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Women And The Law, Cleveland-Marshall College Of Law Library Jan 2020

Women And The Law, Cleveland-Marshall College Of Law Library

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Rethinking Religious Objections (Old-Testament Based) To Same-Sex Marriage, Doron M. Kalir Jan 2019

Rethinking Religious Objections (Old-Testament Based) To Same-Sex Marriage, Doron M. Kalir

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In Obergefell v. Hodges, the Supreme Court closed the door on one issue only to open the floodgates to another. While recognizing a constitutional right for same-sex marriage, the Court also legitimized religious objections to such unions, practically inviting complex legal challenges to its doors. In doing so, the Court also called for an "open and searching debate" on the issue. This Article seeks to trigger such debate.

For millennia, objections to same-sex marriage were cast in religious and moral terms. The Jewish Bible ("Old Testament"), conventional wisdom argues, provided three demonstrable proofs of the Bible's abhorrence of same-sex ...


The Heat Of Passion And Blameworthy Reasons To Be Angry, Jonathan Witmer-Rich Apr 2018

The Heat Of Passion And Blameworthy Reasons To Be Angry, Jonathan Witmer-Rich

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This article seeks to resolve a longstanding conceptual puzzle plaguing the "heat of passion" doctrine--how courts should determine which features, beliefs, or characteristics of a defendant are properly relevant to assessing whether the defendant was sufficiently provoked, and which of those features should be disregarded. This article argues that provocation is not adequate if the reason the defendant became extremely angry is due to some blameworthy belief or attribute of the defendant. A belief is blameworthy if it contradicts the fundamental values of the political community. The blameworthiness principle distinguishes those aspects of the defendant that cannot form a basis ...


Amicus Curiae Brief Of Equality Ohio In Support Of Intervenor Urging Reversal, Doron M. Kalir, Kenneth J. Kowalski Apr 2017

Amicus Curiae Brief Of Equality Ohio In Support Of Intervenor Urging Reversal, Doron M. Kalir, Kenneth J. Kowalski

Law Faculty Briefs and Court Documents

Title VII’s plain language bars discharge of “any individual”—whether transgender or not—“because of such individual’s . . . sex.” It applies whenever employers take gender into account in making employment decisions. It is undisputed that the employer in this case based his decision to terminate Ms. Stephens solely on sex-based considerations. To be sure, he could have terminated Ms. Stephens for a wide array of reasons—tardiness, failure to perform, disciplinary issues—or for no reason at all. Under those circumstances, such termination—even of a transgender person—would not be “because of such individual’s sex.” But that ...


Same-Sex Sex And Immutable Traits: Why Obergefell V. Hodges Clears A Path To Protecting Gay And Lesbian Employees From Workplace Discrimination Under Title Vii, Matthew W. Green Jr. Jan 2017

Same-Sex Sex And Immutable Traits: Why Obergefell V. Hodges Clears A Path To Protecting Gay And Lesbian Employees From Workplace Discrimination Under Title Vii, Matthew W. Green Jr.

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This article is set forth in five parts. Part II is largely descriptive and focuses on two aspects of Obergefell: (1) the Court's clarification that adult, private, consensual, same-sex sexual intimacy is a fundamental right, protected by the U.S. Constitution's Fourteenth Amendment Due Process Clause and (2) the Court's recognition that leading mental health and medical groups consider sexual orientation to be immutable. Part III examines how courts and the EEOC have treated sexual orientation discrimination under Title VII and contains a normative discussion which argues—consistent with the position of other commentators, some courts, and ...


"Because Ladies Lie": Eliminating Vestiges Of The Corroboration And Resistance Requirements From Ohio's Sexual Offenses, Patricia J. Falk Jul 2014

"Because Ladies Lie": Eliminating Vestiges Of The Corroboration And Resistance Requirements From Ohio's Sexual Offenses, Patricia J. Falk

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In response to alarming statistics about the dearth of rape cases brought to successful fruition, feminist critiques of rape law, and changing attitudes about sexual autonomy, rape and sexual assault statutes in America have undergone enormous revision during the last few decades. The barriers to successful prosecution of rape cases-including the corroboration and resistance requirements-have been slowly eroding in modern statutory law. Despite rampant rape reform, these old-fashioned requirements have been remarkably persistent, and vestiges of them remain in twenty-first-century statutory enactments.


