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Full-Text Articles in Law

Evaluating Trickle Down Charity, Matthew Rossman Jan 2014

Evaluating Trickle Down Charity, Matthew Rossman

Faculty Publications

As our nation's philanthropic sector becomes more entrepreneurial, ambitious and influenced by the private sector, longstanding legal standards on what constitutes “charity” struggle to stay relevant. More and more often, organizations that seek classification by the Internal Revenue Service as a Section 501(c)(3) charity (and the substantial public subsidy that this status unlocks) are not the soup kitchens and homeless shelters of yesteryear, but highly sophisticated ventures which accomplish their missions in ways that are less obviously charitable. In no case is this more true than in the recent widespread emergence of nonprofit organizations whose primary activity ...


Taxation Without Representation: The Illegal Irs Rule To Expand Tax Credits Under The Ppaca, Jonathan H. Adler, Michael F. Cannon Jan 2013

Taxation Without Representation: The Illegal Irs Rule To Expand Tax Credits Under The Ppaca, Jonathan H. Adler, Michael F. Cannon

Faculty Publications

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) provides tax credits and subsidies for the purchase of qualifying health insurance plans on state-run insurance exchanges. Contrary to expectations, many states are refusing or otherwise failing to create such exchanges. An Internal Revenue Service (IRS) rule purports to extend these tax credits and subsidies to the purchase of health insurance in federal exchanges created in states without exchanges of their own. This rule lacks statutory authority. The text, structure, and history of the Act show that tax credits and subsidies are not available in federally run exchanges. The IRS rule is ...


God, Gaia, The Taxpayer And The Lorax: Standing, Justiciability, And Separation Of Powers After Massachusetts And Hein, Jonathan H. Adler Jan 2008

God, Gaia, The Taxpayer And The Lorax: Standing, Justiciability, And Separation Of Powers After Massachusetts And Hein, Jonathan H. Adler

Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court decided two important standing cases during the October 2006 term: Hein v. Freedom from Religion Foundation and Massachusetts v. EPA. The latter is important for what it did, the former for what it did not do. Whereas Hein hewed closely - perhaps too closely - to prior standing precendents, the Massachusetts decision substantially departed from existing precedent and established a new doctrine of special solicitude to state standing. Both decisions involved generalized grievances about federal government policies that affect citizens as a whole, but point in opposite directions. In many respects the opinions are in significant tension with each ...


Introduction: Capitalizing On The Success Of Entrepreneurship: Ipos, Private Sales, Tax Aspects, Residual Interest Of Entrepreneurs After Sales Of Ipos, Richard K. Gordon Jan 2007

Introduction: Capitalizing On The Success Of Entrepreneurship: Ipos, Private Sales, Tax Aspects, Residual Interest Of Entrepreneurs After Sales Of Ipos, Richard K. Gordon

Faculty Publications

Panel discussion on "Capitalizing on the Success of Entrepreneurship: IPOS, Private Sales, Tax Aspects, Residual Interest of Entrepreneurs after Sales of IPOS" from the "The Canada-United States Law Institute Conference on Comparative Legal Aspects of Entrepreneurship in Canada and the United States" - Cleveland, Ohio April 13-14, 2007.


Wheir’S The Beef?: Buffalo Law And Taxation, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Wheir’S The Beef?: Buffalo Law And Taxation, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

The intersection of buffalo law and taxation hasn't been a busy one, but accidents still happen: not everyone understands that buffalo have the right of way. This article critically analyzes the recent Tax Court summary opinion in Wheir v. Commissioner, which involved a bodybuilder who sought to deduct the cost of an incredible amount of buffalo meat. Along the way, the article brings buffalo law learning up-to-date; revisits some classic, nineteenth-century buffalo law cases; and, most important, considers whether there are important differences between the American bison and American beef cattle - differences that might have relevance to American tax ...


Interpreting The Sixteenth Amendment (By Way Of The Direct-Tax Clauses), Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Interpreting The Sixteenth Amendment (By Way Of The Direct-Tax Clauses), Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

The Sixteenth Amendment and the direct-tax clauses have become subjects of interest in the legal academy and, as proposals for new forms of national taxation emerge on a seemingly daily basis, they could become subjects of more general interest as well. Under the direct-tax clauses, a direct tax must be apportioned among the states on the basis of population, making such a tax difficult, although not impossible, to implement. Following the Supreme Court decisions in the 1895 Income Tax Cases, which held that an 1894 income tax was a direct tax that had not been properly apportioned, the Sixteenth Amendment ...


