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Boston University School of Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Liberal Feminist Jurisprudence: Foundational, Enduring, Adaptive, Linda C. Mcclain, Brittany K. Hacker Jan 2022

Liberal Feminist Jurisprudence: Foundational, Enduring, Adaptive, Linda C. Mcclain, Brittany K. Hacker

Faculty Scholarship

Liberal feminism remains a significant strand of feminist jurisprudence in the U.S. Rooted in 19th and 20th century liberal and feminist political theory and women’s rights advocacy, it emphasizes autonomy, dignity, and equality. Liberal feminism’s focus remains to challenge unjust gender-based restrictions based on assumptions about men’s and women’s proper spheres and roles. Second wave liberal legal feminism, evident in Ruth Bader Ginsburg’s constitutional litigation, challenged pervasive sex-based discrimination in law and social institutions and shifted the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the Equal Protection Clause to a more skeptical review of gender-based classifications ...


Loving It To Pieces: Eu Law In Us Legal Academia, Revisited, Daniela Caruso Apr 2021

Loving It To Pieces: Eu Law In Us Legal Academia, Revisited, Daniela Caruso

Faculty Scholarship

The Editors of the Special Issue have kindly invited me to update earlier reflections on the state of EU law in US legal academic. For a variety of reasons, it is important to me not to mislead the reader with the false promise of some kind of summa. What follows is my own perception of a complicated landscape, which I shall sketch lightly here in the hop of prompting other scholars of EU Law to report on their own US experience.


Market Myopia's Climate Bubble, Madison Condon Mar 2021

Market Myopia's Climate Bubble, Madison Condon

Faculty Scholarship

A growing number of financial institutions, ranging from BlackRock to the Bank of England, have warned that markets may not be accurately incorporating climate change-related risks into asset prices. This Article seeks to explain how this mispricing can exist at the level of individual assets drawing from scholarship on corporate governance and the mechanisms of market (in)efficiency. Market actors: 1. Lack the fine-grained asset-level data they need in order to assess risk exposure; 2. Continue to rely on outdated means of assessing risk; 3. Have misaligned incentives resulting in climate-specific agency costs; 4. Have myopic biases exacerbated by climate ...


American Edibles: How Cannabis Regulatory Policy Rehashes Prohibitionist Fears And What To Do About It, Jay Wexler, Connor Burns Mar 2021

American Edibles: How Cannabis Regulatory Policy Rehashes Prohibitionist Fears And What To Do About It, Jay Wexler, Connor Burns

Faculty Scholarship

Why can’t we buy a cannabis muffin with our morning coffee? For much of the past century, the answer was simple: cannabis was illegal. Now, however, with more and more states legalizing cannabis for adult use, the answer is far less clear. Even in those states that have legalized cannabis, the simple action of buying and eating edibles at the same location has somehow remained a pipe dream despite consumer demand. Digging a little deeper, we can see how contemporary alarmism, by rehashing the same prohibitionist rhetoric demonizing cannabis for over eighty years, has once again arisen with a ...


The Electoral Count Mess: The Electoral Count Act Of 1887 Is Unconstitutional, And Other Fun Facts (Plus A Few Random Academic Speculations) About Counting Electoral Votes, Jack Beermann, Gary Lawson Mar 2021

The Electoral Count Mess: The Electoral Count Act Of 1887 Is Unconstitutional, And Other Fun Facts (Plus A Few Random Academic Speculations) About Counting Electoral Votes, Jack Beermann, Gary Lawson

Faculty Scholarship

In this essay, and in light of the controversy that arose in the wake of the 2020 presidential election, we explain the constitutional process for counting electoral votes. In short, every four years, the Twelfth Amendment requires the President of the Senate (usually the Vice President of the United States) to open certificates provided by state presidential electors and count the votes contained therein. The Constitution allows no role for Congress in this process, and thus, the provisions of the Electoral Count Act purporting to grant Congress the power, by concurrent resolution, to reject a state’s electoral votes, is ...


