets may be affected by issues such as the difficulties in tracing illicit funds, the ambiguous nature of “value” as well as the rise in technology. Research limitations/implications: There are limited data available in relation to the prevalence of corrupt officials along the Belt and Road Initiative and …


The Belt And Road Initiative: Conflict Of Laws And Dispute Resolution, Veltrice Tan Jan 2024

The Belt And Road Initiative: Conflict Of Laws And Dispute Resolution, Veltrice Tan

Singapore International Dispute Resolution Academy

Purpose: This paper aims to determine the adaptability of China’s legal system in recognizing and enforcing foreign judgements in China. Design/methodology/approach: Academic articles, case law and books are examined as are relevant reports by various regulatory authorities and organizations. Findings: Historically, Chinese courts have strictly adhered to “de facto reciprocity”, which made it difficult for foreign judgements to be recognized and enforced in China. Fortunately, Chinese courts have since abandoned their rigid adherence to de facto reciprocity, and have instead, used flexible tests of reciprocity such as de jure reciprocity, reciprocal commitment and reciprocal understand/consensus. Accordingly, this would facilitate the …


Promoting Esg Investing By Trustees: Risk Management And Structuring Solutions, Vincent Ooi, Alvin W. L. See Jan 2024

Promoting Esg Investing By Trustees: Risk Management And Structuring Solutions, Vincent Ooi, Alvin W. L. See

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The world is falling behind on its commitments to tackle some of the most pressing problems of this century: climate change, inequality, and other obstacles to building a sustainable future. In 2015, all Member States of the United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development which set out 17 Sustainable Development Goals (‘UNSDG’) and 169 targets spanning the spectrum of environmental, social and economic dimensions of development. At the mid-point to 2030, the UN Secretary-General reported that of the roughly 140 targets for which data is available, about 12 per cent are on track; more than half are moderately …


The Compatibility Of The Substance Over Form Doctrine With Tax And Investment Treaties: A Case Study Of Lone Star V The Republic Of Korea, Blazej Kuzniacki Jan 2024

The Compatibility Of The Substance Over Form Doctrine With Tax And Investment Treaties: A Case Study Of Lone Star V The Republic Of Korea, Blazej Kuzniacki

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

In late August 2022, the Lone Star tribunal concluded one of the latest awards in tax-related investment treaty disputes (the tax-related claims account for almost USD 1.5 billion of the total of almost USD 4.7 billion claimed in compensation). It also is the first award in which the tribunal dealt with the application of the substance over form doctrine (SOFD) by tax authorities and courts of the host state to prevent the abuse of a double tax treaty (DTT), and the impact of the refusal to accord the claimants the benefits under the DTT via a domestic (Korean) SOFD on …


The Subsistence And Enforcement Of Copyright And Trademark Rights In The Metaverse, Cheng Lim Saw, Zheng Wen Samuel Chan Jan 2024

The Subsistence And Enforcement Of Copyright And Trademark Rights In The Metaverse, Cheng Lim Saw, Zheng Wen Samuel Chan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The metaverse has been widely hailed as a symbol of technological progress, presenting an immersive virtual realm that has the potential to transform how individuals engage in social and commercial activities. However, this conception of a borderless virtual world - which purportedly transcends the capabilities and reach of Web 2.0 - sits uncomfortably with the territorial nature of intellectual property rights. This chapter examines the complexities surrounding the subsistence and enforcement of intellectual property rights within the metaverse, with a specific focus on copyright and trademarks. Especial attention is paid to issues concerning choice of law and jurisdiction. Finally, the …


The False Hope Of Stewardship In The Context Of Controlling Shareholders: Making Sense Out Of The Global Transplant Of A Legal Misfit, Dan W. Puchniak Jan 2024

The False Hope Of Stewardship In The Context Of Controlling Shareholders: Making Sense Out Of The Global Transplant Of A Legal Misfit, Dan W. Puchniak

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In 2010, the United Kingdom issued the world’s first stewardship code. Since then, stewardship codes have been issued in many of the world’s leading economies and now exist in 20 jurisdictions on six continents, with more jurisdictions considering adopting them. In the UK, stewardship codes were promised to transform rationally passive institutional investors into actively engaged shareholders to prevent another Global Financial Crisis. More recently, the new 2020 UK Code has been promoted as a mechanism to save the planet by incentivizing institutional investors to pressure listed companies to focus on ESG.There is a vigorous debate and developed literature on …


Conceptualising State-Centric Mediation: An Analysis Of China's Foreign Investment Complaints Mechanism, Mark Mclaughlin Jan 2024

Conceptualising State-Centric Mediation: An Analysis Of China's Foreign Investment Complaints Mechanism, Mark Mclaughlin

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

This article argues that China's foreign investor complaints system constitutes 'state-centric investment mediation'. The Rules on Handling Complaints of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, which entered into force on 1 October 2020, place a state agency in the position of facilitating negotiations between a foreign investor and the agency being complained against. The prospects for this complaints system depend on how the state-as-mediator dynamic is perceived by foreign investors. To this end, it will be argued that settlement agreements reached pursuant to this system may be enforceable under the Singapore Convention on Mediation in certain circumstances. Investors and government entities operating similar systems …


Criminal Law In Myanmar, Wing Cheong Chan, Mark Mcbride, Neil: Yeo Morgan Dec 2023

Criminal Law In Myanmar, Wing Cheong Chan, Mark Mcbride, Neil: Yeo Morgan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

A commentary on the Myanmar Penal Code that describes and critically evaluates the general principles of criminal responsibility contained in the Code.This book was originally published in English in 2016. It was republished in Burmese in 2023.


