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Bloomer Girl Revisited Or How To Frame An Unmade Picture, Victor P. Goldberg Jan 1998

Bloomer Girl Revisited Or How To Frame An Unmade Picture, Victor P. Goldberg

Faculty Scholarship

The standard analysis of Parker v. Twentieth Century Fox follows the court in focusing on whether the substitute employment offered Shirley MacLaine was "different and inferior" from that which she had initially contracted for. That, this paper argues, was the wrong question. The court managed to produce the right outcome, but through convoluted reasoning that failed to recognize the essential feature of the contract. The contract had a "pay-or-play" provision by which the studio, in effect, purchased an option on her time; they would pay her to be ready to make a particular film, but they made no promise to ...


Judicial Auditing, Matthew L. Spitzer, Eric L. Talley Jan 1998

Judicial Auditing, Matthew L. Spitzer, Eric L. Talley

Faculty Scholarship

This paper presents a simple framework for analyzing a hierarchical system of judicial auditing. We concentrate on (what we perceive to be) the two principal reasons that courts and/or legislatures tend to scrutinize the decisions of lower-echelon actors: imprecision and ideological bias. In comparing these two reasons, we illustrate how each may yield systematically distinct auditing and reversal behaviors. While auditing for imprecision tends to bring about even-handed review/reversal, auditing for political bias tends to be significantly more one-sided. Examples of these tendencies can be found in a number of legal applications, including administrative law, constitutional law, and ...


The New York City Charter And The Question Of Scale, Richard Briffault Jan 1998

The New York City Charter And The Question Of Scale, Richard Briffault

Faculty Scholarship

A central issue for the New York City Charter – from the consolidation of Greater New York City a century ago until today – has been the question of scale. Or perhaps I should say the questions of scale. There really have been two questions: Is New York City large enough to deal with problems of regional scope? Does New York City have the necessary mechanisms to deal with problems that are of sublocal scope? In other words, can the City of New York provide both the regional and local governance New Yorkers need?

The creation of Greater New York was driven ...


Compensation And The Interconnectedness Of Property, Thomas W. Merrill Jan 1998

Compensation And The Interconnectedness Of Property, Thomas W. Merrill

Faculty Scholarship

Professor Joseph Sax's scholarship on the Takings Clause combines the craft of a first-class lawyer with the passion of a visionary. The good lawyer that he is, Sax's scholarship reflects a deep understanding of Supreme Court case law, legal history, and the practical dimensions of various kinds of land use disputes. Yet his work on takings is not animated by any desire for mere doctrinal tidiness. It is driven by a distinctive vision – one in which the earth's resources are becoming increasingly interconnected and in which there is an increasing need for the government to resolve conflicts ...


Putting Sex To Work, Katherine M. Franke Jan 1998

Putting Sex To Work, Katherine M. Franke

Faculty Scholarship

When I was living in New Haven a number of years ago, a miracle happened that drew people by the thousands to witness evidence of the Divine. A crucifix had been found to appear in the body of an oak tree in the middle of Worchester Square. I went – after all, how often do you get to see that kind of thing? Not surprisingly, at first I couldn't see anything but the usual trunk and limbs of a tree. Yet a believer took the time to show me what was really there, something that my untrained eye could not ...


Antisuit Injunctions And Preclusion Against Absent Nonresident Class Members, Henry Paul Monaghan Jan 1998

Antisuit Injunctions And Preclusion Against Absent Nonresident Class Members, Henry Paul Monaghan

Faculty Scholarship

In this Article, Professor Monaghan addresses an issue of pressing concern in class action litigation today, namely, the extent to which a trial court's class judgment can bind – either by preclusion or injunction – unnamed nonresident class members, thus preventing them from raising due process challenges to the judgment in another court. After placing the antisuit injunction and preclusion issues in the context of recent class action and related developments, Professor Monaghan discusses the Supreme Court's 1985 decision in Phillips Petroleum Co. v. Shutts and its applicability to these issues. In particular, Professor Monaghan criticizes reading Shutts' "implied consent ...


