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Full-Text Articles in Law

Us–Cool: How The Appellate Body Misconstrued The National Treatment Principle, Severely Restricting Agency Discretion To Promulgate Mandatory, Pro-Consumer Labeling Rules, Juscelino F. Colares, William P. Canterberry Jan 2017

Us–Cool: How The Appellate Body Misconstrued The National Treatment Principle, Severely Restricting Agency Discretion To Promulgate Mandatory, Pro-Consumer Labeling Rules, Juscelino F. Colares, William P. Canterberry

Faculty Publications

In United States–Certain Country of Origin Labeling Requirements, the Appellate Body ("AB") of the World Trade Organization ("WTO") ruled that the United States' country-of-origin labeling regulations ("COOL") on beef and pork products violated the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade's ("TBT") National Treatment ("NT") Principle. Aimed at promoting informed consumer choice, COOL required retailers to disclose the covered products' origin. In prior decisions under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ("GATT") art. III:4, the AB correctly rejected protectionist rules that unnecessarily encumbered consumer choice by adversely affecting conditions of competition for imports. In US–COOL, however ...


Foreword: The Art Of International Law, Michael P. Scharf, Katie Steiner Jan 2017

Foreword: The Art Of International Law, Michael P. Scharf, Katie Steiner

Faculty Publications

September 16, 2016, Case Western Reserve University School of Law’s Frederick K. Cox International Law Center, in conjunction with the celebration of the Cleveland Museum of Art’s centennial anniversary, convened a day-long conference with leading scholars and practitioners from around the world to explore topics at the intersection of art and international law.


The United States As A Refuge State For Child Abductors: Why The United States' Fails To Meet Its Own Expectations Relative To The Hague Convention, Andrew Zashin Jan 2015

The United States As A Refuge State For Child Abductors: Why The United States' Fails To Meet Its Own Expectations Relative To The Hague Convention, Andrew Zashin

Faculty Publications

This paper asserts that the only way true progress can be made regarding this problem is for the United States to acknowledge that this serious problem actually exists. One has to look beyond the feel-good statistics and congratulatory press releases to see that the existing system, including the application of the Hague Convention on Child Abduction, fails LBPs. Until the nature and scope of the problem is identified and examined, the United States will continue to be a refuge state for child abductors.


Accelerated Formation Of Customary International Law, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2014

Accelerated Formation Of Customary International Law, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

This article examines the phenomenon of accelerated formation of customary international law. It argues that in periods of fundamental change (which the author characterizes as "Grotian Moments"), whether by technological advances, the commission of new forms of crimes against humanity, or the development of new means of warfare or terrorism, customary international law may form much more rapidly and with less state practice than is normally the case to keep up with the pace of developments. The article examines several case studies that explore the application and contours of the concept of "Grotian Moments."


Filling The Gaps With Public Policy: The Application Of The Hague Convention Protocol In Us Courts In The Absence Of A Co-Signing State, Andrew A. Zashin, Christopher R. Reynolds, Amy M. Keating Jan 2014

Filling The Gaps With Public Policy: The Application Of The Hague Convention Protocol In Us Courts In The Absence Of A Co-Signing State, Andrew A. Zashin, Christopher R. Reynolds, Amy M. Keating

Faculty Publications

This article will consider a possible avenue for filling 'gaps' when the 1980 Hague Abduction Convention or the 1996 Child Protection Convention do not apply in child custody/abduction cases. Specifically, it will explore utilizing internal US domestic relations law to facilitate the return of a child who has been abducted to the USA from a non-signatory country. To better illustrate the potential effects, the article will explore this 'gap filler' through the lens of a case study involving Japan, the most prominent first world country that is not yet a signatory to the Convention. The article also considers the ...


China’S Human Rights Footprint In Africa, Timothy Webster Jan 2013

China’S Human Rights Footprint In Africa, Timothy Webster

Faculty Publications

A significant amount of recent scholarship and commentary accuses China of plundering the African continent, coddling its dictators, and flouting labor and environmental standards. This paper makes the counterintuitive claim that, despite irrefutable cases of abuse, China’s engagement with Africa has actually improved the human rights conditions of millions of Africans. First, it places China’s abuses in context, showing that they differ little from the abuses and patronage politics of the major Western powers. Second, it examines the evolution of international relations between China and various African countries, from the exportation of political revolution in the 1950s and ...


