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Full-Text Articles in Law

White Supremacy, Police Brutality, And Family Separation: Preventing Crimes Against Humanity Within The United States, Elena Baylis Jan 2022

White Supremacy, Police Brutality, And Family Separation: Preventing Crimes Against Humanity Within The United States, Elena Baylis

Articles

Although the United States tends to treat crimes against humanity as a danger that exists only in authoritarian or war-torn states, in fact, there is a real risk of crimes against humanity occurring within the United States, as illustrated by events such as systemic police brutality against Black Americans, the federal government’s family separation policy that took thousands of immigrant children from their parents at the southern border, and the dramatic escalation of White supremacist and extremist violence culminating in the January 6, 2021 attack on the U.S. Capitol. In spite of this risk, the United States does ...


Reflections On The Value Of Socio-Legal Approaches To International Economic Law In Africa, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Jul 2021

Reflections On The Value Of Socio-Legal Approaches To International Economic Law In Africa, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Blogs

In their introductory essay to the 2021 Chicago Journal of International Law Symposium, Daniel Abebe, Adam Chilton, and Tom Ginsburg offer an account of “the rise of the social science approach to international law, explain the basics of the method, and advocate for its continued adoption.”

This Essay critically assesses how and why one might use socio-legally inspired methods (analytical, empirical, and normative) for the study of international economic law (IEL) in Africa. It illustrates the empirical method’s importance in understanding one of the most challenging aspects of the study of IEL in Africa: capturing the data and dynamism ...


Do Esg Mutual Funds Deliver On Their Promises?, Quinn Curtis, Jill E. Fisch, Adriana Z. Robertson Jun 2021

Do Esg Mutual Funds Deliver On Their Promises?, Quinn Curtis, Jill E. Fisch, Adriana Z. Robertson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Corporations have received growing criticism for their role in climate change, perpetuating racial and gender inequality, and other pressing social issues. In response to these concerns, shareholders are increasingly focusing on environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) criteria in selecting investments, and asset managers are responding by offering a growing number of ESG mutual funds. The flow of assets into ESG is one of the most dramatic trends in asset management.

But are these funds giving investors what they promise? This question has attracted the attention of regulators, with the Department of Labor and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC ...


To “Defund” The Police, Jessica M. Eaglin Jun 2021

To “Defund” The Police, Jessica M. Eaglin

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Much public debate circles around grassroots activists’ demand to “defund the police,” raised in public consciousness in the summer of 2020. Yet confusion about the demand is pervasive. This Essay adopts a literal interpretation of “defund” to clarify and distinguish four alternative, substantive policy positions that legal reforms related to police funding can validate. It argues that the policy debates between these positions exist on top of the ideological critique launched by grassroots activists, who use the term “defund the police” as a discursive tactic to make visible deeper transformations in government practices that normalize the structural marginalization of black ...


Equal Injustice For All: High Quality Self-Representation Does Not Ensure A Matter Is “Fairly Heard”, Jona Goldschmidt May 2021

Equal Injustice For All: High Quality Self-Representation Does Not Ensure A Matter Is “Fairly Heard”, Jona Goldschmidt

Seattle University Law Review SUpra

No abstract provided.


Systemic Racism In The United States, Jonathan Short May 2021

Systemic Racism In The United States, Jonathan Short

Libraries

This bibliography contains an annotated selection of articles and studies related to systemic racism in the United States of America, covering 21st-century racial inequities in criminal justice, housing, employment, voting, education, and healthcare. Given the contentious nature of this topic - whether and to what extent systemic racism exists in the United States - sources were selected for relative neutrality, authority, and quality of methodologies used. This piece is intended to assist leaders, educators, activists, and any who wish to become better informed about this topic, develop empathy toward impacted groups, and prepare to address institutional concerns related to diversity, equity, and ...


Fiqh On Finance: A Scientometric Analysis Using Bibliometrix, Aam Slamet Rusydiana, Aisyah As-Salafiyah, Yulizar Djamaluddin Sanrego, Lina Marlina May 2021

Fiqh On Finance: A Scientometric Analysis Using Bibliometrix, Aam Slamet Rusydiana, Aisyah As-Salafiyah, Yulizar Djamaluddin Sanrego, Lina Marlina

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study aims to determine the development and trend map of fiqh on finance published by Scopus-indexed journals in the theme of Islamic economics and finance. The data analyzed were 547 publications of document publications. The export data is then processed and analyzed using the R Bibliometrix application program to find out the bibliometric map of the fiqh on finance research development. The results showed that the number of publications on fiqh’s theme on finance experienced a significant increase. The results show that the most popular journal is the International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance ...