The Evolution Toward Judicial Independence In The Continuing Quest For Lgbt Equality, Susan J. Becker Jan 2014

The Evolution Toward Judicial Independence In The Continuing Quest For Lgbt Equality, Susan J. Becker

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Judicial decisions that hold same-sex marriage bans unconstitutional, no matter how that conclusion is reached, overturn laws or constitutional provisions that were passed with the support of a democratic majority. This Article takes an in-depth look at judicial activism and judicial independence to determine whether such victories for same-sex litigants were done properly by the judiciary. In the eyes of the Framers, an independent judiciary was to be a crucial check on the other branches’ constitutional limitations. With this in mind, judicial independence—where, in contrast with activism, judges meticulously apply the well-examined facts to controlling precedent without accounting for ...


The Detention, Confinement, And Incarceration Of Pregnant Women For The Benefit Of Fetal Health, April L. Cherry Jan 2007

The Detention, Confinement, And Incarceration Of Pregnant Women For The Benefit Of Fetal Health, April L. Cherry

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Section One of this Article discusses the effect of drug policy on the detention and confinement of pregnant women. This section also outlines three types of "fetal protection measures" that result in the detention, confinement, or incarceration of pregnant women in the name of fetal health and examines the legal rationales behind these mechanisms. Section One then questions whether detention is an effective way to reach the state's articulated goal of better fetal outcomes. Section Two offers a discussion of the constitutional rights at issue. This section addresses the ways in which detention violates two essential components of women ...


Interracial Marriage In The Shadows Of Jim Crow: Racial Segregation As A System Of Racial And Gender Subordination, Reginald Oh Mar 2006

Interracial Marriage In The Shadows Of Jim Crow: Racial Segregation As A System Of Racial And Gender Subordination, Reginald Oh

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This Essay works through essentialist language to reveal the multidimensional nature of racial segregation as a system of subordination. Specifically, it examines how racial segregation in public schools and laws prohibiting interracial marriage mutually reinforce racial and gender inequality. Part I discusses Brown and the traditional analysis of that decision as a case dealing with race, racial stigma, and equal educational opportunity. Part II reviews laws prohibiting interracial marriage, the reasoning and purpose behind these laws, and the Loving decision that rendered such laws unconstitutional. Part III then examines racial segregation in public schools as more than just a system ...


Roe's Legacy: The Nonconsensual Medical Treatment Of Pregnant Women And Implications For Female Citizenship, April L. Cherry Jan 2004

Roe's Legacy: The Nonconsensual Medical Treatment Of Pregnant Women And Implications For Female Citizenship, April L. Cherry

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In this Essay, I demonstrate how I have come to the conclusion that the "compelling state interest" language used by the Court in Roe has been used to constrain and derogate women's citizenship. In Part I, I detail Roe's holding and describe some of the arguments, which use Roe as precedent, that seek to justify limits on health care decision making by pregnant women. I argue that because Roe does not address situations outside of the abortion context, it leaves intact women's common law and constitutional liberty rights to direct their medical care. Therefore, the state cannot ...


Speech On Early Women Lawyers, Arthur R. Landever Apr 2003

Speech On Early Women Lawyers, Arthur R. Landever

Law Faculty Presentations and Testimony

This lecture discusses many early women lawyers and their accomplishments.


Defining Feminism, Defining Feminisms, Reginald Oh Jan 2003

Defining Feminism, Defining Feminisms, Reginald Oh

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Oh argues that feminists urgently need to define Feminism and to construct feminist theories that validate and affirm the truth of women's lived experience, in all their multiplicity and diversity. Because feminist theories are forged through the diverse experiences of differently situated women, it is respectfully suggested that the title of this Chapter may and can be seen as the call to define Feminism and Feminism(s). Defining feminism(s) means, in spirit of the "I-Thou" relationship, being mindful and respectful that individual Feminists will define Feminism in alignment with the truth of their unique experience, in alignment with ...


The Free Exercise Rights Of Pregnant Women Who Refuse Medical Treatment, April L. Cherry Jan 2002

The Free Exercise Rights Of Pregnant Women Who Refuse Medical Treatment, April L. Cherry

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In Part II, I outline the values protected by the free exercise clause. I also analyze modern free exercise jurisprudence, ending with the status of religious exemptions from laws of general applicability since the Supreme Court's decision in Employment Division v. Smith, which severely limits the situations in which strict scrutiny will be applied to analyze government actions that compels a religious believer to act contrary to her beliefs. In Part III, I first discuss the law regarding the right to refuse medical treatment. I then explore the states' rationales for using the force of law on pregnant women ...


