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Full-Text Articles in Law

Big Data And The Americans With Disabilities Act: Amending The Law To Cover Discrimination Based On Data-Driven Predictions Of Future Illnesses, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2017

Big Data And The Americans With Disabilities Act: Amending The Law To Cover Discrimination Based On Data-Driven Predictions Of Future Illnesses, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

While big data holds great promise to improve the human condition, it also creates new and previously unimaginable opportunities for discrimination. Employers, financial institutions, marketers, educational institutions, and others can now easily obtain a wealth of big data about individuals’ health status and use it to make adverse decisions relating to data subjects.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal law that prohibits employers and other public and private entities from discriminating against individuals because of their disabilities. This chapter argues that in the era of big data, the ADA does not go far enough. While the ADA ...


Electronic Health Records And Medical Big Data: Law And Policy, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2016

Electronic Health Records And Medical Big Data: Law And Policy, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

This book helps readers gain an in-depth understanding of electronic health record (EHR) systems, medical big data, and the regulations that govern them. It is useful both as a primer for students and as a resource for knowledgeable professionals. The book analyzes the shortcomings and benefits of EHR systems, explores the law's response to the technology’s adoption, highlights gaps in the current legal framework, and develops detailed recommendations for regulatory, policy, and technological improvements. Electronic Health Records and Medical Big Data addresses not only privacy and security concerns, but also other important challenges, such as those related to ...


Corporate Avatars And The Erosion Of The Populist Fourth Amendment, Avidan Cover Jan 2015

Corporate Avatars And The Erosion Of The Populist Fourth Amendment, Avidan Cover

Faculty Publications

The current state of Fourth Amendment jurisprudence leaves it to technology corporations to challenge court orders, subpoenas, and requests by the government for individual users’ information. The third-party doctrine denies people a reasonable expectation of privacy in data they transmit through telecommunications and Internet service providers. Third-party corporations become, by default, the people’s corporate avatars. Corporate avatars, however, do a poor job of representing individuals’ interests. Moreover, vesting the Fourth Amendment’s government-oversight functions in corporations fails to cohere with the Bill of Rights’ populist history and the Framers’ distrust of corporations.

This article examines how the third-party doctrine ...


Balancing Privacy, Autonomy, And Scientific Needs In Electronic Health Records Research, Sharona Hoffman, Andy Podgurski Jan 2012

Balancing Privacy, Autonomy, And Scientific Needs In Electronic Health Records Research, Sharona Hoffman, Andy Podgurski

Faculty Publications

The ongoing transition from paper medical files to electronic health records will provide unprecedented amounts of data for biomedical research, with the potential to catalyze significant advances in medical knowledge. But this potential can be fully realized only if the data available to researchers is representative of the patient population as a whole. Thus, allowing individual patients to exclude their health information, in keeping with traditional notions of informed consent, may compromise the research enterprise and the medical benefits it produces.

This Article analyzes the tension between realizing societal benefits from medical research and granting individual preferences for privacy. It ...


Employing E-Health: The Impact Of Electronic Health Records On The Workplace, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2010

Employing E-Health: The Impact Of Electronic Health Records On The Workplace, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

Electronic Health Record (HER) systems may soon become a fixture in most medical settings. President Obama’s 29 stimulus legislation includes $19 billion to promote their implementation. The sophisticated features and efficiencies of HER systems have the potential to improve health outcomes and enhance patient welfare considerably. However, this emerging technology also poses significant challenges and risks, not the least of which are its workplace impacts. This article provides a first of its kind analysis of the ramifications of HER systems for workers and employers.

The potential effects of health information computerization on the workplace are numerous. Employers may obtain ...


Dangerous Terrain: Mapping The Female Body In Gonzales V. Carhart, B. Jessie Hill Jan 2010

Dangerous Terrain: Mapping The Female Body In Gonzales V. Carhart, B. Jessie Hill

Faculty Publications

The body occupies an ambiguous position within the law. It is, in one sense, the quintessential object of state regulatory and police power, the object that the state acts both upon and for. At the same time, the body is often constructed in legal discourse as the site of personhood - our most intimate, sacred, and inviolate possession. The inherent tension between these two concepts of the body permeates the law, but it is perhaps nowhere more prominent than in the constitutional doctrine pertaining to abortion. Abortion is one of the most heavily regulated medical procedures in the United States, and ...