Katyn: Justice Delayed Or Justice Denied? Report Of The Cleveland Experts' Meeting, Michael P. Scharf, Maria Szonert-Binienda Jan 2012

Katyn: Justice Delayed Or Justice Denied? Report Of The Cleveland Experts' Meeting, Michael P. Scharf, Maria Szonert-Binienda

Faculty Publications

Report of the Frederick K. Cox International Law Center and the Libra Institute, Inc. hosted a Symposium and Experts Meeting in commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the Katyn massacre, Cleveland, OH, February 4-5, 2011


Insular Minorities: International Law’S Challenge To Japan’S Ethnic Homogeneity, Timothy Webster Jan 2011

Insular Minorities: International Law’S Challenge To Japan’S Ethnic Homogeneity, Timothy Webster

Faculty Publications

The Japanese state has long promoted a view of itself, and the country, as ethnically homogeneous. Borrowing on critical race theory as developed in the United States, this paper first traces the numerous laws and policies that Japan has implemented to privilege ethnically Japanese people, and prejudice ethnic others. Next, the paper examines the role of international human rights law in challenging various edifices of the ethno-state, including amendments to legislation, and individual lawsuits. I conclude that international law has played a meaningful role in diversifying the protective ambit of Japanese law, but cannot provide all of the solutions that ...


The Limits Of Wto Adjudication: Is Compliance The Problem?, Juscelino F. Colares Jan 2011

The Limits Of Wto Adjudication: Is Compliance The Problem?, Juscelino F. Colares

Faculty Publications

Mainstream international trade law scholars have commented positively on the work of World Trade Organization (WTO) adjudicators. This favorable view is both echoed and challenged by empirical scholarship that shows a high disparity between Complainant and Respondent success rates (Complainants win between 8 and 9 percent of the disputes). Regardless of how one interprets these results, mainstream theorists, especially legalists, believe more is to be done to strengthen the system, and they point to instances of member recalcitrance to implement rulings as a serious problem. This article posits that such attempts to strengthen compliance are ill-advised. After discussing prior empirical ...


International Human Rights Law In Japan: The View At Thirty, Timothy Webster Jan 2010

International Human Rights Law In Japan: The View At Thirty, Timothy Webster

Faculty Publications

Japanese courts have become increasingly open to the use of international human rights law in the past two decades. This paper examines several of the key decisions that reflect the judiciary's embrace of international law, particularly in the areas of criminal procedure and minority rights. I argue that the judiciary has eclipsed the other branches of government as the primary disseminator of human rights norms in Japan.


The Torture Lawyers, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2010

The Torture Lawyers, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

This article recounts the story about how these four individuals intentionally cut off the government's primary experts on the Geneva Conventions, the Torture Convention, and customary international law from the decision making process. In doing so, they presented a one-sided and distorted view of U.S. obligations under international law that led to a widespread government policy and practice of torture. It also reveals how a trio of important Supreme Court precedents disrupted these plans, and ultimately swung the balance back in favor of compliance with international law.


Keynote Address: The T-Team, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2010

Keynote Address: The T-Team, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


On The Use And Abuse Of Standards For Law: Global Governance And Offshore Financial Centers, Richard K. Gordon Jan 2010

On The Use And Abuse Of Standards For Law: Global Governance And Offshore Financial Centers, Richard K. Gordon

Faculty Publications

Current trends in international legal scholarship have shifted from a paradigm of state actors working within recognized sources of international law to one that includes networks of domestic regulators that develop and implement best practices or standards on a global basis. The new paradigm can be seen in operation in the efforts by onshore jurisdictions (most of which are financial centers themselves) to restrict the activities of offshore financial centers. Onshore jurisdictions enlisted these regulatory networks, as well as key international organizations, such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and the International Monetary Fund, to advance new standards ...


Foreword: Lawfare!, Michael P. Scharf, Shannon Pagano Jan 2010

Foreword: Lawfare!, Michael P. Scharf, Shannon Pagano

Faculty Publications

Forward to the Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law's symposium "Lawfare!" 2012, Cleveland, OH


Seizing The Grotian Moment: Accelerated Formation Of Customary International Law During Times Of Fundamental Change, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2010

Seizing The Grotian Moment: Accelerated Formation Of Customary International Law During Times Of Fundamental Change, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

Growing out of the author’s experience as Special Assistant to the International Prosecutor of the Cambodia Genocide Tribunal in 28, this article examines the concept of “Grotian moment,” a term the author uses to denote a paradigm-shifting development in which new rules and doctrines of customary international law emerge with unusual rapidity and acceptance. The article makes the case that the paradigm-shifting nature of the Nuremberg precedent, and the universal and unqualified endorsement of the Nuremberg Principles by the U.N. General Assembly in 1946, resulted in accelerated formation of customary international law, including the mode of international criminal ...


