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Osgoode Hall Law School of York University

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Access To Justice And The Legal Profession: Three Questions, Trevor C. W. Farrow Apr 2024

Access To Justice And The Legal Profession: Three Questions, Trevor C. W. Farrow

Articles & Book Chapters

There is an increasing recognition – from all sectors of the legal system, including the former Chief Justice of Canada – that justice is in crisis. Even though we have some of the best judges, lawyers, and law schools in the world, delays in the civil, criminal, and family justice systems are massive and increasing. Costs of legal help are going up. An increasing number of people are trying to represent themselves. Legal aid is available only for the least well-off and only for a limited range of services. Many communities feel alienated and do not see themselves represented by …


Somethings Old, Somethings New And A Lot That’S Blue: Political Economic Reflections On Worker Subordination And The Law In Contemporary Capitalism, Eric Tucker Jan 2024

Somethings Old, Somethings New And A Lot That’S Blue: Political Economic Reflections On Worker Subordination And The Law In Contemporary Capitalism, Eric Tucker

All Papers

Debates over worker subordination are central to discussions of the efficacy of protective labour and employment law whose central mission in a capitalist political economy, after all, is to reduce but not eliminate subordination. When protective labour and employment law seems to be fulfilling its mission discussions of worker subordination seem to ebb, but the topic becomes more urgent as the efficacy of the law declines. Not surprisingly, as labour law’s efficacy has been declining over the past several decades, we are in the midst of a revival of debates over worker subordination, the premise of this special issue. While …


Enforcing International Human Rights Law Against Corporations, Barnali Choudhury Jan 2024

Enforcing International Human Rights Law Against Corporations, Barnali Choudhury

All Papers

International human rights law is generally thought to apply directly to states, not to corporations since the latter is not a subject of international law. Some domestic courts are, however, enforcing these norms against corporations in domestic settings. Canadian courts have, for instance, recognized that corporations can be liable for breach of customary international law norms while UK courts have enforced international human rights norms indirectly against corporations relying on a combination of domestic corporate and tort law.

At the same time, some states are choosing to enforce international human rights norms against corporations using regulatory initiatives. These initiatives, known …


Corporations As International Economic Law Actors, Barnali Choudhury Jan 2024

Corporations As International Economic Law Actors, Barnali Choudhury

All Papers

Actors in international law are presumed to be states. Yet in the international economic law arena, the corporation is one of the most prominent non-state actors. Indeed, in some instances, the corporation may even be more influential than the state in some arenas of international economic law. This short piece examines three instances of this influence. First, it looks at the role of corporations in law-making; second, it examines corporations’ role in monitoring and compliance; and, third, it explores corporations’ legal personality in international economic law. Finding corporations’ immense influence on law-making and monitoring and compliance, combined with a robust …


Labour, Labour Law And Capitalist Rent-Seeking: Rentier Capitalism And Labour In Historical Perspective, Eric Tucker Jan 2024

Labour, Labour Law And Capitalist Rent-Seeking: Rentier Capitalism And Labour In Historical Perspective, Eric Tucker

All Papers

The rise of rentier capitalism in advanced capitalist countries has detrimentally affected large numbers of worker and impaired the efficacy of protective labour and employment laws. However, capitalist rent-seeking is not unique to rentier capitalism, but rather has taken a variety of forms over time. This chapter begins by exploring the evolving meaning of rent and changing practices of capitalist rent-seeking. It then considers the ways in which workers responded to those practices in both rent-rich and rent-poor sectors of the economy, including through the enactment of labour and employment laws appropriate to, but only partially successful in addressing labour …


The Constitution And Charter In 2022: The Court, The Chief Justice, And Justice Brown, Jamie Cameron Jan 2024

The Constitution And Charter In 2022: The Court, The Chief Justice, And Justice Brown, Jamie Cameron

All Papers

Osgoode Hall’s 26th Annual Constitutional Cases Conference – the 2022 Year in Review – was held on April 14, 2023. This paper is drawn from the Opening Address, which provides an overview of the Supreme Court’s jurisprudence and is a longstanding feature of the conference. As it explains, the Court’s thirteen decisions in 2022 focused almost exclusively on the Charter’s legal rights and remedies, though R. v. Sharma considered and dismissed a claim under s.15, and the Court rendered one decision on public interest standing. The paper provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the 2022 jurisprudence, adding …