Privacy Is The Problem, Raymond Shih Ray Ku Jan 2010

Privacy Is The Problem, Raymond Shih Ray Ku

Faculty Publications

A local school district remotely activates laptop web cameras that allegedly record the activities of students, even in their bedrooms.1 The President authorizes the National Security Agency (NSA) to monitor the telephone calls and electronic communications of individuals within the United States on an unprecedented scale in the interest of national security.2 Even a cursory examination of the news suggests that the activities and communications of Americans are increasingly subject to government surveillance from every level of government. Whatever we may think about the necessity for this surveillance, we should question how such programs come into being; in ...


Reproductive Rights As Health Care Rights, B. Jessie Hill Jan 2009

Reproductive Rights As Health Care Rights, B. Jessie Hill

Faculty Publications

U.S. legal scholarship concerning reproductive rights has largely revolved around the poles of decisional autonomy, privacy, and equality, with a concomitant a tendency to de-emphasize the medical aspect of abortion rights. The medical approach has been particularly disfavored by feminist scholars, largely due to concerns about undermining the equality rationale for reproductive rights and placing too much power in the hands of physicians. In addition, American constitutional law has tended to treat reproductive-rights cases differently from other cases raising challenges to government restrictions on individuals’ rights to access certain forms of medical treatment, granting heightened judicial scrutiny to the ...


In Sickness, Health And Cyberspace: Protecting The Security Of Electronic Private Health Information, Sharona Hoffman, Andy Podgurski Jan 2007

In Sickness, Health And Cyberspace: Protecting The Security Of Electronic Private Health Information, Sharona Hoffman, Andy Podgurski

Faculty Publications

The electronic processing of health information provides considerable benefits to patients and health care providers at the same time that it creates serious risks to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data. The Internet provides a conduit for rapid and uncontrolled dispersion and trafficking of illicitly-obtained private health information, with far-reaching consequences to the unsuspecting victims. In order to address such threats to electronic private health information, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services enacted the HIPAA Security Rule, which thus far has received little attention in the legal literature. This article presents a critique of the ...


Preplacement Examinations And Job-Relatedness: How To Enhance Privacy And Diminish Discrimination In The Workplace, Sharona Hoffman Mar 2006

Preplacement Examinations And Job-Relatedness: How To Enhance Privacy And Diminish Discrimination In The Workplace, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

Medical testing in the workplace is raising growing concern in light of increasingly available genetic tests and what is perceived as a general assault on individual privacy in the United States. Almost seventy percent of major U.S. firms require individuals who receive job offers to undergo medical testing prior to the commencement of employment, and the law does not restrict the scope of these examinations. Thus, employers test job candidates not only for fitness for duty and use of illegal substances, but also for a variety of conditions including susceptibility to workplace hazards, breast and colon cancer, sexually transmitted ...


User Choices And Regret: Understanding Users' Decision Process About Consensually Acquired Spyware, Nataniel Good, Jens Grossklags, David Thaw, Aaron K. Perzanowski, Deirdre K. Mulligan, Joseph Konstan Jan 2006

User Choices And Regret: Understanding Users' Decision Process About Consensually Acquired Spyware, Nataniel Good, Jens Grossklags, David Thaw, Aaron K. Perzanowski, Deirdre K. Mulligan, Joseph Konstan

Faculty Publications

Spyware is software which monitors user actions, gathers personal data, and/or displays advertisements to users. While some spyware is installed surreptitiously, a surprising amount is installed on users’ computers with their active participation. In some cases, users agree to accept spyware as part of a software bundle as a cost associated with gaining functionality they desire. In many other cases, however, users are unaware that they installed spyware, or of the consequences of that installation. This lack of awareness occurs even when the functioning of the spyware is explicitly declared in the end user license agreement (EULA). We argue ...


Swingers: Morality Legislation & The Limits Of State Police Power, Raymond Shih Ray Ku Jan 1999

Swingers: Morality Legislation & The Limits Of State Police Power, Raymond Shih Ray Ku

Faculty Publications

This article examines whether Florida can legitimately convict the swingers pursuant to the Florida Constitution specifically, and principles of constitutional law in general, and concludes that it cannot.