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Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Climate Justice And The Etos, Sara L. Seck Sep 2021

Climate Justice And The Etos, Sara L. Seck

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This chapter will explore whether the Maastricht Principles have contributed to the clarification of ETOs for human rights in relation to climate justice. I will first consider some conceptual issues of relevance to both the ETOs and the quest for climate justice. Second, with reference to several examples, I will illustrate how the concept of extraterritoriality may create confusion rather than clarity in the climate context. I will then illustrate how this confusion may be overcome if attention is paid to the precise nature of the relationships at issue to which obligations attach, rather than reinforcing the bright line of ...


A Critical Appraisal Of The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Aug 2021

A Critical Appraisal Of The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Despite Africa’s fragmented sub-regional economic regimes, the AfCFTA Agreement represents a significant moment for African States to harness the continent’s international trade and investment opportunities on their own terms. The AfCFTA Agreement initiates a set of complex and lengthy negotiations with a view to reducing tariffs, galvanize industrial production and boost Africa’s trade. The success of Africa’s reinvigorated liberal internationalism embodied in the AfCFTA Agreement depends on a host of factors that primarily includes its effective implementation.

This Chapter situates the AfCFTA Agreement in the historical and contemporary contexts of the mixed performance of sub-regional economic ...


Pathways To Just, Equitable And Sustainable Trade And Investment Regimes, Tomaso Ferrando, Nicolas Perrone, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe, Kangping Du Jul 2021

Pathways To Just, Equitable And Sustainable Trade And Investment Regimes, Tomaso Ferrando, Nicolas Perrone, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe, Kangping Du

Reports & Public Policy Documents

In this report we discuss what a Fair, Just and Equitable approach to the global, liberalized and hyper-competitive system of global trade and investments should be. The global market for goods and capital affect the life of producers and workers, stimulates the run towards cheaper products and puts farmers and workers against each other. The current vision of trade and investments is based on the silencing of gendered and reproductive labour and is responsible for the increase in inequality and relative poverty. Furthermore, it stimulates the extraction of commodities and contributes to the degradation of the planet, it has a ...


Reflections On The Value Of Socio-Legal Approaches To International Economic Law In Africa, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Jul 2021

Reflections On The Value Of Socio-Legal Approaches To International Economic Law In Africa, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In their introductory essay to the 2021 Chicago Journal of International Law Symposium, Daniel Abebe, Adam Chilton, and Tom Ginsburg offer an account of “the rise of the social science approach to international law, explain the basics of the method, and advocate for its continued adoption.”

This Essay critically assesses how and why one might use socio-legally inspired methods (analytical, empirical, and normative) for the study of international economic law (IEL) in Africa. It illustrates the empirical method’s importance in understanding one of the most challenging aspects of the study of IEL in Africa: capturing the data and dynamism ...


Cash Back: A Yellowhead Institute Red Paper, Shiri Pasternak, Naiomi Metallic, Yumi Numata, Anita Sekharan, Jasmyn Galley, Samuel Wong May 2021

Cash Back: A Yellowhead Institute Red Paper, Shiri Pasternak, Naiomi Metallic, Yumi Numata, Anita Sekharan, Jasmyn Galley, Samuel Wong

Reports & Public Policy Documents

Picking up from Land Back, the first Red Paper by Yellowhead about the project of land reclamation, Cash Back looks at how the dispossession of Indigenous lands created a dependency on the state due to the loss of economic livelihood. Cash Back is about restitution from the perspective of stolen wealth.

From Canada’s perspective, the value of Indigenous lands rests on what can be extracted and commodified. The economy has been built on the transformation of Indigenous lands and waterways into corporate profit and national power. In place of their riches in territory, Canada set up for First Nations ...


Critiquing Instrumentalism In High Education: Lessons From Teaching As A Meditative Inquiry, Ashwani Kumar, Nayha Acharya May 2021

Critiquing Instrumentalism In High Education: Lessons From Teaching As A Meditative Inquiry, Ashwani Kumar, Nayha Acharya

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In this conceptual and self-reflective essay, the authors begin from the premise that the contemporary higher educational institutions in Canada and many other parts of the world have increasingly tended to focus on instrumental teaching, rooted in neoliberal and capitalist ideals of societal progress through economic development. The result is that higher education centralizes making students career ready, rather than the holistic development of the student. Critical of this, Ashwani Kumar (professor of Education) and Nayha Acharya (professor of Law), undertake a collaborative effort to discuss how Kumar’s theoretical and practical concept of teaching as meditative inquiry can be ...


Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Apr 2021

Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Article 20 AfCFTA establishes a Dispute Settlement Mechanism, the Protocol on Rules and Procedures on the Settlement of Disputes (‘the AfCFTA DSM Protocol’; ‘Protocol’) and a Dispute Settlement Body (‘DSB’) for resolving disputes between State Parties. The AfCFTA dispute settlement mechanism is a central element of the AfCFTA as it provides security and predictability to the regional trading system (Art 4 AfCFTA-DSM Protocol). The AfCFTA dispute settlement mechanism will ‘preserve the rights and obligations of State Parties under the Agreement and clarify the existing provisions of the Agreement in accordance with customary rules of interpretation of public international law’ (Art ...


International Decision Commentary: Houngue Éric Noudehouenou V. Republic Of Benin, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Apr 2021

International Decision Commentary: Houngue Éric Noudehouenou V. Republic Of Benin, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The judgment in Houngue Éric Noudehouenou v. Republic of Benin adds to the growing body of human rights jurisprudence on national electoral processes in Africa’s international courts. The decision demonstrates the growing importance of Africa’s regional and sub-regional courts as an alternative venue for opposition politicians, activists, and citizens to mobilize and challenge election processes and constitutional amendment processes where the playing field in their state is uneven. In turn, it reinforces the pivotal role of the regional and sub-regional courts in consolidating democratic governance in Africa, and reveals the limits of assessing the performance of Africa’s ...


Africanization And The Reform Of International Investment Law, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Apr 2021

Africanization And The Reform Of International Investment Law, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Recent trends in reforms by African states in the field of International Investment Law (IIL) has been dubbed as the Africanization of IIL. These important debates regarding reform of IIL in Africa foreground innovative aspects of International Investment Agreements (IIA) in contrast to the traditional IIL regime. The debates also remind us of the relative lack of African voices in the global IIL reform agenda. There is however little research that critically analyze the Africanization of IIL thesis.

This article undertakes this analysis. Drawing on TWAIL, it characterizes Africanization of IIL into ‘moderate’ and ‘radical’ reforms. The article analyzes the ...


Testing For Consistency: Certain Digital Tax Measures And Wto Non-Discrimination, Okanga Ogbu Okanga Feb 2021

Testing For Consistency: Certain Digital Tax Measures And Wto Non-Discrimination, Okanga Ogbu Okanga

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Few issues have challenged tax policymakers and commentators as much as digital taxation has in recent years. Ongoing efforts to reconstruct the rules of international tax to “properly” govern the taxation of the global digital economy have evoked some important tax and trade related considerations. As regards the latter, unilateral attempts by various states – partly spurred on by a lack of multilateral consensus – to tax nonresident digitalized businesses threaten to disrupt international trade relations, with threats of trade war exchanged between some World Trade Organization (WTO) member states over the propriety of the proposed tax measures. As the conversation on ...


Shadow Pandemic: Covid-19 Lockdown Brings Increased Risk Of Violence For Rohingya Women And Girls, Sara Edwards Jan 2021

Shadow Pandemic: Covid-19 Lockdown Brings Increased Risk Of Violence For Rohingya Women And Girls, Sara Edwards

Law in a Post-Pandemic World

This blog is a reflection on the increases in gender-based violence (GBV) against Rohingya women in Bangladesh due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Enemy At The Gates: Online Dispute Resolution In The Time Of Covid-19, Justin Monahan Jan 2021

Enemy At The Gates: Online Dispute Resolution In The Time Of Covid-19, Justin Monahan

Law in a Post-Pandemic World

At one time, Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) was considered the future of dispute resolution. With the arrival of COVID-19, the future has rushed up to meet us. Even before the pandemic, the benefits of ODR—convenience, comfort, efficiency, and more equal power distribution—were gradually increasing its popularity. But the arrival of COVID-19 has caused this popularity to spike, transforming ODR from a convenient novelty into an absolute necessity for dispute resolution.

But ODR is subject to the limitations of its online platform. Dispute resolution methods may not function online the same way they do in person. With this difference ...