Autonomy Through Separation?: Environmental Law And The Basic Law Of Hong Kong, Benjamin L. Liebman Jan 1998

Autonomy Through Separation?: Environmental Law And The Basic Law Of Hong Kong, Benjamin L. Liebman

Faculty Scholarship

One hundred days after taking office as Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong SAR) of the People's Republic of China, Tung Chee-hwa pledged both to take steps to improve Hong Kong's environment, and to increase coordination of environmental policy with officials in neighboring Guangdong Province. Tung's comments marked a rhetorical shift from environmental policy in British Hong Kong: eight years earlier, the Hong Kong government's first White Paper on environmental policy, Pollution in Hong Kong – A Time to Act, made only passing mention of China. Yet the White Paper was not ...


Is There A Future For Future Claimants After Amchem Products, Inc. V. Windsor?, Alex Raskolnikov Jan 1998

Is There A Future For Future Claimants After Amchem Products, Inc. V. Windsor?, Alex Raskolnikov

Faculty Scholarship

In September 1990, the Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court appointed an Ad Hoc Committee on Asbestos Litigation in response to what was widely perceived as a "'failure of the federal court system to perform one of its vital roles in our society.'" Less than a year later, the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation transferred all untried asbestos cases to the eastern district of Pennsylvania for pretrial proceedings. In January 1993, these proceedings produced a global settlement class action of historic proportions, which the district court eventually approved in August 1994. In May 1996, in Georgine v. Amchem ...


Demons And Angels In Hazardous Waste Regulation: Are Justice, Efficiency, And Democracy Reconcilable?, Michael B. Gerrard Jan 1998

Demons And Angels In Hazardous Waste Regulation: Are Justice, Efficiency, And Democracy Reconcilable?, Michael B. Gerrard

Faculty Scholarship

The Superfund program is perhaps environmental law's best Rorschach test, in which those who write about the national effort to clean up contaminated sites disclose as much about their own philosophies of justice, democracy, and economic efficiency as about environmental legislation. The ten books reviewed here show deep conflicts among these values. I argue, based on these disparate judgments, that many of the Superfund debates have an almost religious character. The law has been shaped to fit the view that demonic polluters were, and remain, at work. The law also reflects a sense of higher duty to future generations ...


Foreword, Robert E. Scott Jan 1998

Foreword, Robert E. Scott

Faculty Scholarship

The Equal Education Under the Law Symposium continues a conversation among legal and educational professionals that seeks to advance and perhaps refocus the rather dramatic debate over the future of public education in our country. The good news for this debate is that we start with a clear consensus on goals. Few, if any, would dissent from the following statement of principle: the future success of this nation depends in large measure on the requirement that every citizen have the chance to share in the country's good fortune, and the key to providing that chance, for all citizens, lies ...


The Challenges Of Investigating Section 5k1.1 In Practice, Daniel Richman Jan 1998

The Challenges Of Investigating Section 5k1.1 In Practice, Daniel Richman

Faculty Scholarship

From the very beginning, almost everyone familiar with the sentencing guidelines has recognized that substantial assistance motions pose a severe threat to the goal of horizontal equity in sentencing. The problem stems in part from the fact that any scheme using sentencing leniency to reward cooperation reduces the likelihood that two defendants of similar culpability and criminal history will receive the same sentence if one cooperates and the other doesn't. The damage, however, is potentially magnified by the particular system established by the federal guidelines: The absence of clear guidelines as to how cooperators should be treated makes it ...


Foreword, Daniel Richman Jan 1998

Foreword, Daniel Richman

Faculty Scholarship

There is a degree of irony in calling this a Symposium on "The Changing Role of the Federal Prosecutor." In perhaps its most important aspect, the role of the federal prosecutor has not changed at all – or, at least, we do not want it to change. At its core, the prosecutor's job always has been to mediate between spectacularly broad, legislative pronouncements and the equities of individual cases, giving due attention to the public interest and such technical matters as evidentiary sufficiency. This continues to be true. Indeed, the full title of the Symposium celebrates our hope for continuity ...


