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Full-Text Articles in Law

Fixing "Litigating The Fix", Steven C. Salop, Jennifer E. Sturiale Dec 2022

Fixing "Litigating The Fix", Steven C. Salop, Jennifer E. Sturiale

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Merging firms have increasingly been asking trial courts to adjudicate their merger “as remedied” by a voluntary “fix.” These are remedies that have been rejected by (or never proposed to) the agency. This procedure is known as Litigating-the-Fix” (“LTF”). This article proposes a judicial procedure for managing cases in which the merging parties attempt to LTF. Our recommendations flow from a decision theory approach informed by the relevant LTF case law, the merger enforcement record, the language and goals of Section 7, and an economic analysis of the incentives of the parties and agencies created by LTF. Our recommendation addresses ...


Merger Enforcement Statistics: 2001-2020, Logan Billman, Steven C. Salop Nov 2022

Merger Enforcement Statistics: 2001-2020, Logan Billman, Steven C. Salop

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article summarizes merger enforcement data for the period between 2001 and 2020, using a database created by the authors. The database lists the identity and outcome of every transaction that received a second request during this 20-year period. The database also lists the identity and outcome of every challenge to an already-consummated merger during the period. To our knowledge, it is the only complete database for the listing and outcomes of all such transactions. The goal of creating the database is to provide further information on merger enforcement, which hopefully can inform policy and spur additional analysis. We describe ...


The Academic Medical-Legal Partnership: Training The Next Generation Of Health & Legal Professionals To Work Together To Advance Health Justice, Vicki W. Girard, Deborah F. Perry, Lisa P. Kessler, Yael Cannon, Prashasti Bhatnagar, Jessica Roth Sep 2022

The Academic Medical-Legal Partnership: Training The Next Generation Of Health & Legal Professionals To Work Together To Advance Health Justice, Vicki W. Girard, Deborah F. Perry, Lisa P. Kessler, Yael Cannon, Prashasti Bhatnagar, Jessica Roth

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

As the national medical-legal partnership (MLP) movement grows, the need for doctors, nurses, social workers, other health professionals, and lawyers who have the knowledge, skills, and experience to collaborate effectively in this holistic healthcare approach is increasing. Given the unique role that institutions of higher education play in training students as they develop their professional identities, members of the Georgetown University Health Justice Alliance sought to build on prior efforts to define the MLP model by focusing on MLPs that exist in academic settings as a specific type of MLP. This report is based on the results of an environmental ...


Can Micropolitan Areas Bridge The Urban/Rural Divide?, Sheila Foster, Clayton P. Gillette Sep 2022

Can Micropolitan Areas Bridge The Urban/Rural Divide?, Sheila Foster, Clayton P. Gillette

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

There exists a well-known and significant divide between urban and rural areas in the United States. The divide has been documented along multiple dimensions – social, economic, and political – and is seen as a detrimental characteristic of our national identity and capacity for both economic development and civil political discourse. In this Article, we explore a subset of the urban/rural divide and propose a mechanism for reducing its economic and political effects within that limited realm. Specifically, we focus on the subset of rural areas that lie within what the Office of Management and Budget defines as micropolitan areas. Micropolitan ...


Misrepresentation And Contract, Gregory Klass Sep 2022

Misrepresentation And Contract, Gregory Klass

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Contract theorists naturally focus on the duty to perform. This chapter argues they should also pay attention to duties of candor in the contracting context. The most obvious example of such duties can be found in the misrepresentation defenses, which aim to ensure that contractual undertakings are sufficiently voluntary and to allocate the costs of defective consent. But other laws of deception, such as the torts of negligent misrepresentation and deceit, are also integral to the law of contracts. Separate liability in tort for both pre- and post-formation misrepresentations helps parties who mistrust one another determine whether an exchange is ...


Some Thoughts On Reply Briefs, Brian Wolfman Sep 2022

Some Thoughts On Reply Briefs, Brian Wolfman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


Does The 1l Curriculum Make A Difference?, David A. Hyman, Jing Liu, Joshua C. Teitelbaum Aug 2022

Does The 1l Curriculum Make A Difference?, David A. Hyman, Jing Liu, Joshua C. Teitelbaum

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Georgetown Law’s Curriculum B (also known as Section 3) offers a unique opportunity to study an alternative 1L curriculum. The standard 1L curriculum has been around for decades and is still offered at the vast majority of U.S. law schools. Leaders in the legal academy often talk about experimenting with the 1L curriculum, but hardly anyone does it. Georgetown Law has. We study whether Georgetown’s Curriculum B yields measurable differences in student outcomes. Our empirical design leverages the fact that enrollment in Curriculum B is done by lottery when it is oversubscribed—meaning our study is effectively ...