International Law In Crisis: A Qualitative Empirical Contribution To The Compliance Debate, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2009

International Law In Crisis: A Qualitative Empirical Contribution To The Compliance Debate, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 21, Professors Jack Goldsmith and Eric Posner published The Limits of International Law, a potentially revolutionary book that employs rational choice theory to argue that international law is really just “politics” and does not render a “compliance pull” on State decisionmakers. Critics have pointed out that Goldsmith and Posner’s identification of the role of international law in each of their case studies is largely conjectural, and that what is needed is qualitative empirical data that identifies the international law-based arguments that were actually made and the policy-makers’ responses to ...


International Law And The Torture Memos, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2009

International Law And The Torture Memos, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

This article explores the influence of international law in the evolution of the Bush Administration's policies toward detainees in the global war on terror. The detainee case study provides a modern lens for evaluating Jack Goldsmith and Eric Posner's hypothesis set forth in THE LIMITS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW that international law exerts no “compliance pull” on American policymakers in times of crisis.


A Theory Of Wto Adjudication: From Empirical Analysis To Biased Rule Development, Juscelino F. Colares Jan 2009

A Theory Of Wto Adjudication: From Empirical Analysis To Biased Rule Development, Juscelino F. Colares

Faculty Publications

The positive theory of litigation predicts that, under certain conditions, plaintiffs and defendants achieve an unremarkable and roughly equivalent share of litigation success. This Article, grounded in an empirical analysis of WTO adjudication from 1995 through 27, reveals a high disparity between Complainant and Respondent success rates: Complainants win roughly ninety percent of the disputes. This disparity transcends case type, party identity, income level, and other litigant-specific characteristics. After analyzing and discarding standard empirical and theoretical alternative explanations for the systematic disparity in success rates, this study demonstrates, through an examination of patterns in WTO adjudicators' notorious decisions, that biased ...


Bus Bombings And A Baby's Custody: Insidious Victories For Terrorism In The Context Of International Custody Disputes, Andrew Zashin Jan 2008

Bus Bombings And A Baby's Custody: Insidious Victories For Terrorism In The Context Of International Custody Disputes, Andrew Zashin

Faculty Publications

This article will address the problematic intersection of terrorism and child custody battles. The most immediate consequences of a terrorist attack are loved ones lost and buildings reduced to rubble. These losses are devastating, shocking and scary. But to end an analysis of terrorist victories with a body count is a fatal mistake. Americans fervently shout we cannot let "them" win, but how do we decide if they are winning? What do the terrorists want? It is not the goal of terrorists to simply kill Americans, causing death and destruction. That is merely a horrific means to their end. Terrorists ...


Tainted Provenance: When, If Ever, Should Torture Evidence Be Admissible, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2008

Tainted Provenance: When, If Ever, Should Torture Evidence Be Admissible, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

Written by a consultant to the United Nation's newly established Cambodia Genocide Tribunal, "Tainted Provenance" examines one of the most important legal questions that will face the Tribunal as it begins its trials next year -- whether evidence of the Khmer Rouge command structure that came from interrogation sessions at the infamous Tuol Sleng torture facility should be considered notwithstanding the international exclusionary rule for evidence procured by torture. The issue of whether there should be exceptions to the torture evidence exclusionary rule (and how those exceptions should be crafted to avoid abuse) has significant implications beyond the international tribunal ...


Forward: To Prevent And To Punish: An International Conference In Commemoration Of The Sixtieth Anniversary Of The Genocide Convention, Michael P. Scharf, Brianne M. Draffin Jan 2008

Forward: To Prevent And To Punish: An International Conference In Commemoration Of The Sixtieth Anniversary Of The Genocide Convention, Michael P. Scharf, Brianne M. Draffin

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


An Empirical Examination Of Product And Litigant-Specific Theories For The Divergence Between Nafta Chapter 19 And U.S. Judicial Review, Juscelino F. Colares Jan 2008

An Empirical Examination Of Product And Litigant-Specific Theories For The Divergence Between Nafta Chapter 19 And U.S. Judicial Review, Juscelino F. Colares

Faculty Publications

Empirical analysis of NAFTA panel review has shown that panels reverse US agency trade remedy determinations twice as often as US courts. Recent studies have eliminated case selection and other hypotheses as potential explanations for this divergence. In this article, Probit regressions show that case docket differences, such as type of import or litigant identity, also cannot account for this discrepancy. As NAFTA panels must apply the same law and standards of review as the US courts they replace, this divergence presents serious questions regarding US Congressional acquiescence to the operation of NAFTA panels and encourages discussion of the role ...