Toward A Principled Interpretation Of The Commerce Clause, Thomas W. Merrill Jan 1998

Toward A Principled Interpretation Of The Commerce Clause, Thomas W. Merrill

Faculty Scholarship

Formalism is the jurisprudence of rules. Functionalism is the jurisprudence of balancing tests. If forced to choose between formalism and functionalism, I would probably come down on the side of formalism. I would not do so, however, because there is some meta-rule that prescribes formalism. Rather, it would be because formalism, on balance, has better consequences than functionalism – in other words, because there are good functionalist reasons to be a formalist.

Where I part company with many constitutional formalists is not so much over the desirability of rules as opposed to ad hoc balancingbut rather over the generality and the ...


The Internal Relations Of Government: Cautionary Tales From Inside The Black Box, Peter L. Strauss Jan 1998

The Internal Relations Of Government: Cautionary Tales From Inside The Black Box, Peter L. Strauss

Faculty Scholarship

Both the structure of the Constitution and elementary civics texts imagine an Executive Branch under the close, unitary control of an elected chief executive, the President. Doubtless from the start, and unmistakably in the administrative state, the reality has been quite different. Those to whom Congress has delegated authority to act, particularly in that domain that we have in mind when invoking a "government of laws," conduct their business within a web more aptly described as coordination than control. In regulatory matters, the coordinating impulses run through the Department of Justice ("DOJ") and, increasingly, the Office of Information and Regulatory ...


Judicial Review Of Discount Rates Used In Regulatory Cost-Benefit Analysis, Edward R. Morrison Jan 1998

Judicial Review Of Discount Rates Used In Regulatory Cost-Benefit Analysis, Edward R. Morrison

Faculty Scholarship

Executive orders, statutes, and precedent increasingly require cost-benefit analysis of regulations. Presidential executive orders have long required executive agencies to submit regulatory impact analyses to the Office of Management and Budget ("OMB") before issuing regulations, and recent federal legislation exhibits a trend toward mandatory cost-benefit analysis. For example, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, and the recent Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments require the Environmental Protection Agency to balance costs and benefits in regulating chemicals and pesticides. In 1995, Congress passed the Unfunded Mandates Act, requiring cost-benefit analysis of all significant federal regulations that ...


The Tragedy Of The Anticommons: Property In The Transition From Marx To Markets, Michael A. Heller Jan 1998

The Tragedy Of The Anticommons: Property In The Transition From Marx To Markets, Michael A. Heller

Faculty Scholarship

Why are many storefronts in Moscow empty, while street kiosks in front are full of goods? In this Article, Professor Heller develops a theory of anticommons property to help explain the puzzle of empty storefronts and full kiosks. Anticommons property can be understood as the mirror image of commons property. By definition, in a commons, multiple owners are each endowed with the privilege to use a given resource, and no one has the right to exclude another When too many owners hold such privileges of use, the resource is prone to overuse – a tragedy of the commons. Depleted fisheries and ...


Declining Homicide In New York City: A Tale Of Two Trends, Jeffery Fagan, Franklin E. Zimring, June Kim Jan 1998

Declining Homicide In New York City: A Tale Of Two Trends, Jeffery Fagan, Franklin E. Zimring, June Kim

Faculty Scholarship

The mass media pay plenty of attention to crime and violence in the United States, but very few of the big stories on the American crime beat can be classified as good news. The driveby shootings and carjackings that illuminate nightly news broadcasts are the opposite of good tidings. Most efforts at prevention and law enforcement seem more like reactive attempts to contain ever expanding problems rather than discernable public triumphs. In recent American history, crime rates seem to increase on the front page and moderate in obscurity.

The recent decline in homicides in New York City is an exception ...


Conflicts Consent And Allocation After Amchem Products – Or Why Attorneys Still Need Consent To Give Away Their Clients' Money, John C. Coffee Jr. Jan 1998

Conflicts Consent And Allocation After Amchem Products – Or Why Attorneys Still Need Consent To Give Away Their Clients' Money, John C. Coffee Jr.

Faculty Scholarship

If it was the goal of Silver and Baker to write a provocative article, they have succeeded. They ask probing questions; they are appropriately scornful of superficial answers; and they seek to relate their view of legal ethics to what they perceive to be the prevailing standards in the legal marketplace. All this is good. They also usefully focus on an underappreciated dichotomy: the ethical rules governing aggregated settlements in consensual litigation versus the rules applicable in aggregated nonconsensual litigation (i.e., class actions). Essentially, they argue that the rules in both contexts should be the same or very similar ...