Nurturing In The Service Of White Culture: Racial Subordination, Gestational Surrogacy, And The Ideology Of Motherhood, April L. Cherry Jan 2001

Nurturing In The Service Of White Culture: Racial Subordination, Gestational Surrogacy, And The Ideology Of Motherhood, April L. Cherry

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

I approach the question of race, motherhood, and gestational surrogacy, by looking at courts' opinions in the case of Johnson v. Calvert and the racialized institution of motherhood. In the next section, I discuss motherhood as a social institution. I contrast some of the radical feminist critiques of motherhood, which recognize motherhood as institutionalized and compulsory, with Black feminist criticism, which understands motherhood as a site of power for African-American women. In Section III, I discuss the current popular understanding of the cultural and legal dictates of institutionalized motherhood from a historical perspective, focusing on the late eighteenth and early ...


Taking Globalization Seriously: Towards General Jurisprudence (Book Review Of Globalization And Legal Theory By William Twining), Doron M. Kalir Jan 2001

Taking Globalization Seriously: Towards General Jurisprudence (Book Review Of Globalization And Legal Theory By William Twining), Doron M. Kalir

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Part II provides an account of the jurisprudence of Globalization and Legal Theory. Due to the novelty of many of the issues discussed in the book, as well as their importance to the understanding of Twining's recommendations, I have provided a longer than usual account of several chapters. Part II touches upon one of the central jurisprudential dichotomies introduced by Twining—the distinction between general and particular jurisprudence. Twining compares different accounts of the distinction using pairs of canonical jurists. In particular, he compares H.L.A Hart's Postscript with Dworkin's Law's Empire. In this part ...


Maternal-Fetal Conflicts, The Social Construction Of Maternal Deviance, And Some Thoughts About Love And Justice, April L. Cherry Jan 1999

Maternal-Fetal Conflicts, The Social Construction Of Maternal Deviance, And Some Thoughts About Love And Justice, April L. Cherry

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

FIRST PARAGRAPH: In the short amount of time that we have together today, I would like to accomplish three tasks. First, I would like to offer a brief overview of what and whom we are talking about when we talk about "maternal-fetal conflicts." Second, I would like to discuss some of the assumptions that are held about the women involved in these "conflicts," with the hope that giving voice to these assumptions might help us better understand why we may be willing to accept the coerced medical treatment of pregnant women, or legal sanctions against pregnant women who refuse treatment ...


Feminism And Defending Men On Death Row, Phyllis L. Crocker Jan 1998

Feminism And Defending Men On Death Row, Phyllis L. Crocker

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In this Essay I explore the relationship between being a feminist and representing men on death row. It is appropriate to engage in this inquiry in considering how the law has developed in the twenty-five years since Furman v. Georgia. During that time both Furman and the advent of feminist legal theory have required a restructuring in the way we think about two fundamental legal questions: for death penalty jurisprudence, how and why we sentence an individual to death; and for feminist jurisprudence, how the law views crimes of violence against women. The relationship between these two developments becomes apparent ...


Choosing Substantive Justice: A Discussion Of Choice, Rights And The New Reproductive Technologies, April L. Cherry Jul 1997

Choosing Substantive Justice: A Discussion Of Choice, Rights And The New Reproductive Technologies, April L. Cherry

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This paper is an expanded version of the speech that Professor Cherry presented at the National Women Law Students' Association Conference, entitled Consensus and the Community: Diversifying Our Points of View, at the University of Wisconsin Law School on March l, 1996. For Professor Cherry's complete article on this topic, see 10 Wis. Women's L.J. 161 A Feminist Understanding of Sex-Selective Abortion: Solely a Matter of Choice


Social Contract Theory, Welfare Reform, Race, And The Male Sex-Right, April L. Cherry Jan 1996

Social Contract Theory, Welfare Reform, Race, And The Male Sex-Right, April L. Cherry

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In this article, Cherry argues that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) is ultimately a politically undesirable and thinly veiled attack on the reproductive and sexual activities of poor women. In Part I, Cherry examines the development of social contract theory and analyzes social contract theory as a justification for material inequality. Part II examines social contract theory as a justification for the subordination of women. With this theoretical background established, in Part III, Cherry evaluates the current welfare reform proposals as social contract. This section examines the social contractarian language found in the current ...