The Jury Trial Reinvented, Christopher Robertson, Michael Shammas Mar 2021

The Jury Trial Reinvented, Christopher Robertson, Michael Shammas

Faculty Scholarship

The Framers of the Sixth and Seventh Amendments to the United States Constitution recognized that jury trials were essential institutions for maintaining democratic legitimacy and avoiding epistemic crises. As an institution, the jury trial is purpose-built to engage citizens in the process of deliberative, participatory democracy with ground rules. The jury trial provides a carefully constructed setting aimed at sorting truth from falsehood.

Despite its value, the jury trial has been under assault for decades. Concededly, jury trials can sometimes be inefficient, unreliable, unpredictable, and impractical. The Covid-19 pandemic rendered most physical jury trials unworkable, but spurred some courts to ...


The Future Of Materialist Constitutionalism, Robert L. Tsai Mar 2021

The Future Of Materialist Constitutionalism, Robert L. Tsai

Faculty Scholarship

This is a review essay of Camila Vergara, Systemic Corruption (Princeton 2020). In this lively and important book, Vergara argues that corruption should be given a structural definition, one that connects corruption with inequality and is plebeian rather than elitist. After surveying the work of thinkers from Machiavelli to Arendt, she proposes a set of solutions grounded in the civic republican tradition.

I press several points in my essay. First, Vergara's linkage of corruption with inequality is promising, but introduces tension between a general problem (domination of the many by the few) and a more specific problem (the domination ...


Perpetuating Inequality: What Salary History Bans Reveal About Wages, James Bessen, Chen Meng, Erich Denk Feb 2021

Perpetuating Inequality: What Salary History Bans Reveal About Wages, James Bessen, Chen Meng, Erich Denk

Faculty Scholarship

Pay gaps for women and minorities have persisted after accounting for observable differences. Why? If employers can access applicants’ salary histories while bargaining over wages, they can take advantage of past inequities, perpetuating inequality. Recently, a dozen US states have banned employer access to salary histories. We analyze the effects of these salary history bans (SHBs) on employer wage posting and pay in a difference-in-differences design. Following SHBs, employers posted wages more often and increased pay for job changers, particularly for women (6.4%) and non-whites (7.7%). Bargaining behavior appears to account for much of the persistence of residual ...


Public Health And The Power To Exclude: Immigrant Expulsions At The Border, Sarah Sherman-Stokes Feb 2021

Public Health And The Power To Exclude: Immigrant Expulsions At The Border, Sarah Sherman-Stokes

Faculty Scholarship

We are presently in the midst of a crisis at the U.S.-Mexico border, as Courts, and indeed the Biden Administration, are struggling to manage thousands of immigrants waiting to seek asylum in the midst of a global pandemic. Beginning in March of 2020, against the advice of public health experts, the U.S. Government closed the southern U.S.-Mexico border, disproportionately impacting would-be asylum seekers from Central America, who are now immediately expelled from the United States should they reach the border under a process known as “Title 42.” Not only do these expulsions lack a legitimate ...


Can Sandel Dethrone Meritocracy?, Robert L. Tsai Feb 2021

Can Sandel Dethrone Meritocracy?, Robert L. Tsai

Faculty Scholarship

This is an invited review essay of Michael Sandel, The Tyranny of Merit: What's Become of the Common Good? (FSG 2020), for the inaugural issue of The American Journal of Law and Inequality (R. Kennedy, M. Minow, C. Sunstein, eds.). Sandel makes three principal arguments: (1) meritocracy is deeply flawed because it worsens inequality and fills meritocracy's winners with hubris and losers with shame; (2) universities should introduce a lottery into the admissions process; and (3) this reform, coupled with increased emphasis on the dignity of labor, will repair the politics of resentment that now roil our country ...


Don’T Bring An Army To An Arbitration (England, 1411), David J. Seipp Jan 2021

Don’T Bring An Army To An Arbitration (England, 1411), David J. Seipp

Faculty Scholarship

The name of our friend Derek Roebuck will always be linked to the long history of arbitration and mediation which he has chronicled so thoroughly in a dozen volumes by my count and many articles and chapters. On a spectrum of dispute resolution methods from formal courtroom litigation to savage brute force, arbitration stands at an interesting intermediate point. In tribute to Derek’s memory, I offer this glimpse of a curious episode at the intersection of due process of law, armed violence and principled arbitration. It reminds us that these three alternatives were not always as widely differentiated as ...