Care Work, Jennifer Nedelsky Dec 2023

Care Work, Jennifer Nedelsky

Articles & Book Chapters

Care is routinely provided both as a commodity (paid care) and as unpaid care, usually by women. Virtually all care is treated as of low value, and care givers, paid and unpaid, are seen as low status. This devaluing of care and those who do it make care a major part of hierarchy and inequality. I argue that the solution is not more commodification (like wages for housework), but a norm of universal, unpaid care-giving. This would be made possible by a corresponding norm of limiting paid work to 30 hours a week. Part Time for All: A Care Manifesto …


May – November 2023 Online Readership And Usage Report: Osgoode Digital Commons And Ssrn, Maggie Tadros Dec 2023

May – November 2023 Online Readership And Usage Report: Osgoode Digital Commons And Ssrn, Maggie Tadros

Librarian Publications & Presentations

No abstract provided.


Bibliography On Indigenous Rights In Canada, 1995-2023, Leslie Haddock, Kent Mcneil Dec 2023

Bibliography On Indigenous Rights In Canada, 1995-2023, Leslie Haddock, Kent Mcneil

All Papers

No abstract provided.


“The Biggest Problem With You…”: Racial Profiling And Canada’S Program Of Extra-Territorial Migrant Interdiction, Simon Wallace, Benjamin Perryman, Gábor Lukács, Sean Rehaag Nov 2023

“The Biggest Problem With You…”: Racial Profiling And Canada’S Program Of Extra-Territorial Migrant Interdiction, Simon Wallace, Benjamin Perryman, Gábor Lukács, Sean Rehaag

All Papers

On April 3, 2019, Andrea and Attila Kiss tried to board an Air Canada Rouge flight from Budapest to Toronto. Andrea’s sister was ailing, and the couple planned to visit Canada for two months to support her family. Their travel was legitimate and lawful. Their documents were in order. But when they lined up to check in, Andrea made a mental note of a fact that was about to become relevant: as members of the Hungarian Roma community, they were the only racialized people in line.

Andrea and Attila did not reach the check-in counter. They were stopped and pulled …


Exploring The Importance Of Criminal Legal Aid: A Canadian Perspective, Trevor C. W. Farrow, Marcus Pratt Nov 2023

Exploring The Importance Of Criminal Legal Aid: A Canadian Perspective, Trevor C. W. Farrow, Marcus Pratt

Articles & Book Chapters

There is a growing global recognition that, in order to address the current access to justice crisis, more research, together with a better understanding of data, is needed. This article, through an examination of existing legal aid research primarily in the area of criminal law, explores some of what we know and do not know about the relative benefits and costs of providing different kinds of criminal legal aid services. Although not a comprehensive review of all available research, this article identifies data strengths and gaps and the need for further research and reforms.


Understanding The Neutrals In Canadian Insolvency Proceedings, Stephanie Ben-Ishai, Meena Alnajar Nov 2023

Understanding The Neutrals In Canadian Insolvency Proceedings, Stephanie Ben-Ishai, Meena Alnajar

Articles & Book Chapters

No abstract provided.


Submission To Justice Canada On The Criminalization Of Coercive Control, Janet Mosher, Shushanna Harris, Jennifer Koshan, Wanda Wiegers Oct 2023

Submission To Justice Canada On The Criminalization Of Coercive Control, Janet Mosher, Shushanna Harris, Jennifer Koshan, Wanda Wiegers

Commissioned Reports, Studies and Public Policy Documents

Justice Canada has been holding an engagement process on the issue of whether an offence of coercive control should be added to the Criminal Code. This offence has been proposed in a series of private members bills, most recently, Bill C-332. This submission argues that it is imperative that actors in all legal domains acquire a nuanced and contextual understanding of coercive control derived from an intersectional analysis that attends to how multiple systems of oppression interact to shape the tactics of coercion and control. However, we do not support the criminalization of coercive control, either as a standalone offence …


An Imperial History Of Race-Religion In International Law, Rabiat Akande Oct 2023

An Imperial History Of Race-Religion In International Law, Rabiat Akande

Articles & Book Chapters

More than half a century after the UN’s adoption of the International Convention on the Prohibition of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, a debate has emerged over whether to extend the Convention’s protections to religious discrimination. This Article uses history to intervene in the debate. It argues that racial and religious othering were mutually co-constitutive in the colonial encounter and foundational to the making of modern international law. Moreover, the contemporary proposal to address the interplay of racial and religious othering is hardly new; iterations of that demand surfaced in the earlier twentieth century, as well. By illuminating the centrality …


Research Visibility: Research Platforms, Author Profiles, And Author Rights, Maggie Tadros Oct 2023

Research Visibility: Research Platforms, Author Profiles, And Author Rights, Maggie Tadros

Librarian Publications & Presentations

Presented as part of the "in the Know" lecture series at Osgoode Hall Law School.