Tort Liability And Unawareness, Surajeet Chakravarty, David Kelsey, Joshua C. Teitelbaum Jul 2022

Tort Liability And Unawareness, Surajeet Chakravarty, David Kelsey, Joshua C. Teitelbaum

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

We explore the implications of unawareness for tort law. We study cases where injurers and victims initially are unaware that some acts can yield some consequences, or alternatively that some acts or consequences are even possible, but later become aware. Following Karni and Viero (2013) we model unawareness by Reverse Bayesianism. We compare the two basic liability rules of Anglo-American tort law, negligence and strict liability, and argue that negligence has an important advantage over strict liability in a world with unawareness—negligence, through the stipulation of due care standards, spreads awareness about the updated probability of harm.


What Nations Owe Each Other Before The Next Pandemic, Lawrence O. Gostin, Kevin A. Klock, Sam F. Halabi, Katie Gottschalk, Katherine Ginsbach, Kashish Aneja Jul 2022

What Nations Owe Each Other Before The Next Pandemic, Lawrence O. Gostin, Kevin A. Klock, Sam F. Halabi, Katie Gottschalk, Katherine Ginsbach, Kashish Aneja

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

On December 1, 2021, the World Health Assembly adopted a resolution establishing an Intergovernmental Negotiating Body (INB) to determine the content and form of a new pandemic agreement. A portion of the public has advocated for a non-binding agreement while others stress that nationalism should be prevented, with steps taken to monitor and enforce national compliance. The INB has needed to grapple with how the principle of national sovereignty, and the accompanying principle of non-interference, will be addressed with respect to the agreement’s content and form, including obligations to share data, resources, and personnel, and to relinquish control over ...


The End Of Roe V Wade And New Legal Frontiers On The Constitutional Right To Abortion, I. Glenn Cohen, Melissa Murray, Lawrence O. Gostin Jul 2022

The End Of Roe V Wade And New Legal Frontiers On The Constitutional Right To Abortion, I. Glenn Cohen, Melissa Murray, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

On June 24, 2002, the US Supreme Court ended the constitutional right to abortion in Dobbs v Jackson Women’s Health Organization. The Court’s majority decision authored by Justice Samuel Alito was substantially the same as a draft opinion leaked a month earlier. The regulation of abortion will now be decided by the states, with about half currently or will soon ban or severely restrict abortion access. In this Viewpoint, we explain the Dobbs ruling and what it means for physicians, public health, and society.

We focus on new legal frontiers in the constitutional right to abortion, including medication ...


The Federal Global Migration And Quarantine Network: A Report From The National Academies Of Sciences, Engineering, And Medicine, Lawrence O. Gostin, Georges C. Benjamin, Tequam Worku Jun 2022

The Federal Global Migration And Quarantine Network: A Report From The National Academies Of Sciences, Engineering, And Medicine, Lawrence O. Gostin, Georges C. Benjamin, Tequam Worku

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The COVID-19 pandemic thrust the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) into the epicenter of the national response. DGMQ is charged with preventing the importation of infectious diseases at land and sea borders and the spread of those diseases within the US. For more than 50 years, the agency’s comprehensive quarantine system, its regulatory powers, and scientific guidance has placed DGMQ at the forefront of emergency response. CDC requested the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) to assess the performance of the DGMQ during the COVID-19 pandemic, covering ...


A New Architecture For Global Health Emergency Preparedness And Response—The Imperative Of Equity, Lawrence O. Gostin Jun 2022

A New Architecture For Global Health Emergency Preparedness And Response—The Imperative Of Equity, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Even before COVID-19 emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the prevailing global narrative was inequity—in health, income, race, and socioeconomic status. COVID-19 amplified all these inequities. Early in the pandemic, low-income countries were left without key medical resources, such as diagnostic tests, personal protective equipment, and ventilators. By 2021, inequitable vaccine distribution captured global attention and outrage. This year, high-income countries have bought the lion’s share of Paxlovid, a highly effective antiviral treatment. Vaccine inequities remain with only 16% of people in low-income countries having received at least 1 vaccine dose vs 80% of people across high-income ...