The Transient And The Permanent In Arbitration, William Park Jan 2021

The Transient And The Permanent In Arbitration, William Park

Faculty Scholarship

Several years ago, Jan Paulsson observed that Derek Roebuck might substitute for a time machine, providing a way for us to voyage backward with a guide to put everything in context. Indeed, the great Derek Roebuck, to whom we dedicate this set of essays, gave much of his professional life to making sure that by receiving a glimpse of dispute resolution in earlier times, we might have an opportunity better to understand the reality of present-day arbitration.


Replicability In Empirical Legal Research, Kathryn Zeiler, Jason Chin Jan 2021

Replicability In Empirical Legal Research, Kathryn Zeiler, Jason Chin

Faculty Scholarship

As part of a broader methodological reform movement, scientists are increasingly interested in improving the replicability of their research. Replicability allows others to perform replications to explore potential errors and statistical issues that might call the original results into question. Little attention, however, has been paid to the state of replicability in the field of empirical legal research (ELR). Quality is especially important in this field because empirical legal researchers produce work that is regularly relied upon by courts and other legal bodies. In this review article, we summarize the current state of ELR relative to the broader movement towards ...


An Introduction To “Critical Legal Research: The Next Wave”, Ronald Wheeler Jan 2021

An Introduction To “Critical Legal Research: The Next Wave”, Ronald Wheeler

Faculty Scholarship

This symposium continues and sustains the exchange of ideas initiated at a panel presentation offered at the 2021 American Association of Law Schools (“AALS”) Annual Meeting in January 2021. The panel was titled Critical Legal Research: The Next Wave, and here we advance and extend that conversation with written contributions from the panelists.

The symposium and panel are outgrowths of truly organic collaboration that sprang from the passion for critical legal research felt by both the panel’s honorees—Professors Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic—and an exceptional group of academic law librarian scholars—Yasmin Sokkar Harker, Julie Krishnaswami, Grace ...


Trafficking And The Shallow State, Julie Dahlstrom Jan 2021

Trafficking And The Shallow State, Julie Dahlstrom

Faculty Scholarship

More than two decades ago, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (“TVPA”) established new, robust protections for immigrant victims of trafficking. In particular, Congress created the T visa to protect immigrant victims from deportation. Since 2000, however, the annual cap of 5,000 T visas has never been reached. Indeed, generally fewer than 1,000 are approved annually, despite rising application rates. In the last four years, denial rates have skyrocketed, with 42.79% of all applications denied in fiscal year 2020. These developments came as former President Donald J. Trump, like many presidents before him, proclaimed his deep commitment to ...


Retelling Copyright: The Contributions Of The Restatement Of Copyright Law, Jessica Silbey Jan 2021

Retelling Copyright: The Contributions Of The Restatement Of Copyright Law, Jessica Silbey

Faculty Scholarship

This Article was written for a special issue on the American Law Institute’s (ALI) Restatement of Copyright Law.

Since the American Law Institute (ALI) launched in the early twentieth century, its mission has been “the clarification and simplification of the law and its better adaptation to social needs ... [and] to secure the better administration of justice.” A principal way it has pursued that mission has been through its Restatements of Law project. By their nature, Restatements of Law reflect tensions between what it means to “restate” and reform the law. As the ALI has grown and the legal profession ...


Executive Pay Clawbacks And Their Taxation, David Walker Jan 2021

Executive Pay Clawbacks And Their Taxation, David Walker

Faculty Scholarship

Executive pay clawback provisions require executives to repay previously received compensation under certain circumstances, such as a downward adjustment to the financial results upon which their incentive pay was predicated. The use of these provisions is on the rise, and the SEC is expected to soon finalize rules implementing a mandatory, no-fault clawback requirement enacted as part of the Dodd-Frank legislation. The tax issue raised by clawbacks is this: should executives be allowed to recover taxes previously paid on compensation that is returned to the company as a result of a clawback provision? This Article argues that a full tax ...