The Courts And The Congress: Should Judges Disdain Political History?, Peter L. Strauss Jan 1998

The Courts And The Congress: Should Judges Disdain Political History?, Peter L. Strauss

Faculty Scholarship

In an earlier article in these pages, Professor John Manning argued that the use of legislative materials by courts in effect permits Congress to engage in delegation of its authority to subunits of the legislature, in violation of the separation of powers. Professor Strauss, acknowledging that the previous generation of courts may have excessively credited the minutiae of legislative history, responds that judicial attention to the political history of legislation is required, not forbidden, by considerations of constitutional structure. Only awareness of that history will promote interpretation reflective of the context and political moment of Congress's action. Our history ...


Guns, Youth Violence, And Social Identity In Inner Cities, Jeffrey Fagan, Deanna L. Wilkinson Jan 1998

Guns, Youth Violence, And Social Identity In Inner Cities, Jeffrey Fagan, Deanna L. Wilkinson

Faculty Scholarship

While youth violence has always been a critical part of delinquency, the modern epidemic is marked by high rates of gun violence. Adolescents in cities possess and carry guns on a large scale, guns are often at the scene of youth violence, and guns often are used. Guns play a central role in initiating, sustaining, and elevating the epidemic of youth violence. The demand for guns among youth was fueled by an "ecology of danger," comprising street gangs, expanding drug markets with high intrinsic levels of violence, high rates of adult violence and fatalities, and cultural styles of gun possession ...


Class Action Litigation In China, Benjamin L. Liebman Jan 1998

Class Action Litigation In China, Benjamin L. Liebman

Faculty Scholarship

Class struggle has moved to China's courtrooms. Since the passage of China's 1991 Civil Procedure Law (CPL), which explicitly permits class action litigation, multiplaintiff groups have brought suits seeking compensation for harm caused by pollution, false advertising, contract violations, and securities law violations. Although administrative bodies continue to resolve most disputes in China, the increasing prevalence of class actions is one aspect of an explosion in civil litigation over the past decade. Class action litigation has the potential to alter the role courts play in adjudicating disputes, increase access to the courts, and facilitate the independence of the ...


Gender Sex Agency And Discrimination: A Reply To Professor Abrams, Katherine M. Franke Jan 1998

Gender Sex Agency And Discrimination: A Reply To Professor Abrams, Katherine M. Franke

Faculty Scholarship

According to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, sexual harassment is the fastest-growing area of employment discrimination. In fact, the annual number of sexual harassment complaints filed with the EEOC has more than doubled in the last six years. No one, or at least no one who has given this problem her serious attention, can deny that workplace sexual harassment is a grave problem and that it significantly impedes women's entrance into many sectors of the wage labor market.

Notwithstanding these impressive numbers, sexual harassment legal doctrine remains remarkably undertheorized – particularly by the Supreme Court. For these and other reasons ...


Realization As Subsidy, David M. Schizer Jan 1998

Realization As Subsidy, David M. Schizer

Faculty Scholarship

Perhaps no concept in tax law is so well established, and yet so widely criticized, as realization, the rule that defers tax on appreciated property until it is sold. In this Article, Professor Schizer offers a new justification for realization: It is a subsidy for savings. The recent reduction in the capital gains tax rate suggests that Congress wants such a subsidy, the author observes. He then argues that realization has a significant advantage as a subsidy. It is credible, in that taxpayers expect it to strvive long enough for them to collect it This is important, Professor Schizer then ...


Global Labor Rights And The Alien Tort Claims Act, Sarah H. Cleveland Jan 1998

Global Labor Rights And The Alien Tort Claims Act, Sarah H. Cleveland

Faculty Scholarship

Are labor rights human rights? Are some worker rights so fundamental that must be respected by all nations, and all corporations, under all circumstances? If so, who has the authority to define such rights, and how should they be enforced? What is the effect on the global economy of enforcing international worker rights? These are some of the questions confronted by the authors of Human Rights, Labor Rights, and International Trade, a compilation of essays by an international group of scholars, labor rights activists, and corporate executives addressing contemporary topics in the dialectic among labor, trade, and human rights.