Copyright Protection For Works In The Language Of Life, Nina Srejovic Jun 2022

Copyright Protection For Works In The Language Of Life, Nina Srejovic

IPIPC Papers & Reports

In 2001, the DNA Copyright Institute sought to capitalize on the fear of human cloning by offering celebrities the opportunity to use copyright to secure exclusive rights in their DNA. At the time, a Copyright Office spokesperson pointed out that a person’s DNA “is not an original work of authorship.” That statement is no longer self-evident. A scientist claims to have used CRISPR technology to create a pair of twin girls with human-altered DNA that may provide immunity to HIV infection and improved cognitive function. Through gene therapy, doctors can “author” changes to patients’ DNA to cure disease. Scientists ...


At Long Last, Who Member States Agree To Fix Its Financing Problem, Alexandra Finch, Kevin A. Klock, Eric A. Friedman, Lawrence O. Gostin Jun 2022

At Long Last, Who Member States Agree To Fix Its Financing Problem, Alexandra Finch, Kevin A. Klock, Eric A. Friedman, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Those who deeply care about improving the health and well-being of all people no matter their personal circumstances have long argued that sustainably financing the World Health Organization is a cornerstone imperative—and for good reason. WHO is the only institution with the mandate and legitimacy to sit at the center of the global health architecture and bring together all stakeholders to coordinate and execute all-of-humanity approaches. Now after decades of inaction, WHO's member states have agreed to substantially improve the agency’s financing model, giving it greater flexibility and enhanced capacity to fulfill its mandate as the world ...


Unmet Legal Needs As Health Injustice, Yael Cannon May 2022

Unmet Legal Needs As Health Injustice, Yael Cannon

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In a seminal report in 2006, the American Bar Association recognized that millions of low-income Americans have civil legal issues that go unaddressed, jeopardizing their fundamental and basic human needs for shelter, sustenance, safety, family stability, and access to health care. The pandemic has only exacerbated this crisis. When rights in these areas go unenforced for Americans marginalized by poverty and race, their health can suffer, compounding health inequities. The fundamental civil legal needs of low-income Americans must be addressed in order to ensure health equity. This Article argues that unmet fundamental legal needs serve as determinants of health and ...


Resisting Face Surveillance With Copyright Law, Amanda Levendowski May 2022

Resisting Face Surveillance With Copyright Law, Amanda Levendowski

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Face surveillance is animated by deep-rooted demographic and deployment biases that endanger marginalized communities and threaten the privacy of all. But current approaches have not prevented its adoption by law enforcement. Some companies have offered voluntary moratoria on selling the technology, leaving many others to fill in the gaps. Legislators have enacted regulatory oversight at the state and city levels, but a federal ban remains elusive. Both approaches require vast shifts in practical and political will, each with drawbacks. While we wait, face surveillance persists. This Article suggests a new possibility: face surveillance is fueled by unauthorized copies and reproductions ...


Deep-State Constitutionalism, Randy E. Barnett Apr 2022

Deep-State Constitutionalism, Randy E. Barnett

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In this review, I explain how "Common Good Constitutionalism" taps into a deficiency of the conservative legal movement: namely, its exclusive focus on the law "as it is" at the expense of the underlying abstract normative principles that justify the positive law of our written Constitution. Due to this deficiency, the conservative legal movement gives short shrift to the Declaration of Independence and the Ninth Amendment and the natural rights to which both refer. This deficiency is in need of correction. But any such correction does not justify the jettisoning of originalism as Vermeule proposes. Nor does Vermeule defend his ...


Rebuilding Platform Antitrust: Moving On From Ohio V. American Express, Steven C. Salop, Daniel Francis, Lauren Sillman, Michaela Spero Apr 2022

Rebuilding Platform Antitrust: Moving On From Ohio V. American Express, Steven C. Salop, Daniel Francis, Lauren Sillman, Michaela Spero

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Now that the immediate fallout from the Supreme Court’s blockbuster Amex decision has cooled, this Article aims to give a first draft of its place in antitrust history and to offer a roadmap for the next stage of the evolution of platform antitrust analysis. We focus on several issues that have not been fully analyzed in the literature. First, we argue that, rather than mangling the law of market definition, the Court should have explicitly permitted multi-market balancing of effects across the separate markets in which the platform was active. Second, we propose standards to implement such balancing in ...