The Epistemology Of Second Best, Gary Lawson Jan 2021

The Epistemology Of Second Best, Gary Lawson

Faculty Scholarship

Second best theory “holds that where it is not possible to satisfy all the conditions necessary for a[] . . . system to reach an overall optimum, it is not generally desirable to satisfy as many of those conditions as possible.” Adrian Vermeule, Foreword: System Effects and the Constitution, 123 HARV. L. REV. 4, 17 (2009). In other words, if you are not moving all the way to the ideal state of affairs, it is unclear whether partial moves that seem to go in the direction of the ideal make the world “better” or “worse” – with “better” or “worse” defined by the same ...


A One Health Framework To Estimate The Cost Of Antimicrobial Resistance, Chantal Morel, Richard Alm, Christine Ardal, Alessandra Bandera, Giacomo Bruno, Elena Carrara, Giorgio Colombo, Marlieke De Kraker, Sabiha Essack, Isabel Frost, Bruno Gonzalez-Zorn, Herman Goossens, Luca Guardabassi, Stephan Harbarth, Peter Jørgensen, Souha Kanj, Tomislav Kostyanev, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Finola Leonard, Gabriel Levy Hara, Marc Mendelson, Malgorzata Mikulska, Nico Mutters, Kevin Outterson, Jesus Rodriguez Baňo, Evelina Tacconelli, Luigia Scudeller Nov 2020

A One Health Framework To Estimate The Cost Of Antimicrobial Resistance, Chantal Morel, Richard Alm, Christine Ardal, Alessandra Bandera, Giacomo Bruno, Elena Carrara, Giorgio Colombo, Marlieke De Kraker, Sabiha Essack, Isabel Frost, Bruno Gonzalez-Zorn, Herman Goossens, Luca Guardabassi, Stephan Harbarth, Peter Jørgensen, Souha Kanj, Tomislav Kostyanev, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Finola Leonard, Gabriel Levy Hara, Marc Mendelson, Malgorzata Mikulska, Nico Mutters, Kevin Outterson, Jesus Rodriguez Baňo, Evelina Tacconelli, Luigia Scudeller

Faculty Scholarship

Objectives/purpose

The costs attributable to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remain theoretical and largely unspecified. Current figures fail to capture the full health and economic burden caused by AMR across human, animal, and environmental health; historically many studies have considered only direct costs associated with human infection from a hospital perspective, primarily from high-income countries. The Global Antimicrobial Resistance Platform for ONE-Burden Estimates (GAP-ON€) network has developed a framework to help guide AMR costing exercises in any part of the world as a first step towards more comprehensive analyses for comparing AMR interventions at the local level as well as more ...


"All (Poor) Lives Matter": How Class-Not-Race Logic Reinscribes Race And Class Privilege, Jonathan P. Feingold Oct 2020

"All (Poor) Lives Matter": How Class-Not-Race Logic Reinscribes Race And Class Privilege, Jonathan P. Feingold

Faculty Scholarship

In An Intersectional Critique of Tiers of Scrutiny, Professors Devon Carbado and Kimberlé Crenshaw infuse affirmative action with an overdue dose of intersectionality theory. Their intervention, which highlights the disfavored remedial status of Black women, exposes equality law as an unmarked intersectional project that “privileges the intersectional identities of white antidiscrimination claimants.”

This latent racial privilege rests on two doctrinal pillars. First, single-axis tiers of scrutiny, which force claimants and courts to view discrimination in either/or terms (that is, race-based or gender-based or class-based), contravene intersectionality’s core insight that “people live their lives co-constitutively as ‘both/and,’ rather ...


A “Woman’S Best Right”—To A Husband Or The Ballot?: Political And Household Governance In Anthony Trollope’S Palliser Novels, Linda C. Mcclain Oct 2020

A “Woman’S Best Right”—To A Husband Or The Ballot?: Political And Household Governance In Anthony Trollope’S Palliser Novels, Linda C. Mcclain

Faculty Scholarship

The year 2020 marks the one hundredth anniversary of the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In 2018, the United Kingdom marked the one hundredth anniversary of some women securing the right to vote in parliamentary elections and the ninetieth anniversary of women securing the right to vote on the same terms as men. People observing the Nineteenth Amendment’s centenary may have difficulty understanding why it required such a lengthy campaign. One influential rationale in both the United Kingdom and the United States was domestic gender ideology about men’s and women’s separate spheres ...