Regulatory Agency Capture: How The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Approved The Mountain Valley Pipeline, Aakshi Agarwal May 2021

Regulatory Agency Capture: How The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Approved The Mountain Valley Pipeline, Aakshi Agarwal

Harvey M. Applebaum ’59 Award

The FERC’s history of approving nearly 100% of pipelines and divisive pipeline cases like the Atlantic Coast Pipeline and Mountain Valley Pipeline have driven landowners’ long-standing claims of regulatory agency capture of the FERC. The present research substantiates the claim of capture with a case study of the Mountain Valley Pipeline and uncovers that the FERC is both culturally and corrosively captured. This research also suggests that the capture of the FERC began at its conception during the natural gas crisis and subsequent natural gas bubble, which caused the FERC to follow the industry’s lead. These findings indicate ...


Investing In The Open Access Book Infrastructure: A Call For Action, Pierre Mounier, Jeroen Sondervan, Graham Stone May 2021

Investing In The Open Access Book Infrastructure: A Call For Action, Pierre Mounier, Jeroen Sondervan, Graham Stone

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Books play an essential role in scholarly communication, notably but not only within the Social Sciences and Humanities. Open science benefits the quality and value of research and scholarship. If open access is to benefit society as widely as possible, it is logical to include academic books. In a 2019 briefing paper, Science Europe reported that: “Open access to academic books must be considered in the wider open access policies developed by research institutions, funders, and governments.”

In recent years, Knowledge Exchange, a joint network of six key national organisations in Europe, has been working on gaining a better understanding ...


The Impact Of Covid-19 On The Halal Economy: A Bibliometric Approach, Nisful Laila, Aam Slamet Rusydiana, Aisyah Assalafiyah May 2021

The Impact Of Covid-19 On The Halal Economy: A Bibliometric Approach, Nisful Laila, Aam Slamet Rusydiana, Aisyah Assalafiyah

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study aims to determine the map of the development of research on the halal economy's theme during the COVID-19 pandemic published by digital object identifier-equipped journals. The study was conducted in November 2020. The data analyzed were more than 200 published papers. The object of the study is a published journal in 2020. The data is then processed and analyzed using the VOSviewer application program to determine halal economic research development's bibliometric mapping. The results showed halal finance, halal banking, halal philanthropy, and halal food were the most popular topics used. The research development map of this ...


Lawyers Response To Covid-19 Infodemic On Social Media, Jibran Jamshed May 2021

Lawyers Response To Covid-19 Infodemic On Social Media, Jibran Jamshed

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to examine and analyze the skills and practices of lawyers in response to the misinformation/Infodemic of COVID-19 on Social Media platforms.

Research Methodology: In this quantitative study an online survey was conducted among lawyers in Pakistan. The population of the study was made up of practicing lawyers from different District Bar Associations in Pakistan. A questionnaire was distributed to collect data regarding demographic information, use of social media, response to misinformation about COVID-19 on social media and to identify the methods employed by lawyers to check the authenticity of such information ...


Taking Stock Of Chapter 11, David A. Skeel Jr. May 2021

Taking Stock Of Chapter 11, David A. Skeel Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this Essay, written for a symposium honoring Sam Gerdano, I offer an assessment of current Chapter 11 theory and practice. The most distinctive feature of current Chapter 11 practice is the extent to which the parties now enter into intercreditor agreements, restructuring support agreements and other actual contracts governing their rights and responsibilities. One question raised by the dramatic shift in bankruptcy practice is whether the leading normative theory of bankruptcy, the Creditors’ Bargain Theory, is now obsolete, as some scholars have suggested. The Creditors’ Bargain Theory explains bankruptcy as a solution to coordination problems that might lead to ...