China’S Changing Perspective On The Wto: From Aspiration, Assimilation To Alienation, Henry S. Gao Dec 2023

China’S Changing Perspective On The Wto: From Aspiration, Assimilation To Alienation, Henry S. Gao

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Since its accession to the WTO twenty years ago, China’s image has shifted from a good student aspiring to assimilate itself into the multilateral trading system to one that is increasingly alienated from key WTO principles. How has China’s perspective on WTO been evolving? What are the reasons behind China’s changing perspective? This chapter addresses these questions from the Chinese perspective with a comprehensive analysis of the key moments in China’s first two decades in the WTO, followed by practical suggestions on how to engage China more constructively in the WTO and beyond.


Hague Service Convention Enters Into Force In Singapore, Adeline Chong Dec 2023

Hague Service Convention Enters Into Force In Singapore, Adeline Chong

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Singapore acceded to the Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters (‘Service Convention’) on 16 May 2023. It has now entered into force in Singapore on 1 December 2023. Two declarations were lodged: first, against Article 8(1) objecting to the direct service of judicial documents upon persons in Singapore through foreign diplomatic or consular agents unless the documents are to be served upon a national of the State from which the documents originate; and secondly, objecting to service of judicial and extrajudicial documents in Singapore by the methods of transmission set …


Deontics And Time In Contracts: An Executable Semantics For The L4 Dsl, Seng Joe Watt, Oliver Goodenough, Meng Weng (Huang Mingrong) Wong Dec 2023

Deontics And Time In Contracts: An Executable Semantics For The L4 Dsl, Seng Joe Watt, Oliver Goodenough, Meng Weng (Huang Mingrong) Wong

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Existing approaches to modelling contracts often rely on deontic logic to reason about norms, and only treat time qualitatively. Using L4, a textual domain specific language (DSL) for the law, we offer a more operational interpretation of norms, based on states and transitions, that also accounts for the granular timing of events. In this paper, we present a higher-level rendering of the loan agreement from Flood & Goodenough in L4, and an accompanying operational semantics amenable to execution and static analysis. We also implement this semantics in Maude and show how this lets us visualize the execution of the loan …


Corporate Purpose Beyond Borders: A Key To Saving Our Planet Or Colonialism Repackaged?, Roza Nurgozhayeva, Dan W. Puchniak Dec 2023

Corporate Purpose Beyond Borders: A Key To Saving Our Planet Or Colonialism Repackaged?, Roza Nurgozhayeva, Dan W. Puchniak

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The “corporate purpose” debate, while extremely important, has largely been built on an understanding of corporate law and governance that is local – jurisdiction bound – while the issue of climate change is global; pollution does not respect jurisdictional borders. Despite this, in practice, states, multinational corporations, and transnational organizations are increasingly using formal and informal mechanisms to shape sustainable corporate governance beyond jurisdictional borders – a colossal development that has been hiding in plain sight.This article develops a taxonomy for identifying and analyzing the forces driving corporate purpose beyond borders: state-based, firm-based, and organization-based “global corporate law and governance”. …


Distinguishing The Fair Use And Fair Dealing Doctrines In Copyright Law—Much Ado About Nothing?, Cheng Lim Saw Dec 2023

Distinguishing The Fair Use And Fair Dealing Doctrines In Copyright Law—Much Ado About Nothing?, Cheng Lim Saw

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

It is often assumed and taken for granted that there is a gulf separating the fair use and fair dealing doctrines in copyright law arising principally from the ‘open v closed’ distinction that is made of the statutory schemes in the respective fair use and fair dealing jurisdictions.It will be argued in this article, after a comparative and comprehensive study of the case law and of the various (overlapping) fairness factors, that this distinction merely reflects a difference as to legislative form, rather than the substance of the fairness analysis that may ultimately bear on the outcome of a fairness …


"Takings" And "Givings" In Singapore: Land Law And Policy In The Search For Justice, Rachel Phang Dec 2023

"Takings" And "Givings" In Singapore: Land Law And Policy In The Search For Justice, Rachel Phang

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In the United States and globally, cities are increasingly plagued by deepening housing crisis and widening economic inequality. In the face of these crises, this Article focuses on the potentially powerful role for land law and policy in the search for justice. Specifically, it does so by reference to two unusual yet illuminating choices of theory and application: the case study of Singapore, and the school of thought of Georgism, both of which accord inordinate and paramount importance to land. Singapore’s land law and policy have been characterized by extensive takings and givings of land. In consequence, the State owns …


An Idealist’S Approach For Smart Contract Correctness, Duy Tai Nguyen, Hong Long Pham, Jun Sun, Quang Loc Le Nov 2023