Paying For Unapproved Medical Products, Kelly Mcbride Folkers, Alison Bateman-House, Christopher Robertson Oct 2020

Paying For Unapproved Medical Products, Kelly Mcbride Folkers, Alison Bateman-House, Christopher Robertson

Faculty Scholarship

This symposium article examines the use of investigational (un-approved) medical products in the United States, with particular focus on who pays for this use. In the United States, the question of who pays for the use of approved medical products for their intended indications is complicated enough, with some expenses borne by private payers, some by public payers, some covered as charity care, and some paid out of pocket by patients. A separate question is off-label use, in which an approved medical product is used for an unapproved indication. In this article, we focus on a narrower issue: what entities ...


What Becomes A Legendary Constitutional Campaign Most? Marking The Nineteenth Amendment At One Hundred, Linda C. Mcclain Oct 2020

What Becomes A Legendary Constitutional Campaign Most? Marking The Nineteenth Amendment At One Hundred, Linda C. Mcclain

Faculty Scholarship

What most becomes a landmark anniversary in the legendary campaign by women (and some men) for woman suffrage that, in 1920, led to Congress’s ratifying the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution? This framing of the question alludes to the famous, decades-long Blackglama advertising campaign, “What becomes a legend most?,” which (beginning in 1968) enlisted the charisma of famous women (and some men) to glamorize mink coats. This Essay also appeals to the dual meanings of legendary -- “of, relating to, or characteristic of legend” and “well-known, or famous” -- and argues that the campaign for woman suffrage is the ...


More Than The Vote: 16-Year-Old Voting And The Risks Of Legal Adulthood, Katharine Silbaugh Oct 2020

More Than The Vote: 16-Year-Old Voting And The Risks Of Legal Adulthood, Katharine Silbaugh

Faculty Scholarship

Advocates of 16-year-old voting have not grappled with two significant risks to adolescents of their agenda. First, a right to vote entails a corresponding accessibility to campaigns. Campaign speech is highly protected, and 16-year-old voting invites more unfettered access to minors by commercial, government, and political interests than current law tolerates. Opening 16-year-olds to campaign access undermines a considered legal system of managing the potential exploitation of adolescents, which sometimes includes direct regulation of entities and also gives parents authority in both law and culture to prohibit, manage, or supervise contacts with every kind of person interested in communicating with ...


The Revival Of Respondeat Superior And Evolution Of Gatekeeper Liability, Rory Van Loo Oct 2020

The Revival Of Respondeat Superior And Evolution Of Gatekeeper Liability, Rory Van Loo

Faculty Scholarship

In an era of servants and masters, respondeat superior emerged to hold the powerful accountable for the acts of those they control. That doctrine’s significance has only grown in an economy driven by large corporations that rely heavily on legions of subsidiaries and independent contractors, such as banks deploying independent call centers, oil companies using drilling contractors, and tech platforms connecting consumers to app developers. It is widely believed that firms can avoid third- party liability for many laws by outsourcing or creating subsidiaries.

This Article shows that common narratives of the demise of third-party liability are incomplete. Respondeat ...


Setting The Standard: Multidisciplinary Hallmarks For Structural, Equitable And Tracked Antibiotic Policy, Kevin Outterson, Claas Kirchhelle, Paul Atkinson, Alex Broom, Komatra Chuengsatiansup, Jorge Pinto Ferreira, Nicolas Fortané, Isabel Frost, Christoph Gradmann, Stephen Hinchliffe, Steven J. Hoffman, Javier Lezaun, Susan Nayiga, Scott H. Podolsky, Stephanie Raymond, Adam P. Roberts, Andrew C. Singer, Anthony D. So, Luechai Sringernyuang, Elizabeth Tayler, Susan Rogers Van Katwyk, Clare I. R. Chandler Sep 2020