A Feminist Understanding Of Sex-Selective Abortion: Solely A Matter Of Choice, April L. Cherry Oct 1995

A Feminist Understanding Of Sex-Selective Abortion: Solely A Matter Of Choice, April L. Cherry

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This essay consists of five sections. The first section describes the problem of sex-selective abortion, including an analysis of sociological data regarding adult preference for male children and its current effects. Section Two discusses various philosophical paradigms and analyses of sex-selective abortion with the goal of developing a coherent philosophical base from which to argue for a policy regarding sex-selective abortion which furthers the goals of gender equality. Section Three addresses the constitutionality of sex-selective abortion prohibitions in light of the Supreme Court's pronouncement in Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey. Section Four outlines the liberal feminist response ...


Four Remarkable Ohio Women Lawyers--The Cronise Sisters Of Tiffin, Florence Allen, And Cleveland Law School's "Hard-Boiled Mary'", Arthur R. Landever Oct 1994

Four Remarkable Ohio Women Lawyers--The Cronise Sisters Of Tiffin, Florence Allen, And Cleveland Law School's "Hard-Boiled Mary'", Arthur R. Landever

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Four Ohio Women blazed the trail. Among the early women lawyers in our state, they overcame resistance from the male bar or the culture of the day to distinguish themselves in the profession. Nettie Cronise was the first woman admitted to the Ohio bar. Her sister Florence followed, several months later. Florence Allen, admitted in 1914, became the nation's preeminent woman judge of her time. Mary Grossman, from Jewish immigrant roots, had a memorable career on the Cleveland Municipal Court. Why did these women choose law despite society's obstacles? What do they have to tell us?


"Life" And "Liberty": Their Original Meaning, Historical Antecedents, And Current Significance In The Debate Over Abortion Rights, Sheldon Gelman Jan 1994

"Life" And "Liberty": Their Original Meaning, Historical Antecedents, And Current Significance In The Debate Over Abortion Rights, Sheldon Gelman

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The legal controversy over abortion has been a dispute about constitutional “liberty.” Constitutional debate has ranged far and wide over questions of natural law, interpretative method, and judicial function, yet liberty remains the focal point. It is widely believed that if abortion and privacy rights derive from anything in the Constitution, they derive from “liberty,” and that if anything in the Constitution tells us how to treat those rights, “liberty” does. Part I outlines the present day controversy over liberty and abortion, including the multiple, conflicting opinions in Casey. Part II examines the phrase “life, liberty, or property,” and the ...


The Road Not Taken: State Constitutions As An Alternative Source Of Protection For Reproductive Rights, Kevin F. O'Neill Oct 1993

The Road Not Taken: State Constitutions As An Alternative Source Of Protection For Reproductive Rights, Kevin F. O'Neill

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Lawyers seeking constitutional protection for reproductive rights have relied almost exclusively on a liberty/privacy theory under the Federal Constitution. In the wake of Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, this theory may be seen as providing a floor of minimum protection-preventing states from banning abortion outright. But it is not strong enough to prevent states from enacting restrictions on the availability of abortion. Thus, the battle over reproductive rights may be seen as shifting from one phase ("Can abortion be banned?") to another ("How far can states go in restricting access to abortion'?"). If proponents of reproductive freedom ...


Toward Guidelines For Compelling Cesarean Surgery: Of Rights, Responsibility And Decisional Authenticity, Joel J. Finer Jan 1991

Toward Guidelines For Compelling Cesarean Surgery: Of Rights, Responsibility And Decisional Authenticity, Joel J. Finer

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

When, if ever, may a pregnant woman be compelled to undergo a cesarean section to save the life of a viable, verge-of-birth fetus? Courts and scholars have increasingly addressed the constitutional and ethical problems presented when a woman about to give birth requires a cesarean section to prevent the death of or severe harm to her fetus, and the woman refuses to have the surgery. Nationally, over a five year period, courts have heard twenty-one cases in which a court-ordered cesarean was being sought. Under what circumstances, if any, is it legally and ethically appropriate to compel a woman to ...