Building Asian American And Black Solidarity For Racial Justice In Today’S America, Vinay Harpalani, Sunu P. Chandy, Sholanna Lewis, Frank H. Wu May 2021

Building Asian American And Black Solidarity For Racial Justice In Today’S America, Vinay Harpalani, Sunu P. Chandy, Sholanna Lewis, Frank H. Wu

Faculty Scholarship

About the Panel: Although there have been tensions, including those tied to colorism, between the Asian American and Pacific Islander and Black communities in America, there has been an equally long history of mutual support and collaboration between these two communities. How does anti-Blackness in the AAPI community impact the work of building solidarity with Black activists? In this conversation, we highlight our common ground so that Asian American and Black social justice communities can push forward our collective needs to fight racial injustice and other forms of discrimination in this country.


Explaining Reproductive Health Disparities: Violence In The “Colorblind” Institution Of Medicine, Chineze Osakwe May 2021

Explaining Reproductive Health Disparities: Violence In The “Colorblind” Institution Of Medicine, Chineze Osakwe

Honors Scholar Theses

Medical policies have resulted in violence that has a formal role in regulating the reproductive rights of women of African descent in the United States from the Jim Crow era (circa 1965) to present day (2021), resulting in significantly racialized reproductive health disparities regardless of social or economic influences. This thesis explores why reproductive violence against African-American women persists, regardless of women’s own class and educational background. I have focused on the potential impact of two structural components that I hypothesized contributed to the perpetuation of reproductive violence against Black women and persistent health disparities. The two factors explored ...


Motorcycle Fatality Rates Due To Head Injuries Are Lower In States With Helmet Laws, Mary E. Helander May 2021

Motorcycle Fatality Rates Due To Head Injuries Are Lower In States With Helmet Laws, Mary E. Helander

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

There are over 4,500 motorcycle crash fatalities per year in the U.S., on average. Roughly 37% of those deaths involve head injuries. Motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities, serious cognitive disabilities, and social costs. Yet many states have no helmet laws. This data slice shows that from 1999 to 2019, states with helmet laws had a 33% lower head-related fatality rate compared to states without helmet laws. Motorcycle helmet laws clearly save lives.


A Suggested Revision Of The 2020 Vertical Merger Guidelines (May 2, 2021), Steven C. Salop May 2021

A Suggested Revision Of The 2020 Vertical Merger Guidelines (May 2, 2021), Steven C. Salop

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The DOJ/ FTC Vertical Merger Guidelines (VMGs) were adopted by the FTC in June 2020 by a party-line 3-2 party line over the dissent of the Acting Chair. One might expect that the VMGs will be withdrawn and/or revised once a Democratic majority is achieved. In my view, revision is appropriate because the VMGs are both incomplete and overly permissible. This Suggested Revision can aid that process. Rather than trying to start with the current draft, this draft begins on a clean sheet. However, it has been formulated with an eye towards the problems with the current VMGs and ...


Deliberate Indifference: An Exploration Of The Student Survivor Activism Group Movement, Shyla Kallhoff May 2021

Deliberate Indifference: An Exploration Of The Student Survivor Activism Group Movement, Shyla Kallhoff

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

#MeToo. It’s On Us. End Rape on Campus. #BeTheSwede. Dear UNL. These phrases have united people all over the world to use their voices and speak out about sexual violence. In higher education, these statements empower students to make their voices heard, and simultaneously invoke fear in campus administrators who do not want to be held accountable for the mishandling/lack of Title IX cases. Student survivor activism groups, the subject of this study, have formed at universities around the country and often use similar statements to advocate for changes they feel need to happen. Finding no previous research ...


Seeking Asylum In A Modern Society: Global Responses To Latin American Migration, Rebecca Dickinson May 2021

Seeking Asylum In A Modern Society: Global Responses To Latin American Migration, Rebecca Dickinson

Senior Honors Projects

The United States is no stranger to asylum seekers and refugees. The most famous seaport in the country houses a 305-foot-tall statue of a woman bearing a torch with words from the poem The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus etched at her feet: “‘Give me your tired, your poor, /Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.’”[1] The Statue of Liberty is a symbolic representation of open arms to immigrants from all walks of life. But if everyone is welcome, why do so few actually gain entrance?

US interventionism policies in the 20th century have defined the lives of millions ...