Writing And Resisting Colonial Genocide, Heidi Matthews, Luann Good Gingrich, Joel Ong Sep 2023

Writing And Resisting Colonial Genocide, Heidi Matthews, Luann Good Gingrich, Joel Ong

Articles & Book Chapters

Canada has pursued policies of Indigenous assimilation and annihilation, many of which continue today. Among others, these include ‘Indian residential schools’, the Indian Act, welfare-state child removals, the Sixties Scoop, the prohibition of cultural practices, forced sterilization and environmental destruction. We are scholars co-leading a large interdisciplinary programme of research studying ‘colonial genocide’. Our research seeks to understand how historic colonialism and its contemporary manifestations rely on genocidal logic for power and profit. While we begin in Turtle Island, our work has global application. The act of naming is a powerful analytical and political tool, and ‘genocide’ is one of …


Legalbench: A Collaboratively Built Benchmark For Measuring Legal Reasoning In Large Language Models, Neel Guha, Julian Nyarko, Daniel E. Ho, Christopher Ré, Adam Chilton, Aditya Narayana, Alex Chohlas-Wood, Austin Peters, Brandon Waldon, Daniel Rockmore, Diego A. Zambrano, Dmitry Talisman, Enam Hoque, Faiz Surani, Frank Fagan, Galit Sarfaty, Gregory M. Dickinson, Haggai Porat, Jason Hegland, Jessica Wu, Joe Nudell, Joel Niklaus, John Nay, Jonathan H. Choi, Kevin Tobia, Margaret Hagan, Megan Ma, Michael A. Livermore, Nikon Rasumov-Rahe, Nils Holzenberger, Noam Kolt, Peter Henderson, Sean Rehaag, Sharad Goel, Shang Gao, Spencer Williams, Sunny Gandhi, Tom Zur, Varun Iyer, Zehua Li Sep 2023

Legalbench: A Collaboratively Built Benchmark For Measuring Legal Reasoning In Large Language Models, Neel Guha, Julian Nyarko, Daniel E. Ho, Christopher Ré, Adam Chilton, Aditya Narayana, Alex Chohlas-Wood, Austin Peters, Brandon Waldon, Daniel Rockmore, Diego A. Zambrano, Dmitry Talisman, Enam Hoque, Faiz Surani, Frank Fagan, Galit Sarfaty, Gregory M. Dickinson, Haggai Porat, Jason Hegland, Jessica Wu, Joe Nudell, Joel Niklaus, John Nay, Jonathan H. Choi, Kevin Tobia, Margaret Hagan, Megan Ma, Michael A. Livermore, Nikon Rasumov-Rahe, Nils Holzenberger, Noam Kolt, Peter Henderson, Sean Rehaag, Sharad Goel, Shang Gao, Spencer Williams, Sunny Gandhi, Tom Zur, Varun Iyer, Zehua Li

All Papers

The advent of large language models (LLMs) and their adoption by the legal community has given rise to the question: what types of legal reasoning can LLMs perform? To enable greater study of this question, we present LegalBench: a collaboratively constructed legal reasoning benchmark consisting of 162 tasks covering six different types of legal reasoning. LegalBench was built through an interdisciplinary process, in which we collected tasks designed and hand-crafted by legal professionals. Because these subject matter experts took a leading role in construction, tasks either measure legal reasoning capabilities that are practically useful, or measure reasoning skills that lawyers …


Deeper Into The Knight: Exploring Deans Knight And Its Effects On The Canadian Gaar, Jinyan Li, Marshall Rothstein, Steve Suarez, Jeffrey Trossman Sep 2023

Deeper Into The Knight: Exploring Deans Knight And Its Effects On The Canadian Gaar, Jinyan Li, Marshall Rothstein, Steve Suarez, Jeffrey Trossman

Articles & Book Chapters

This article discusses the most recent decision of the Supreme Court of Canada in Deans Knight Income Corporation v. Canada (2023) and explores its implications for the Canadian GAAR.