An Idealist’S Approach For Smart Contract Correctness, Duy Tai Nguyen, Hong Long Pham, Jun Sun, Quang Loc Le

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

In this work, we experiment an idealistic approach for smart contract correctness verification and enforcement, based on the assumption that developers are either desired or required to provide a correctness specification due to the importance of smart contracts and the fact that they are immutable after deployment. We design a static verification system with a specification language which supports fully compositional verification (with the help of function specifications, contract invariants, loop invariants and call invariants). Our approach has been implemented in a tool named iContract which automatically proves the correctness of a smart contract statically or checks the unverified part …


The Relationship Between Constitutional Equality And Substantive Review, Wei Yao, Kenny Chng Nov 2023

The Relationship Between Constitutional Equality And Substantive Review, Wei Yao, Kenny Chng

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

General equality rights in written constitutions – rights stating the ideal of equality without specifying categories of impermissible differentiation – have often been effected through the idea of equality as rationality. Equality as rationality demands that differentiations between like entities have to be rationally justifiable. Such equality rights are applicable to legislation and executive action. This presents a prima facie overlap with substantive review in common law administrative law, since substantive review is also concerned about the rational justifiability of executive action. This raises three questions: (1) Are both sets of legal principles indeed similar? (2) Have courts managed to …


Face Recognition Under Adverse Viewing Conditions: Implications For Eyewitness Testimony, Charles C. F. Or, Denise Y. Lim, Siyuan Chen, Alan L. F. Lee Oct 2023

Face Recognition Under Adverse Viewing Conditions: Implications For Eyewitness Testimony, Charles C. F. Or, Denise Y. Lim, Siyuan Chen, Alan L. F. Lee

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Eyewitness testimony forms an important component in deciding whether a case can be prosecuted. Yet, many criminal perpetrators deliberately conceal their faces with disguises or under dim lighting, undermining eyewitness accuracy. This article reviews recent studies to characterize the factors that impair face recognition performance, specifically, various forms of face disguise (e.g., face masks, sunglasses) and different lighting conditions. Research shows that identification accuracy, alongside eyewitness confidence and decision bias, all affect the reliability of eyewitness accounts. A consistent finding across studies is that face-identification accuracy can be improved by matching the viewing conditions during the police lineup with those …


Impartiality And The Construction Of Trust In Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Stavros Brekoulakis, Anna Howard Oct 2023

Impartiality And The Construction Of Trust In Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Stavros Brekoulakis, Anna Howard

Singapore International Dispute Resolution Academy

This article analyses impartiality in investor-State dispute settlement (ISDS) by identifying the way that the parties’ trust in arbitrators is constructed. Drawing on the findings of a large-scale empirical project, it questions the applicability of an orthodox judicial doctrine of impartiality to ISDS on the grounds that trust in arbitrators is constructed on a fundamentally different basis from that of trust in judges. The primary feature of a judicial doctrine of impartiality is that trust is founded on an absolutist approach to impartiality which is intended to ensure that judges have no predispositions to parties. In contrast, trust in ISDS …


A Review Of The 2022/23 International Moots Season, Siyuan Chen Oct 2023

A Review Of The 2022/23 International Moots Season, Siyuan Chen

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

This is the ninth annual review of Singapore’s performance in international moot court competitions. The preceding season (2021/22) had set a high bar, considering that Singapore law schools took the top two spots in the NICA Law School Rankings. The NICA rankings are based on how law schools throughout the world perform in various international moots, with points weighted according to the scale of the competition. With six championships (including two Grand Slams) as well as a third championship final appearance in the Jessup, SMU took top spot in the NICA rankings for the second time in its history.


Examining The New Standard Of Care For Medical Advice And Patients With Mental Health Conditions, Gary Kok Yew Chan Oct 2023

Examining The New Standard Of Care For Medical Advice And Patients With Mental Health Conditions, Gary Kok Yew Chan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In 2017, the Singapore Court of Appeal in Hii Chii Kok v Oii Peng Jin London Lucien (Hii Chii Kok) favoured a patient-centric approach towards issues of providing medical advice. Section 37 of the Singapore Civil Law Act, which took effect on 1 July 2022, stipulates that the standard of care in giving medical advice to patients is based on peer professional opinion. This article will analyse, with reference to other common law jurisdictions, how the new statutory provision applies to patients with mental disorders under the Singapore Mental Capacity Act 2008. It will provide an interpretation of s 37 …


Unpacking Constitutional Literacy, De Maartje Visser, Brian Christopher Jones Oct 2023

Unpacking Constitutional Literacy, De Maartje Visser, Brian Christopher Jones

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The contemporary crisis in relation to constitutional literacy relates not to the lack of knowledge that citizens possess about fundamental constitutional texts, but to the considerable lack of development in relation to what constitutional literacy itself entails. This article accordingly unpacks the notion of constitutional literacy: its importance, its characteristics, its variable nature, and its potential downsides. Using a comparative lens, the article invites reflection on the role that we expect citizens to play in our democracies, and especially the associated knowledge and skills required for successful state performance. We suggest that constitutional literacy is exceptionally multifaceted and fluid in …