The Effects Of Covid-19 On A Damaged System: How The Pandemic Exacerbated The Violation Of International Human Rights In The United States Immigration Detention Facilities, Alyson Sutton Jan 2021

The Effects Of Covid-19 On A Damaged System: How The Pandemic Exacerbated The Violation Of International Human Rights In The United States Immigration Detention Facilities, Alyson Sutton

Law in a Post-Pandemic World

This blog post highlights several issues within immigration detention facilities in the United States that violate International Human Rights Laws and how the pandemic further exacerbated them.


The Disruption Of Covid-19: How A Virtual World Creates Opportunity For Improvement In The Criminal Justice System’S Treatment Of Complainants Of Sexual Violence, Leah Roberston Jan 2021

The Disruption Of Covid-19: How A Virtual World Creates Opportunity For Improvement In The Criminal Justice System’S Treatment Of Complainants Of Sexual Violence, Leah Roberston

Law in a Post-Pandemic World

This paper argues that the COVID-19 pandemic has normalized video conferencing within the legal system such that survivors ought to be able to routinely testify outside of the court environment. Though there have always been high rates of sexualized violence, the onset of the pandemic has led to increased rates of sexualized violence, which could lead to greater numbers of trials prosecuting perpetrators. However, only a small amount of complainants turn to the court as a form of justice. This is likely due to the inhumane conditions inflicted on complainants during the trial process. The pandemic has revealed that the ...


Private Records, Sexual Activity Evidence, And The Charter Of Rights And Freedoms, Elaine Craig Jan 2021

Private Records, Sexual Activity Evidence, And The Charter Of Rights And Freedoms, Elaine Craig

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In December 2018, Parliament amended the Criminal Code to add a new regime dictating the process and admissibility criteria for private records in the possession of an accused in a sexual assault proceedings. The legislation also includes new procedural requirements for applications to introduce evidence of a complainant’s other sexual activity under section 276 of the Criminal Code. Several courts have concluded that various parts of these new provisions – which some have nicknamed the Ghomeshi Rules – are unconstitutional. The problem with these decisions is that, in each one, the court has failed to properly balance the competing interests at ...


Intersections Of Environmental Justice And Sustainable Development: Framing The Issues, Sumudu A. Atapattu, Carmen G. Gonzalez, Sara L. Seck Jan 2021

Intersections Of Environmental Justice And Sustainable Development: Framing The Issues, Sumudu A. Atapattu, Carmen G. Gonzalez, Sara L. Seck

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This chapter proceeds as follows. Section 1.2 describes the evolution of the concept of sustainable development from the 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It discusses contem- porary degrowth and green growth movements, before introducing the relatively novel concept of just sustainabilities, a synthesis of environmental justice and sustainable development. Section 1.3 de!nes environmental justice and discusses its relationship to human rights and the social pillar of sustainable development, reflecting on which dimensions of environmental justice are well reflected in this book and which proved more ...


Mental Illness And Professional Regulation: The Duty To Report A Fellow Lawyer To The Society, Andrew Flavelle Martin Jan 2021

Mental Illness And Professional Regulation: The Duty To Report A Fellow Lawyer To The Society, Andrew Flavelle Martin

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Lawyers have a largely overlooked duty to report other lawyers to the law society in a range of circumstances. This duty contemplates mental illness, explicitly or implicitly, as a reportable condition and thus engages issues of stigma and discrimination. This article analyzes this reporting duty with a focus on its implications for lawyers with disabilities. The article begins by examining the history and text of the rule and considering several legal problems it presents. It then canvasses law societies’ duties to their members with disabilities under human rights law and analyzes how the duty to report interacts with human rights ...


Human Rights And Transnational Organized Crime, Robert Currie, Sarah Douglas Jan 2021

Human Rights And Transnational Organized Crime, Robert Currie, Sarah Douglas

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This chapter will scrutinize the points at which these two legal regimes intersect with and infuse each other. It will proceed in three sections. The first section will provide a brief overview of the international human rights law system, specifically tailored to ground the following parts. The second section will examine the means by which protection is given to the human rights of individuals who are targeted for criminal investigation and prosecution as a result of their alleged involvement in TOC (referred to for efficiency as “accused persons” or “the accused”). It will first briefly explain the means by which ...