Setting The Standard: Multidisciplinary Hallmarks For Structural, Equitable And Tracked Antibiotic Policy, Kevin Outterson, Claas Kirchhelle, Paul Atkinson, Alex Broom, Komatra Chuengsatiansup, Jorge Pinto Ferreira, Nicolas Fortané, Isabel Frost, Christoph Gradmann, Stephen Hinchliffe, Steven J. Hoffman, Javier Lezaun, Susan Nayiga, Scott H. Podolsky, Stephanie Raymond, Adam P. Roberts, Andrew C. Singer, Anthony D. So, Luechai Sringernyuang, Elizabeth Tayler, Susan Rogers Van Katwyk, Clare I. R. Chandler

Faculty Scholarship

There is increasing concern globally about the enormity of the threats posed by antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to human, animal, plant and environmental health. A proliferation of international, national and institutional reports on the problems posed by AMR and the need for antibiotic stewardship have galvanised attention on the global stage. However, the AMR community increasingly laments a lack of action, often identified as an ‘implementation gap’. At a policy level, the design of internationally salient solutions that are able to address AMR’s interconnected biological and social (historical, political, economic and cultural) dimensions is not straightforward. This multidisciplinary paper responds ...


Tax Complexity And Technology, David Walker Sep 2020

Tax Complexity And Technology, David Walker

Faculty Scholarship

The federal income tax code has become increasingly complex over time with the implication that many taxpayers no longer understand the connection between their life decisions and their taxes. Some commentators have suggested that increasing computational complexity may be attributable in part to the proliferation of tax preparation software that renders such complexity manageable at filing time, but otherwise does nothing to mitigate the “black box” nature of the tax system. While such complexity and opacity undercut explicit incentives embedded in the Code, make planning more difficult, and undermine political accountability for taxes, they may also reduce the inefficient distortion ...


Shareholder Value(S): Index Fund Esg Activism And The New Millennial Corporate Governance, David Webber, Michal Barzuza, Quinn Curtis Sep 2020

Shareholder Value(S): Index Fund Esg Activism And The New Millennial Corporate Governance, David Webber, Michal Barzuza, Quinn Curtis

Faculty Scholarship

Major index fund operators have been criticized as ineffective stewards of the firms in which they are now the largest shareholders. While scholars debate whether this passivity is a serious problem, index funds’ generally docile approach to ownership is broadly acknowledged.

However, this Article argues that the notion that index funds are passive owners overlooks an important dimension in which index funds have demonstrated outspoken, confrontational, and effective stewardship. Specifically, we document that index funds have taken a leading role in challenging management and voting
against directors in order to advance board diversity and corporate sustainability. We show that index ...


(Re)Framing Race In Civil Rights Lawyering, Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Anthony V. Alfieri Sep 2020

(Re)Framing Race In Civil Rights Lawyering, Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Anthony V. Alfieri

Faculty Scholarship

A review of Henry Louis Gates, Stony the Road: Reconstruction, White Supremacy, and the Rise of Jim Crow (Penguin Press, 2019). The Review proceeds in four parts. Part I parses Gates’s analysis of the rise of white supremacist ideology and the accompanying concept of the “Old Negro” during the Redemption era and the countervailing emergence of the concept of a “New Negro” culminating in the Harlem Renaissance. Part II examines the lawyering process as a rhetorical site for constructing racialized narratives and racially subordinating visions of client, group, and community identity through acts of representing, prosecuting, and defending people ...


Privacy In Pandemic: Law, Technology, And Public Health In The Covid-19 Crisis, Tiffany Li Sep 2020

Privacy In Pandemic: Law, Technology, And Public Health In The Covid-19 Crisis, Tiffany Li

Faculty Scholarship

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused millions of deaths and disastrous consequences around the world, with lasting repercussions for every field of law, including privacy and technology. The unique characteristics of this pandemic have precipitated an increase in use of new technologies, including remote communications platforms, healthcare robots, and medical AI. Public and private actors are using new technologies, like heat sensing, and technologically-influenced programs, like contact tracing, alike in response, leading to a rise in government and corporate surveillance in sectors like healthcare, employment, education, and commerce. Advocates have raised the alarm for privacy and civil liberties violations, but the ...