Random Justice, Girardeau A. Spann Mar 2022

Random Justice, Girardeau A. Spann

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

As recent Senate confirmation practices suggest, the Supreme Court is best understood as the head of a political branch of government, whose Justices are chosen in a process that makes their ideological views dispositive. Throughout the nation’s history, the Supreme Court has exercised its governing political ideology in ways that sacrifice the interests of nonwhites in order to advance the interests of Whites. In the present moment of heightened cultural sensitivity to structural discrimination and implicit bias, it would make sense to use affirmative action to help remedy the racially disparate distribution of societal resources that has been produced ...


Risk Tradeoffs And Equitable Decision-Making In The Covid-19 Pandemic, Lawrence O. Gostin, Sarah A. Wetter Feb 2022

Risk Tradeoffs And Equitable Decision-Making In The Covid-19 Pandemic, Lawrence O. Gostin, Sarah A. Wetter

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, societies have faced agonizing decisions about whether to close schools, shutter businesses, delay nonemergency health care, restrict travel, and authorize the use of emergency Covid-19 countermeasures under limited scientific understanding. Measures to control the spread of COVID-19 have disrupted our health, educational, and economic systems, tarnished our mental health, and took away our cherished time with family and friends. Conflicting advice from health agencies on the utility of public health measures left us wondering, was it all worth it? We still do not have all the answers to guide us through difficult risk-risk ...


How To Interpret A Vending Machine: Smart Contracts And Contract Law, Gregory Klass Feb 2022

How To Interpret A Vending Machine: Smart Contracts And Contract Law, Gregory Klass

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

A smart contract is software designed to do the job of a legal contract: ensuring the performance of parties who might not otherwise trust one another to do so. By running a smart contract on blockchain, users can lock themselves into future performances without relying on a third-party enforcer or platform host, thereby realizing a “fully trustless” exchange. This new technology has wide range of potential applications, and contracts are likely to become an increasingly common part of the economy.

Some have argued that smart contracts represent a new type of legal contract, analogizing the software’s code to a ...


Life After The Covid-19 Pandemic, Lawrence O. Gostin Feb 2022

Life After The Covid-19 Pandemic, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

After 2 years of a seemingly relentless pandemic that has upended work, education, and social interactions, the questions many are asking are when will we get back to normal and what will life be like after the COVID-19 pandemic? In truth, science cannot fully predict what SARS-CoV-2 variants will arise and the trajectory of the pandemic. Yet, history and informed scientific observations provide a guide to how—and when—society will return to pre-pandemic patterns of behavior. There will not be a single moment when social life suddenly goes back to normal. Instead, gradually, over time, most people will view ...


The History Wars And Property Law: Conquest And Slavery As Foundational To The Field, K-Sue Park Feb 2022

The History Wars And Property Law: Conquest And Slavery As Foundational To The Field, K-Sue Park

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This Article addresses the stakes of the ongoing fight over competing versions of U.S. history for our understanding of law, with a special focus on property law. Insofar as legal scholarship has examined U.S. law within the historical context in which it arose, it has largely overlooked the role that laws and legal institutions played in facilitating the production of the two preeminent market commodities in the colonial and early Republic periods: expropriated lands and enslaved people. Though conquest and enslavement were key to producing property for centuries, property-law scholars have constructed the field of property law to ...


Supreme Court Ruling On The Texas Abortion Law: Beginning To Unravel Roe V Wade, I. Glenn Cohen, Rebecca Reingold, Lawrence O. Gostin Jan 2022

Supreme Court Ruling On The Texas Abortion Law: Beginning To Unravel Roe V Wade, I. Glenn Cohen, Rebecca Reingold, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In 2021, Texas enacted an abortion statute, SB8, stating “a physician may not knowingly perform or induce an abortion on a pregnant woman if the physician detected a fetal heartbeat for the unborn child.” SB8’s prohibition applies broadly against anyone who “knowingly engages in conduct that aids or abets the performance or inducement of an abortion.” The law’s design is unprecedented, enforced solely by private lawsuits, providing damages of $10,000 or more for each abortion. SB8 prohibits government enforcement, with the explicit intent of preventing federal judicial review. SB8 clearly violates current Supreme Court precedent creating a ...


The Us Supreme Court’S Rulings On Large Business And Health Care Worker Vaccine Mandates: Ramifications For The Covid-19 Response And The Future Of Federal Public Health Protection, Lawrence O. Gostin, Wendy E. Parmet, Sara Rosenbaum Jan 2022

The Us Supreme Court’S Rulings On Large Business And Health Care Worker Vaccine Mandates: Ramifications For The Covid-19 Response And The Future Of Federal Public Health Protection, Lawrence O. Gostin, Wendy E. Parmet, Sara Rosenbaum

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

On January 13, 2022, the Supreme Court issued 2 landmark rulings on the federal government’s power to mandate COVID-19 vaccinations. The Court curtailed the government’s ability to respond to the pandemic and may have also severely limited the authority of federal agencies to issue health and safety regulations.