Taxation Of Beards, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Taxation Of Beards, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article makes a compelling case that the United States could learn from the imaginative tax policy-maker Peter the Great and institute a tax on beards. Such a tax could raise a little revenue, decrease scruffiness, and provide a new subject for cutting-edge law review notes.

Note: This a description of the paper and not the actual abstract.


The Taxing Power, The Sixteenth Amendment, And The Meaning Of ‘Incomes,’, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

The Taxing Power, The Sixteenth Amendment, And The Meaning Of ‘Incomes,’, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article examines the debates leading to the enactment of the 1894 income tax, which the Supreme Court struck down in 1895, and the Sixteenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, and concludes that an income tax and a tax on consumption were understood to be fundamentally different types of taxes. The author argues that the term “taxes on incomes” in the Sixteenth Amendment should be interpreted with that distinction in mind. The Amendment was intended to make a “tax on incomes,” and only a tax on incomes, possible without the apportionment that would otherwise be required for a direct tax. For ...


Unapportioned Direct-Consumption Taxes And The Sixteenth Amendment, Erik M. Jensen Feb 2006

Unapportioned Direct-Consumption Taxes And The Sixteenth Amendment, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

The point of this essay is simple: a direct-consumption tax like the Forbes-Armey-Hall-Rabushka flat tax or the Nunn-Domenici USA tax is not a "tax on incomes" within the meaning of the Sixteenth Amendment. As a result, such a tax would be constitutional only if it were apportioned among the states on the basis of population. And since these taxes would not be apportioned-how could they be and work as they are intended to work?-they would be unconstitutional.


Taxation And The Constitution: How To Read The Direct-Tax Clauses, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Taxation And The Constitution: How To Read The Direct-Tax Clauses, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This essay responds to Professor Bruce Ackerman, who had challenged the author's understanding of the Direct-Tax Clauses of the Constitution and the Sixteenth Amendment to that Constitution.


Respect For Statutory Text Versus ‘Blithe Unconcern’: A Reply To Professor Coverdale, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Respect For Statutory Text Versus ‘Blithe Unconcern’: A Reply To Professor Coverdale, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

In Tufts v. Commissioner, the Supreme Court in 1983 had concluded that relief from a nonrecourse liability on disposition of property should be reflected in the seller's amount realized, even if the value of the property had dropped below the principal amount of the obligation. Professor Coverdale quite reasonably complained that the statutory definition of amount realized makes no mention of liabilities and that, not quite so reasonably, commentators had shown blithe unconcern about statutory language. A great fan of adhering to statutory language, the author nevertheless argues that interpreters must take into account judicial developments, in this case ...


The Control Of Avoidance: The United States Alternative, John Tiley, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Control Of Avoidance: The United States Alternative, John Tiley, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article, jointly written by a British and an American academic, describes the American experience in identifying and attacking tax avoidance. The article was part of a symposium issue of the British Tax Review, published by Sweet and Maxwell, devoted to tax avoidance issues around the globe.


Critical Theory And The Loneliness Of The Tax Prof, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Critical Theory And The Loneliness Of The Tax Prof, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This essay, prepared for a symposium on critical theory and tax law, has two goals: to suggest why feminist theory and critical race theory are spreading in taxation and to discuss some dangers of that criticism. The author evaluates three examples of the new criticism: an article on critical race theory by Professors Moran and Whitford; an article on feminist statutory interpretation by Professor Handelman; and a book, Taxing Women, by Professor McCaffery.


The Apportionment Of ‘Direct Taxes’: Are Consumption Taxes Constitutional?, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Apportionment Of ‘Direct Taxes’: Are Consumption Taxes Constitutional?, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

In debates about reorienting the American revenue system, nearly everyone assumes the Constitution is irrelevant. With few exceptions, the tax provisions in the original Constitution - particularly the direct-tax apportionment rule and the uniformity rule - have been interpreted to be paper tigers. And in only one major case has the Sixteenth Amendment, which excepts "taxes on incomes" from apportionment, been held to limit congressional power.

S Rejecting conventional wisdom, this Article argues that some consumption taxes would violate constitutional norms. The Article focuses on the requirement that “direct taxes” be apportioned among the states on the basis of population. From a ...