Beyond The Cooperation-Conflict Conundrum: Proceedings Of An Arctic Security Webinar Series, Aldo Chircop Jan 2021

Beyond The Cooperation-Conflict Conundrum: Proceedings Of An Arctic Security Webinar Series, Aldo Chircop

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The origins of the conference, for which this volume is the published record, go back to the fall of 2019 and the Canadian Pugwash Group’s (CPG’s) annual general meeting. Having just held a major policy conference at the University of Ottawa on “Speeding Towards the Abyss: Contemporary Arms Racing and Global Security,” the CPG was considering what should be the subject of its next policy conference. Arctic security, in all its dimensions, quickly was identified as the theme to pursue. Planning got underway with a view to holding the event in the fall of 2020 and finding suitable ...


Trust And Efficiency In Tax Administration: The Silent Role Of Policy-Based Legitimate Expectation In Nigeria, Okanga Ogbu Okanga Jan 2021

Trust And Efficiency In Tax Administration: The Silent Role Of Policy-Based Legitimate Expectation In Nigeria, Okanga Ogbu Okanga

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The interaction between tax administration, discretion, and legitimate expectation has been widely explored. However, the subject has traditionally been approached from the perspective of legality and deeply focussed on how courts adjudicate cases bordering on the frustration of legitimate expectation by tax authorities. This is unsurprising, given that legitimate expectation evolved as a judicial remedy to check administrative unfairness and to provide certainty and trust in public administration. Cases show that this remedy is rarely accorded by the courts, which makes its efficiency questionable. Using Nigeria as a case study, this doctrinal paper explores the prospects of taking an alternative ...


Theorizing Developmental Regionalism In Narratives Of African Regional Trade Agreement, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Dec 2020

Theorizing Developmental Regionalism In Narratives Of African Regional Trade Agreement, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

There is a gap in the legal scholarship on African regional trade agreements (RTAs) that links law and development to narratives of developmental regionalism. This article undertakes a critical analysis of the ‘developmental regionalism’ paradigm as they have been applied in the study of African RTAs. The article identifies three areas of critical intervention to address the incoherence of developmental regionalism in Africa: limitation in theory; narrow conceptualization; and an insufficient attention to the role of law. First, to address the gap in theorizing the ‘development’ in developmental regionalism, this article makes the case for an explicit linking of Law ...


Legal Ethics And Judicial Law Clerks: A New Doctrinal Account, Andrew Flavelle Martin Nov 2020

Legal Ethics And Judicial Law Clerks: A New Doctrinal Account, Andrew Flavelle Martin

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Judicial law clerks are largely overlooked in the Canadian legal literature. This article
provides a new doctrinal account of the ethical obligations of law clerks that is rooted
in the fact that at least some of the major work of law clerks constitutes the practice of
law—and thus that law clerks’ ethics are lawyers’ ethics. It argues that the lawyer’s
duty to encourage respect for the administration of justice transposes some of the
ethical obligations of the judge into professional obligations of the law clerk. The
article also argues that the law societies’ regulatory and disciplinary jurisdiction over ...


Ag-Gag Laws, Animal Rights Activism, And The Constitution: What Is Protected Speech?, Jodi Lazare Nov 2020

Ag-Gag Laws, Animal Rights Activism, And The Constitution: What Is Protected Speech?, Jodi Lazare

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This article examines the constitutionality of ag-gag legislation that has recently been adopted by two Canadian provinces and is on the horizon in others. Ag-gag legislation prohibits activities such as trespass onto agricultural animal operations, gaining entry onto agriculture operations using false pretences, and interfering with the transport of farmed animals to slaughter. The analysis draws on case law and literature interpreting section 2(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and engages with scholarship related to animal rights activism, American ag-gag legislation, and feminist animal studies to argue that ag-gag laws violate the fundamental freedoms protected by ...


Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Nov 2020

Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement (AfCFTA) will add a new dispute settlement system to the plethora of judicial mechanisms designed to resolve trade disputes in Africa. Against the discontent of Member States and limited impact the existing highly legalized trade dispute settlement mechanisms have had on regional economic integration in Africa, this paper undertakes a preliminary assessment of the AfCFTA Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM). In particular, the paper situates the AfCFTA-DSM in the overall discontent and unsupportive practices of African States with highly legalized dispute settlement systems and similar WTO-Styled DSMs among other shortcomings. Notwithstanding the transplantation of ...