Does Labour Law Trust Workers? Questioning Underlying Assumptions Behind Managerial Prerogatives, Valerio De Stefano, Ilda Durri, Charalampos Stylogiannis, Mathias Wouters Aug 2023

Does Labour Law Trust Workers? Questioning Underlying Assumptions Behind Managerial Prerogatives, Valerio De Stefano, Ilda Durri, Charalampos Stylogiannis, Mathias Wouters

Articles & Book Chapters

This article explores the relationship between modern labour law, trust-based management, and collective labour relations. It begins by examining the historical origins of labour law, which was established to give employers the means to govern their workforce, based on the assumption that workers were untrustworthy.We argue that this notion still persists, albeit in a refined form, and that advancements in technology can exacerbate the negative consequences of managerial prerogatives. The article highlights the need to re-examine the extent of managerial prerogatives and provides several examples of businesses that have adopted trust-based models of organization, leading to positive outcomes. However, the …


Corporate Law’S Threat To Human Rights: Why Human Rights Due Diligence Might Not Be Enough, Barnali Choudhury Aug 2023

Corporate Law’S Threat To Human Rights: Why Human Rights Due Diligence Might Not Be Enough, Barnali Choudhury

Articles & Book Chapters

The take-up of mandatory human rights due diligence (HRDD) initiatives by states is continuously gaining momentum. There are now numerous states adopting some form of HRDD laws. While corporations being duly diligent in respecting human rights is a positive step towards addressing problems of business and human rights, these HRDD initiatives on their own may only be a form of window-dressing, that is, enabling states to put a smart spin on their efforts to address business and human rights issues without addressing some of the root causes of that predicament. As a result, HRDD laws are likely to be a …


Neutralizing Secularism: Religious Antiliberalism And The Twentieth-Century Global Ecumenical Project, Rabiat Akande Jul 2023

Neutralizing Secularism: Religious Antiliberalism And The Twentieth-Century Global Ecumenical Project, Rabiat Akande

Articles & Book Chapters

A marked feature of the contemporary U.S. constitutional landscape is the campaign by an Evangelical- Catholic coalition against the idea of secularism, understood by this alliance to mean the exclusion of religion from the state and its progressive marginalization from social life. Departing from the tendency to treat this project as a national phenomenon, this article places it within a longer global genealogy of an earlier international Christian ecumenical effort to combat secularism. The triumph of that campaign culminated in the making of Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, now considered the paradigmatic international legal provision on …


Book Review: Canadian Justice, Indigenous Injustice: The Gerald Stanley And Colten Boushie Case, F. Tim Knight Jul 2023

Book Review: Canadian Justice, Indigenous Injustice: The Gerald Stanley And Colten Boushie Case, F. Tim Knight

Librarian Publications & Presentations

No abstract provided.


Introduction: Domestic Violence And Access To Justice Within The Family Law And Intersecting Legal Systems, Jennifer Koshan, Wanda Wiegers, Janet Mosher, Wendy Chan, Michaela J. Keet Jun 2023

Introduction: Domestic Violence And Access To Justice Within The Family Law And Intersecting Legal Systems, Jennifer Koshan, Wanda Wiegers, Janet Mosher, Wendy Chan, Michaela J. Keet

Articles & Book Chapters

The articles in this collection explore the access to justice issues that arise for survivors of domestic violence in their encounters with Canada’s family law system. While family law and family dispute resolution processes are the central focus of the articles, three contributions also address family law's intersections with other legal domains (civil restraining orders, child welfare, and immigration). Common across the contributions is a desire to carefully interrogate the potential of law and legal processes to enhance—or conversely to undermine—the safety and well-being of survivors and their children.