Free Speech In The Internet Era: Reviewing Policies Seeking To Modify Section 230 Of The Communications Decency Act Of 1996, Jacob Cordeiro May 2021

Free Speech In The Internet Era: Reviewing Policies Seeking To Modify Section 230 Of The Communications Decency Act Of 1996, Jacob Cordeiro

Senior Honors Projects

Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act (CDA), has for over two decades provided “interactive computer services” a legal liability shield for defamatory or otherwise actionable user-generated content posted on their platforms and, for lawsuits stemming over unequal enforcement of their content policies provided enforcement efforts are taken in “good faith.” This law, passed in the early days of the Internet, incubated the Internet and social media, giving it the regulatory freedom it needed to grow into a platform where hundreds of millions of Americans can exchange ideas and engage in political and social discourse. Yet, for all the good ...


Truth Commissions And Reparations: A Framework For Post-Conflict Justice In Argentina, Chile Guatemala, And Peru, Anthony Chen May 2021

Truth Commissions And Reparations: A Framework For Post-Conflict Justice In Argentina, Chile Guatemala, And Peru, Anthony Chen

Honors Theses (PPE)

This paper seeks to gauge the effectiveness of truth commissions and their links to creating material reparations programs through two central questions. First, are truth commissions an effective way to achieve justice after periods of conflict marked by mass or systemic human rights abuses by the government or guerilla groups? Second, do truth commissions provide a pathway to material reparations programs for victims of these abuses? It will outline the conceptual basis behind truth commissions, material reparations, and transitional justice. It will then engage in case studies and a comparative analysis of truth commissions and material reparations programs in four ...


Specter Of Reform: Understanding The Violent Crime Control And Law Enforcement Act Of 1994 And Its Role In Expanding The Modern Prison Industrial Complex, Timothy Nii-Okai Welbeck May 2021

Specter Of Reform: Understanding The Violent Crime Control And Law Enforcement Act Of 1994 And Its Role In Expanding The Modern Prison Industrial Complex, Timothy Nii-Okai Welbeck

Arlen Specter Center Research Fellowship

The United States incarcerates more of its citizens than any other nation in recorded history, and currently houses roughly 25% of the world’s prison population. Though the US prison population dipped in 2016 to its lowest rate since 1993, the sheer number of people under the supervision of the criminal justice system within the country is staggering. As of 2012, one in one hundred adults in the US are in jail or prison, which makes the US the nation with the world’s largest prison population. The US also leads the world in rate of incarceration. Thus, the nation ...


Reframing Law's Domain: Narrative, Rhetoric, And The Forms Of Legal Rules, Stephen Paskey May 2021

Reframing Law's Domain: Narrative, Rhetoric, And The Forms Of Legal Rules, Stephen Paskey

Journal Articles

Legal scholars typically understand law as a system of determinate rules grounded in logic. And in the public sphere, textualist judges and others often claim that judges should not "make" law, arguing instead that a judge's role is simply to find the meaning inherent in law's language. This essay offers a different understanding of both the structure of legal rules and the role of judges. Building on Caroline Levine's claim that texts have multiple ordering principles, the essay argues that legal rules simultaneously have three overlapping forms, none of which is dominant: not only the form of ...


Military Working Dogs: Tracking Their Journey From Equipment To K-9 Heroes, Virginia Thomas May 2021

Military Working Dogs: Tracking Their Journey From Equipment To K-9 Heroes, Virginia Thomas

Library Scholarly Publications

The author surveys the history of legislation governing the lives and uses of military working dogs (MWD).


Untold Stories Of The African Diaspora: The Lived Experiences Of Black Caribbean Immigrants In The Greater Hartford Area, Shanelle A. Jones May 2021

Untold Stories Of The African Diaspora: The Lived Experiences Of Black Caribbean Immigrants In The Greater Hartford Area, Shanelle A. Jones

University Scholar Projects

The African Diaspora represents vastly complex migratory patterns. This project studies the journeys of English-speaking Afro-Caribbeans who immigrated to the US for economic reasons between the 1980s-present day. While some researchers emphasize the success of West Indian immigrants, others highlight the issue of downward assimilation many face upon arrival in the US. This paper explores the prospect of economic incorporation into American society for West Indian immigrants. I conducted and analyzed data from an online survey and 10 oral histories of West Indian economic migrants residing in the Greater Hartford Area to gain a broader perspective on the economic attainment ...