Dogmas Of The Model Penal Code, George P. Fletcher Jan 1998

Dogmas Of The Model Penal Code, George P. Fletcher

Faculty Scholarship

The Model Penal Code has become the central document of American criminal justice. It has had some effect on law reform in over 35 states. More significantly, it provides the lingua franca of most people who teach criminal law in the United States. Most academics think that the precise definitions of culpability states in section 2.02(2) are really neat, and they applaud the liberal rules that restrict the use of strict liability to administrative fines. Indeed, all things considered, for a code drafted with almost total indifference to what might be learned from European models, the Model Penal ...


The Process Of Terry-Lawmaking, Daniel C. Richman Jan 1998

The Process Of Terry-Lawmaking, Daniel C. Richman

Faculty Scholarship

The organizers of this Conference obviously gave a lot of thought to its structure. We started off with a session that showed the Supreme Court at its best, working under the gentle leadership of Chief Justice Warren, and guided by the sage counsel of Justice Brennan, to balance the demands of the Fourth Amendment with the exigencies of street encounters. Now we come to a session in which the Supreme Court comes off well, not merely in one, but in both papers. For Steve Saltzburg, Terry itself may not have been perfect, but, over time, the Court has made it ...


Bloomer Girl Revisited Or How To Frame An Unmade Picture, Victor P. Goldberg Jan 1998

Bloomer Girl Revisited Or How To Frame An Unmade Picture, Victor P. Goldberg

Faculty Scholarship

Nearly all contracts casebooks feature the saga of Shirley MacLaine's suit against Twentieth Century Fox arising from the cancellation of the proposed film Bloomer Girl. None really get the story right. To be fair, none try. The case is a vehicle for exploring the obligation of the victim of the breach of an employment contract to take alternative employment. If MacLaine refused an offer of alternative employment that was not "different and inferior," her failure to mitigate would mean that the earnings she would have received would be offset against the damages; so, asked the court, was the alternative ...


The Erotic Of Torts, Carol Sanger Jan 1998

The Erotic Of Torts, Carol Sanger

Faculty Scholarship

"What kind of feminist would be accused of sexual harassment?" asks Jane Gallop (p. 1). Gallop quickly provides her own challenging answer: "the sort of feminist ... that ... do[es] not respect the line between the intellectual and the sexual" (p. 12). Gallop is firm and unrepentant about not respecting this line: "I sexualize the atmosphere in which I work. When sexual harassment is defined as the introduction of sex into professional relations, it becomes quite possible to be both a feminist and a sexual harasser" (p. 11). Figuring out what this means – and what its implications are for professors, for ...


Why Ownership Matters? Entrepreneurship And The Restructuring Of Enterprises In Central Europe, Roman Frydman, Marek P. Hessel, Andrzej Rapaczynski Jan 1998

Why Ownership Matters? Entrepreneurship And The Restructuring Of Enterprises In Central Europe, Roman Frydman, Marek P. Hessel, Andrzej Rapaczynski

Faculty Scholarship

This paper, based on a study of mid-sized firms in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland, seeks to explain the reasons behind the marked impact of ownership on firm performance which has been observed in a number of studies in Eastern Europe and other parts of the world. Focusing in particular on the differential impact of ownership on revenue and cost performance, the paper argues that privatized firms controlled by outside investors are more entrepreneurial than those controlled by corporate insiders or the state. The paper provides evidence that all state and privatized firms in transition economies engage in similar ...


A Constitution Of Democratic Experimentalism, Michael C. Dorf, Charles F. Sabel Jan 1998

A Constitution Of Democratic Experimentalism, Michael C. Dorf, Charles F. Sabel

Faculty Scholarship

In this Article, Professors Dorf and Sabel identify a new form of government, democratic experimentalism, in which power is decentralized to enable citizens and other actors to utilize their local knowledge to fit solutions to their individual circumstances, but in which regional and national coordinating bodies require actors to share their knowledge with others facing similar problems. This information pooling, informed by the example of novel kinds of coordination within and among private firms, both increases the efficiency of public administration by encouraging mutual learning among its parts and heightens its accountability through participation of citizens in the decisions that ...