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Case Western Reserve University School of Law

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Articles 1 - 5 of 5

Full-Text Articles in Law

The Promise Principle And Contract Interpretation: A Suggested Approach For Maximizing Value, Juliet P. Kostritsky Jan 2012

The Promise Principle And Contract Interpretation: A Suggested Approach For Maximizing Value, Juliet P. Kostritsky

Faculty Publications

The promise principle and its roots in a certain type of morality of individual obligation, which play the central role in Charles Fried’s vision of Contract law, have importantly contributed to rescuing Contract law from absorption into Tort law and from the imposition of externally imposed standards that are collective in origin. It makes a mammoth contribution to alerting us to the tyranny of interference with individual self-determination. However, this essay questions whether a promise centered system derived from a moral philosophy of promising (without an observable and testable foundation in reality) and geared to internal individual obligation and ...


Reproductive Rights As Health Care Rights, B. Jessie Hill Jan 2009

Reproductive Rights As Health Care Rights, B. Jessie Hill

Faculty Publications

U.S. legal scholarship concerning reproductive rights has largely revolved around the poles of decisional autonomy, privacy, and equality, with a concomitant a tendency to de-emphasize the medical aspect of abortion rights. The medical approach has been particularly disfavored by feminist scholars, largely due to concerns about undermining the equality rationale for reproductive rights and placing too much power in the hands of physicians. In addition, American constitutional law has tended to treat reproductive-rights cases differently from other cases raising challenges to government restrictions on individuals’ rights to access certain forms of medical treatment, granting heightened judicial scrutiny to the ...


Understanding Waiver, Jessica Wilen Berg Feb 2006

Understanding Waiver, Jessica Wilen Berg

Faculty Publications

Waiver plays a role in numerous areas of law, yet no one has attempted to provide a unifying theory of waiver, explaining why some rights cannot be waived and why courts and legislatures have set different standards for the validity of waivers in different circumstances. This article proposes that maximization of autonomy functions as an underlying goal of our legal system generally, and thus the concept of autonomy provides a basis for understanding waivers. It analyzes autonomy in some detail and offers an evaluative framework that functions both descriptively and normatively across different legal areas. There are two senses of ...


Constructing Competence: Formulating Standards Of Legal Competence To Make Medical Decisions, Jessica Wilen Berg Feb 2006

Constructing Competence: Formulating Standards Of Legal Competence To Make Medical Decisions, Jessica Wilen Berg

Faculty Publications

A young woman twenty-six weeks pregnant and dying from cancer lies heavily sedated and attached to a respirator. Is she competent to determine what life-prolonging measures should be taken, or to consent to an emergency cesarean section that may save her fetus but will probably shorten her life? A quadriplegic young man wishes to end his life and requests a court order granting immunity for the medical staff who will unhook his respirator and administer sedatives. Is he competent to choose to die? A person's competence will have implications for whether he or she is allowed to decide what ...


The Use Of Placebos In Clinical Trials: Responsible Research Or Unethical Practice?, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2001

The Use Of Placebos In Clinical Trials: Responsible Research Or Unethical Practice?, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

Developments in medical research have been occurring at a rapidly increasing rate during the past two decades. Expanding budgets, augmented computer capabilities, and new research tools have all dramatically enhanced research technology. Accompanying the proliferation of medical research are increasing concerns about research risks. This article focuses on placebo-controlled clinical trials. The use of placebos enables clinical investigators to compare results from subjects taking an experimental intervention to results from a group that is receiving an inactive substance, such as a sugar pill, in order to determine the efficacy of the new medication. In recent years, some surgeons have also ...