#Wetoo, Kimberly Kessler Ferzan Apr 2021

#Wetoo, Kimberly Kessler Ferzan

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The #MeToo movement has caused a widespread cultural reckoning over sexual violence, abuse, and harassment. “Me too” was meant to express and symbolize that each individual victim was not alone in their experiences of sexual harm; they added their voice to others who had faced similar injustices. But viewing the #MeToo movement as a collection of singular voices fails to appreciate that the cases that filled our popular discourse were not cases of individual victims coming forward. Rather, case after case involved multiple victims, typically women, accusing single perpetrators. Victims were believed because there was both safety and strength in ...


Input To Sr On Contemporary Forms Of Slavery, Including Its Causes And Consequences Regarding The Role Of Organized Criminal Groups, Peggy Frazier, Katherine Kaufka Walts Jd Apr 2021

Input To Sr On Contemporary Forms Of Slavery, Including Its Causes And Consequences Regarding The Role Of Organized Criminal Groups, Peggy Frazier, Katherine Kaufka Walts Jd

Center for the Human Rights of Children

The Center for the Human Rights of Children (CHRC), in collaboration with signatory organizations, submits this input in response to the call for submissions made by the Special Rapporteur’s Report on the Role of Organized Criminal Groups with regard to Contemporary Forms of Slavery to inform the forthcoming report to the 76th session of the General Assembly. This input will focus upon the role of organized criminal groups with regard to child labor trafficking (forced labor), and specifically, forced criminality as a form of forced labor.1 We provide input on cases both in the interior of the United ...


Digital Cluster Markets, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Apr 2021

Digital Cluster Markets, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper considers the role of “cluster” markets in antitrust litigation, the minimum requirements for recognizing such markets, and the relevance of network effects in identifying them.

One foundational requirement of markets in antitrust cases is that they consist of products that are very close substitutes for one another. Even though markets are nearly always porous, this principle is very robust in antitrust analysis and there are few deviations.

Nevertheless, clustering noncompeting products into a single market for purposes of antitrust analysis can be valuable, provided that its limitations are understood. Clustering contributes to market power when (1) many customers ...


The Role Of Public Trust In People's Subjective Well-Being, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha Apr 2021

The Role Of Public Trust In People's Subjective Well-Being, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Kenneth Arrow, perhaps the most influential economist after John Maynard Keynes in the 20th century, viewed trust as a lubricant that fosters cooperative behaviour and thus facilitates mutually advantageous economic exchanges in the presence of incomplete contracts and imperfect information. Recent research has confirmed the beneficial effects of trust in government on economic performance. The obverse, that an erosion of trust in public institutions (state, judiciary and police) has deleterious effects on economic performance, is equally true. Various recent accounts do not just corroborate an erosion of trust in governance, but also point to the imperative of strengthening it to ...


Demands For “Sisterly” Love: Exploring The Hyperpenalization Of Black Girls In The School District Of Philadelphia, Danielle Miles-Langaigne Apr 2021

Demands For “Sisterly” Love: Exploring The Hyperpenalization Of Black Girls In The School District Of Philadelphia, Danielle Miles-Langaigne

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

An immense amount of research, memos, and scholarship has surfaced in the last decade considering the school-to-prison pipeline and Black boys’ involuntary participation in it. Various education scholars have presented data emphasizing how Black male students are disproportionately punished–notably in ways that negatively impact their prospects for educational attainment, social mobility, and long-term empowerment. Many, however, fail to consider their close counterparts: Black girls. This thesis expands upon the Crenshaw, Ocen, and Nanda (2015) report to see if Black girls are also disproportionately penalized in Philadelphia public schools within the School District of Philadelphia (SDP) at higher rates relative ...


Administrative Law In The Automated State, Cary Coglianese Apr 2021

Administrative Law In The Automated State, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the future, administrative agencies will rely increasingly on digital automation powered by machine learning algorithms. Can U.S. administrative law accommodate such a future? Not only might a highly automated state readily meet longstanding administrative law principles, but the responsible use of machine learning algorithms might perform even better than the status quo in terms of fulfilling administrative law’s core values of expert decision-making and democratic accountability. Algorithmic governance clearly promises more accurate, data-driven decisions. Moreover, due to their mathematical properties, algorithms might well prove to be more faithful agents of democratic institutions. Yet even if an automated ...