Mining For Equality: Soft Targets And Hard Floors For Boards Of Directors?, Keith Macmaster, Sara L. Seck Oct 2020

Mining For Equality: Soft Targets And Hard Floors For Boards Of Directors?, Keith Macmaster, Sara L. Seck

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In this chapter, we consider the CBCA amendments in light of broader concerns associated with Canadian-based mining companies operating within and outside of Canada, including violations of rights of women and girls. The industrial mining sector is male dominated, and has faced accusations and lawsuits over gender bias, violence (including sexual violence) against women and children, health and safety problems, and environmental harms. The 2019 report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls (MMIWG) explicitly linked resource extraction with violence against Indigenous women and girls. Among the calls to justice in the report are five ...


Africa’S Participation In International Economic Law In The 21st Century: An Introduction, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe, Ohio Omiunu, Amaka Vanni, Regis Y. Simo, Luwam Dirar Oct 2020

Africa’S Participation In International Economic Law In The 21st Century: An Introduction, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe, Ohio Omiunu, Amaka Vanni, Regis Y. Simo, Luwam Dirar

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This is the introduction to the Manchester Journal of International Economic Law Symposium Issue based on selected papers presented at the Fourth Biennial Conference of the African International Economic Law Network at Strathmore Law School, Nairobi, Kenya in July 2019. The introduction also reflects on four important spaces for the consolidation of the scholarship, teaching and research, practice and policy relating to international economic law in Africa.


Mediation, The Rule Of Law, And Dialogue, Nayha Acharya Oct 2020

Mediation, The Rule Of Law, And Dialogue, Nayha Acharya

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In this paper the author urges discussion on the legitimacy of mediation processes, a discussion that is not prevalent in legal scholarship. The author argues that mediation outcomes can be inconsistent with the rule of law given that the same case can have a different outcome depending on whether it is litigated or mediated. On the other hand, crucial and valuable aspects of mediation can result in a presumption of legitimacy. With the rule of law critique in mind, the author discusses how dialogue theory can be used to improve upon the mediation process.

The author begins by exploring the ...


Introduction To The Inaugural Issue Of The African Journal Of International Economic Law, James Thuo Gathii, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Oct 2020

Introduction To The Inaugural Issue Of The African Journal Of International Economic Law, James Thuo Gathii, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Welcome to the inaugural issue of the African Journal of International Economic Law(AfJIEL) Our goal is to fill a gap in journals covering international economic law relating to Africa and the Global South This first issue fulfills our promise to launch the AfJIEL as announced at the 2019 African International Economic Law Network conference in Nairobi


Wrongful Extradition: Reforming The Committal Phase Of Canada's Extradition Law, Robert Currie Sep 2020

Wrongful Extradition: Reforming The Committal Phase Of Canada's Extradition Law, Robert Currie

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

There has recently been an upswing in interest around extradition in Canada, particularly in light of the high-profile and troubling case of Hassan Diab, who was extradited to France on the basis of what turned out to be an ill-founded case. Diab’s case highlights some of the problems with Canada’s Extradition Act and proceedings thereunder. This paper argues that: the “committal stage” of extradition proceedings, involving a judicial hearing into the basis of the requesting state’s case, is unfair and may not be compliant with the Charter; and that the manner in which the Crown conducts these ...


Unmanned Remotely Operated Search And Rescue Ships In The Canadian Arctic: Exploring The Opportunities, Risk Dimensions And Governance Implications, Jinho Yoo, Floris Goerlandt, Aldo Chircop Aug 2020

Unmanned Remotely Operated Search And Rescue Ships In The Canadian Arctic: Exploring The Opportunities, Risk Dimensions And Governance Implications, Jinho Yoo, Floris Goerlandt, Aldo Chircop

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This chapter is a proactive risk exploration of hypothetical remotely operated search and rescue (SAR) ships in the Canadian Arctic. The harsh and remote environment in the region, combined with complicated coastlines and many uncharted or poorly charted traffic routes, makes it one of the most challenging SAR areas. Canada has committed itself to safety, environmental protection and sovereign presence in the area by maintaining joint SAR centres of federal government departments and mobilizing private volunteers. The characteristics of Canadian SAR response in the Arctic rest with its high dependency on heavy equipment such as aircraft, helicopters and icebreakers, entailing ...