Political Theory And The Volunteer: Lessons From Kahn’S Ethnography Of ‘Our Unhappy Politics’, Benjamin Berger May 2023

Political Theory And The Volunteer: Lessons From Kahn’S Ethnography Of ‘Our Unhappy Politics’, Benjamin Berger

All Papers

This article offers a reading of Paul Kahn’s Democracy in Our America that places this intimate “work of local political theory” in a central position in the landscape of his political thought. The article argues that the figure of the volunteer, as it appears in the volume, holds a space for love and meaning—and for political happiness—that secures for it a critical role in the system of beliefs and practices that sustain self-government in the United States. That framing draws the volunteer into relationship with Kahn’s thinking about the family, the veteran, and law. But it also means that the …


Digital Updates, Yemisi Dina May 2023

Digital Updates, Yemisi Dina

Librarian Publications & Presentations

A presentation on recent updates in digital scholarship at Osgoode Hall Law School.


The Next Revolution? Negligence Law For The 21st Century, Allan C. Hutchinson May 2023

The Next Revolution? Negligence Law For The 21st Century, Allan C. Hutchinson

Articles & Book Chapters

Donoghue’s neighbour is still the defining concept of Canadian tort law. Indeed, the whole history of modern negligence law can be reasonably understood as a concerted judicial effort to adapt and accommodate that principle to changing social, commercial and legal conditions. Now, 90 years later, it is perhaps time to recommend another revolution in negligence law. The Donoghue-inspired doctrine has done sterling work, but it is now weighed down with a bewildering range of conditions, clarifications and complications. When the duty analysis is complemented by other related requirements of causation and remoteness, the law of negligence has become something of …


Interlinking Between Income Tax, Citizenship And Democracy? A Case Study Of Canada And China, Jinyan Li May 2023

Interlinking Between Income Tax, Citizenship And Democracy? A Case Study Of Canada And China, Jinyan Li

Conference Papers

The interlink between taxation, citizenship and democracy appears to be obvious in Western democracies: citizens are voters, taxpayers and beneficiaries of public spending funded by tax revenues. The literature on the politics of taxation suggests that democratic institutions affect taxation at every stage of the policy-making process, the type of elections and governance model influence the level of redistribution and complexity of the tax system, democracies generally choose policies that are more favorable to the poor than non-democracies, the tax mix varies with the nature of the political regime, and more repressive governments rely less on personal income taxation. Political …


Disaster Risk In The Carceral State, Saptarishi Bandopadhyay, Joshua R. Coene May 2023

Disaster Risk In The Carceral State, Saptarishi Bandopadhyay, Joshua R. Coene

Articles & Book Chapters

The overlap between prisoner vulnerability and disasters in the United States is undeniable. During 2020 and 2021, the United States endured a series of natural hazards such as wildfires, floods, and hurricanes, many of which exposed the country’s 2.1 million inmates to additional risks and compounded the danger posed by COVID-19. Yet policymakers and scholars are only beginning to appreciate the centrality and magnitude of disaster risk management for the millions of people currently held in penal institutions around the country. Unsurprisingly, the production of “lessons learned” documents that follow in the aftermath of disasters overlook how prisoner vulnerability is …


Introduction To The Future Of Remote Work, Nicola Countouris, Valerio De Stefano, Agnieszka Piasna, Silvia Rainone May 2023

Introduction To The Future Of Remote Work, Nicola Countouris, Valerio De Stefano, Agnieszka Piasna, Silvia Rainone

Articles & Book Chapters

Debates on the future of work have taken a more fundamental turn in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic. Early in 2020, when large sections of the workforce were prevented from coming to their usual places of work, remote work became the only way for many to continue to perform their professions. What had been a piecemeal, at times truly sluggish, evolution towards a multilocation approach to work suddenly turned into an abrupt, radical and universal shift. It quickly became clear that the consequences of this shift were far more significant and far-reaching than simply changing the workplace’s address. They …


Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind? Remote Work And Contractual Distancing, Nicola Countouris, Valerio De Stefano May 2023

Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind? Remote Work And Contractual Distancing, Nicola Countouris, Valerio De Stefano

Articles & Book Chapters

Since the Covid-19 pandemic, remote work has acquired quasi-Marmite status. It has become difficult, if not impossible, to approach the issue in a measured and dispassionate way, which is one of the reasons books such as the present one are being published. Remote work is often seen as anathema by some who associate it with laziness, low productivity and the degradation of the social fabric of firms and of their creative and collaborative potential. The notorious views of CEOs such as Tesla and Twitter’s Elon Musk or JP Morgan’s Jamie Dimon come to mind, indicative – in the view of …