Commentary: Food For Thought And Thoughts About Food: Can Meals And Lodging Provided To Domestic Servants Be For The Convenience Of The Employer?, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Commentary: Food For Thought And Thoughts About Food: Can Meals And Lodging Provided To Domestic Servants Be For The Convenience Of The Employer?, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This commentary considers one of the least important issues in tax law: whether the value of meals and lodging provided to domestic servants is excludable from the servants' gross income under section 119 of the Internal Revenue Code. Trivial though the issue is, the author goes on and on-and on, arguing that an example in the regulations under section 119, which concludes that the "business premises of the employer" requirement would be satisfied in such a situation, is misleading in its implications. It's not enough that the meals and lodging be provided on the business premises of the employer ...


The Supreme Court And The Timing Of Deductions For Accrual-Basis Taxpayers, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Supreme Court And The Timing Of Deductions For Accrual-Basis Taxpayers, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article examines the Supreme Court's two decisions in the late 1980s dealing with the timing of deductions, United States v. Hughes Properties (1986) and United States v. General Dynamics Corp. (1987), and finds those decisions wanting. Indeed, it is hard to understand why the Court exercised its discretionary jurisdiction twice in such a short period when the cases involved technicalities that seemed to overwhelm the generalist justices and when subsequent disputes with similar factual situations would be affected by statutory changes.


Taxation, The Student Athlete, And The Professionalization Of College Athletics, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Taxation, The Student Athlete, And The Professionalization Of College Athletics, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

It has become common to hear critics argue that big-time college athletes are being exploited by their institutions and that they should be paid fair market value for their services. This article argues that such a policy, if adopted, could have some unexpected consequences for the colleges. The traditional justification for not taxing athletic income (basically meaning, for most big-time schools, that from football and basketball) is that the participants are student athletes, that the activities are related to the colleges’ overall educational purposes, and that the athletic revenue is therefore not subject to the tax on unrelated business income ...


Hughes Properties And General Dynamics: The Supreme Court, The All Events Test, And The 1984 Tax Act, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

Hughes Properties And General Dynamics: The Supreme Court, The All Events Test, And The 1984 Tax Act, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article discusses United States v. Hughes Properties, a 1986 case in which the Supreme Court blessed an accrual-basis taxpayer's current deduction for amounts guaranteed as payoffs on progressive slot machines but for which no winner had yet been determined. The author notes that, had the case been governed by section 461(h) of the Internal Revenue Code, as it was amended by the 1984 Tax Reform Act, the deductions would have been deferred. He speculates about the Supreme Court's willingness to decide an issue rendered moot by subsequent legislation, and ponders the effect that the decision in ...


The Deduction Of Future Liabilities By Accrual-Basis Tax­Payers: Premature Accruals, The All Events Test, And Eco­Nomic Performance, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Deduction Of Future Liabilities By Accrual-Basis Tax­Payers: Premature Accruals, The All Events Test, And Eco­Nomic Performance, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

Written during the Paleozoic era, this article considers the timing of deductions by accrual-basis taxpayers. The article considers timing problems under pre-1984 prior law, where the benefit of a deduction for a future obligation could provide grossly inflated tax benefits; the limitations of the all events test as the sole determinant of timing; and the effect of statutory changes made by the Tax Reform Act of 1984, which require that a deduction be deferred until "economic performance" has occurred.


The Uneasy Justification For Special Treatment Of Like-Kind Exchanges, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Uneasy Justification For Special Treatment Of Like-Kind Exchanges, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article considered the traditional justifications for nonrecognition treatment for like-kind exchanges, as provided in section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code, and found them wanting. The article nevertheless concluded that, even though the justifications are imperfect, section 1031 has some plausibility to it, at least as applied to traditional, simultaneous exchanges.


The Heroic Nature Of Tax Lawyers, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2006

The Heroic Nature Of Tax Lawyers, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This essay uses John Grisham’s monumental work, 'The Firm,' to refute the notion that tax lawyers are nerds. A tax lawyer himself, the author challenges anyone who disagrees with him to a duel with broadswords.


The Evolving Domestic And International Law Against Foreign Corruption: Some New And Old Ethical Dilemmas Facing The International Lawyer, Juscelino F. Colares Jan 2006

The Evolving Domestic And International Law Against Foreign Corruption: Some New And Old Ethical Dilemmas Facing The International Lawyer, Juscelino F. Colares

Faculty Publications

This article examines the origins and meaning of the Export Clause in Article I, section 9 of the United States Constitution, which provides that "[n]o Tax or duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State."