In National Federation of Independent Business v Department of Labor, the Court blocked an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) emergency temporary standard (ETS) requiring vaccination, subject to religious or disability accommodations, or weekly testing and masking in businesses with 100 or more employees. In Biden v Missouri, the Court ...


The First 2 Years Of Covid-19: Lessons To Improve Preparedness For The Next Pandemic, Jennifer B. Nuzzo, Lawrence O. Gostin Jan 2022

The First 2 Years Of Covid-19: Lessons To Improve Preparedness For The Next Pandemic, Jennifer B. Nuzzo, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

On December 31, 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) Country Office in China reported novel “viral pneumonias of unknown cause” in Wuhan, but China did not confirm case clusters until January 3, 2020. Two years later, more than 285 million cases and 5.4 million deaths have been reported. As of December 2021, more than 800 000 COVID-19 deaths have occurred in the US, surpassing the 675 446 total deaths that occurred during the great influenza pandemic of 1918. The COVID-19 pandemic reduced global economic growth by an estimated 3.2% in 2020, with trade declining by 5.3%; an ...


Tailoring Ex Machina: Perspectives On Personalized Law, Gregory Klass Jan 2022

Tailoring Ex Machina: Perspectives On Personalized Law, Gregory Klass

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In their book Personalized Law: Different Rules for Different People, Omri Ben-Shahar and Ariel Porat propose a radical approach to lawmaking: using of big data and artificial intelligence to tailor legal dictates to the individual histories and characteristics of persons they affect. This essay critically discusses that proposal.

It first examines normative differences among the Ben-Shahar and Porat’s proposals for personalizing laws. There are important differences, for example, between using big data and artificial intelligence to tailor how a private legal power can be exercised to the capacities and interests of the power-holder and imposing different speed limits on ...


Statutory Interpretation From The Outside, Kevin Tobia, Brian G. Slocum, Victoria Frances Nourse Jan 2022

Statutory Interpretation From The Outside, Kevin Tobia, Brian G. Slocum, Victoria Frances Nourse

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

How should judges decide which linguistic canons to apply in inter­preting statutes? One important answer looks to the inside of the legisla­tive process: Follow the canons that lawmakers contemplate. A different answer, based on the “ordinary meaning” doctrine, looks to the outside: Follow the canons that guide an ordinary person’s understanding of the legal text. We offer a novel framework for empirically testing linguistic canons “from the outside,” recruiting 4,500 people from the United States and a sample of law students to evaluate hypothetical scenarios that correspond to each canon’s triggering conditions. The empirical findings ...


Antitrust Worker Protections: Rejecting Multi-Market Balancing As A Justification For Anticompetitive Harms To Workers, Laura Alexander, Steven C. Salop Jan 2022

Antitrust Worker Protections: Rejecting Multi-Market Balancing As A Justification For Anticompetitive Harms To Workers, Laura Alexander, Steven C. Salop

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Anticompetitive conduct toward upstream trading partners may have the effect of benefiting downstream consumers even as the conduct harms the firms’ workers or suppliers. Defendants may attempt to justify their upstream conduct—and may rely on the ancillary restraints doctrine in doing so—on the grounds that the restraints create efficiencies benefitting ` purchasers, rather than focusing solely on the impact of the restraint on the workers or suppliers in the upstream market. Such balancing of harms against out-of-market benefits achieved by a different group should be rejected by antitrust doctrine generally, and specifically in the case of harms to workers ...


Esg & Anti-Black Racism, Alicia E. Plerhoples Jan 2022

Esg & Anti-Black Racism, Alicia E. Plerhoples

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This essay discusses contemporary federal, financial intermediary, and company efforts to navigate racial inequality, placing those efforts in the context of ESG—environmental, social, and governance—initiatives. While ESG tools and metrics have tended to focus on a firm’s external and internal impacts on the environment, human rights, and labor standards, in recent years, firms have targeted ESG efforts at racial equity primarily through internal diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) initiatives and customer-facing corporate philanthropy. This essay proposes an ESG racial equity goal, discusses how federal regulations of corporate DEI programs and policies fail to meet this goal, and ...