Forward: Lessons From The Saddam Trial, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2007

Forward: Lessons From The Saddam Trial, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

Forward to the conference on "Lessons from the Daddam Trial."


Chaos In The Courtroom, Controlling Disruptive Defendants And Contumacious Counsel In War Crimes Trials, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2007

Chaos In The Courtroom, Controlling Disruptive Defendants And Contumacious Counsel In War Crimes Trials, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

During the eight month-long Dujail trial (October 2005-August 2006), Saddam Hussein, his seven co-defendants, and their dozen lawyers regularly disparaged the judges, interrupted witness testimony with outbursts, turned cross examination into political diatribes, and staged frequent walk-outs and boycotts. Drawn from the author's September 2006 lecture to the staff of the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court in The Hague, this article examines some of history's previous messy trials and the strategies judges have employed with varying degrees of success to respond to disruptive conduct by trial participants. It then describes the various tactics employed ...


Nafta's Double Standard Of Review, Juscelino F. Colares Jan 2007

Nafta's Double Standard Of Review, Juscelino F. Colares

Faculty Publications

Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) replaced court review of U.S. antidumping and countervailing duties with binding review by special binational panels of trade experts. It requires these panels to apply the same standard of review that U.S. courts use in trade remedy cases. Despite the centrality of this requirement to the Chapter 19 panel system, these panels have not adhered to this mandate. Chapter 19 panels overturn U.S. agency rulings much more often than the courts. In fact, they apply two different standards of review: exacting scrutiny where foreign producers and governments ...


Promoting Diverse Cultural Expression: Lessons From The U.S. Copyright Wars, Raymond Shih Ray Ku Jan 2007

Promoting Diverse Cultural Expression: Lessons From The U.S. Copyright Wars, Raymond Shih Ray Ku

Faculty Publications

In 2007, the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expression (CCD) with the goal of creating an environment that encourages individuals and social groups to create, distribute, and have access to diverse cultural expression from their own cultural and from cultures around the world. With regard to domestic and international efforts to implement the CCD and reconcile its goals with other international norms, the author argues that valuable lessons can be learned from current trends and issues in U.S. copyright law. Specifically, the author argues that the current debate over ...


Babes With Arms: International Law And Child Soldiers, Timothy Webster Jan 2007

Babes With Arms: International Law And Child Soldiers, Timothy Webster

Faculty Publications

This article examines advances in preventing children from participating in armed conflict. It references international human rights treaties, UN Security Council resolutions and jurisprudence from international courts to chart the course by which recruiting child soldiers became an international crime. At the same time, it calls on UN bodies – and the states that comprise them – to implement some of the many resolutions and veiled threats leveled at various groups and militias that use child soldiers.


From The Exile Files: An Essay On Trading Justice For Peace, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2006

From The Exile Files: An Essay On Trading Justice For Peace, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

In the spring and summer of 2003, the United States offered exile in lieu of invasion and prosecution to two rogue leaders accused of committing international crimes - Iraqi President Saddam Hussein (who declined) and Liberian President Charles Taylor (who accepted). In this essay, the author argues that the offer to Hussein was inappropriate, as it violated international treaties requiring prosecution, but that the offer to Taylor was permissible under international law. The essay examines the costs and benefits of amnesty and exile-for-peace deals and the limited nature of the international duty to prosecute. Where the duty to prosecute does apply ...


Will Saddam Hussein Get A Fair Trial?, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2005

Will Saddam Hussein Get A Fair Trial?, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

Debate between Dr. Curtis F. J. Doebbler and Professor Michael P. Scharf


Defining Terrorism As The Peacetime Equivalent Of War Crimes: Problems And Prospects, Michael P. Scharf Jan 2004

Defining Terrorism As The Peacetime Equivalent Of War Crimes: Problems And Prospects, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

This article examines the proposal to define terrorism as the peacetime equivalent of war crimes in the context of answering two questions: First, why might it be useful to define terrorism by reference to the existing laws of war? And second, what are the potential negative consequences which might counsel against such an approach?