Part I of the article considers the original understanding of the Export Clause, concluding that, without the Clause, the Constitution would not have been adopted. In light of the Export Clause's significance in the constitutional structure, Part II examines the Supreme Court's decisions in United States v. International Business Machines Corp., 517 U.S. 843 (1996) (IBM), and United States ...


The Constitution Matters In Taxation, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2003

The Constitution Matters In Taxation, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

These articles, from a colloquy on the taxing power, are part of an ongoing-some might say endless-debate between the author and Professor Calvin Johnson about the meaning of the Direct-Tax Clauses of the Constitution and the Sixteenth Amendment. The author argues that the Direct-Tax Clauses were intended to be a significant limitation on the national taxing power, and that the Amendment ought to be interpreted accordingly-to have exempted only one category of taxes, taxes on incomes, from the apportionment rule that otherwise applies to direct taxes.


Doing Business In Indian Country: Introduction To American Indian Law Concepts Affecting Taxation, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2003

Doing Business In Indian Country: Introduction To American Indian Law Concepts Affecting Taxation, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article describes some of the issues that will affect whether national, state, and tribal governments can tax investors who do business, or who invest in doing business, within Indian country (a term generally meaning American Indian reservations, although it can be broader than that).

Absent treaty language or express statutory language to the contrary, tribal members are subject to federal taxes of general application, such as the income tax. The Internal Revenue Code does contain some specific provisions exempting certain sorts of income, such as that from fishing-rights related activities, from taxation. In general, nonmembers of a tribe who ...


The Export Clause, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2003

The Export Clause, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article examines the origins and meaning of the Export Clause in Article I, section 9 of the United States Constitution, which provides that "[n]o Tax or duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State."

Part I of the article considers the original understanding of the Export Clause, concluding that, without the Clause, the Constitution would not have been adopted. In light of the Export Clause's significance in the constitutional structure, Part II examines the Supreme Court's decisions in United States v. International Business Machines Corp., 517 U.S. 843 (1996) (IBM), and United States ...


Jensen’S Response To Johnson’S Response To Jensen’S Response To Johnson’S Response To Jensen (Or Is It The Other Way Around?), Erik M. Jensen Jan 2003

Jensen’S Response To Johnson’S Response To Jensen’S Response To Johnson’S Response To Jensen (Or Is It The Other Way Around?), Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

These articles, from a colloquy on the taxing power, are part of an ongoing-some might say endless-debate between the author and Professor Calvin Johnson about the meaning of the Direct-Tax Clauses of the Constitution and the Sixteenth Amendment. The author argues that the Direct-Tax Clauses were intended to be a significant limitation on the national taxing power, and that the Amendment ought to be interpreted accordingly-to have exempted only one category of taxes, taxes on incomes, from the apportionment rule that otherwise applies to direct taxes.


Y2k And The Income Tax, Erik M. Jensen Jan 2000

Y2k And The Income Tax, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


American Indian Law Meets The Internal Revenue Code: Warbus V. Commissioner, Erik M. Jensen Jan 1998

American Indian Law Meets The Internal Revenue Code: Warbus V. Commissioner, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

This article examines a 1998 Tax Court decision, Warbus v. Commissioner, that has implications for both American Indian law and federal tax law. Section 7873 of the Internal Revenue Code exempts from taxation amounts derived by American Indian tribal members from fishing-rights related activit[ies] of their tribes. Taxpayer Warbus claimed that discharge of indebtedness income from the foreclosure of his fishing boat qualified for the exclusion; the Tax Court said no. The author argues that Warbus was wrongly decided for two reasons: the court failed to take account of basic principles of American Indian law, and the court misapplied ...


The Municipal Bond Interst Exemption: Comments On A Running Battle, Leon Gabinet Jan 1997

The Municipal Bond Interst Exemption: Comments On A Running Battle, Leon Gabinet

Faculty Publications

Ever since the enactment of the Revenue Act of 1913 there has been continued debate surrounding the exemption given to municipal bond interest. More recently a variety of alternatives to the interest exemption have been suggested in an effort to correct t


Economic Performance And Progressive Jackpots: A Better Analysis, Erik M. Jensen Jan 1997

Economic Performance And Progressive Jackpots: A Better Analysis, Erik M. Jensen

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.