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Did George Orwell’S Newspeak Have A Point?: Linguistic Relativity And Its Implications For Copyright, Christopher S. Yoo Aug 2021

Did George Orwell’S Newspeak Have A Point?: Linguistic Relativity And Its Implications For Copyright, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

To date, copyright scholarship has almost completely overlooked the linguistics and cognitive psychology literature exploring the connection between language and thought. An exploration of the two major strains of this literature, known as universal grammar (associated with Noam Chomsky) and linguistic relativity (centered around the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis), offers insights into the copyrightability of constructed languages and of the type of software packages at issue in Google v. Oracle recently decided by the Supreme Court. It turns to modularity theory as the key idea unifying the analysis of both languages and software in ways that suggest that the information filtering associated ...


The Aftermath Of Sexual Assault: Creating The "I Am More Than My Experience" Workbook, Isabella Chung May 2021

The Aftermath Of Sexual Assault: Creating The "I Am More Than My Experience" Workbook, Isabella Chung

Calvert Undergraduate Research Awards

The following thesis includes a literature review of the immediate and long-term effects of sexual assault on victims in regards to their physical, mental, and emotional health and romantic relationships, followed by a proposed workbook for sexual assault victims/survivors. Being that typical responses immediately after an assault are fear, disbelief, and activation of the sympathetic nervous system, it is to no surprise that long term issues of depression, anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) often arise as well. Thus, a workbook was created with the intention of educating readers about sexual assault and helping victims/survivors to heal from ...


Before And After Hinckley: Legal Insanity In The United States, Stephen J. Morse Feb 2021

Before And After Hinckley: Legal Insanity In The United States, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This chapter first considers the direction of the affirmative defense of legal insanity in the United States before John Hinckley was acquitted by reason of insanity in 1982 for attempting to assassinate President Reagan and others and the immediate aftermath of that acquittal. Since the middle of the 20th Century, the tale is one of the rise and fall of the American Law Institute’s Model Penal Code test for legal insanity. Then it turns to the constitutional decisions of the United States Supreme Court concerning the status of legal insanity. Finally, it addresses the substantive and procedural changes ...


Internal And External Challenges To Culpability, Stephen J. Morse Jan 2021

Internal And External Challenges To Culpability, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article was presented at “Guilty Minds: A Virtual Conference on Mens Rea and Criminal Justice Reform” at Arizona State University’s Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law. It is forthcoming in Arizona State Law Journal Volume 53, Issue 2.

The thesis of this article is simple: As long as we maintain the current folk psychological conception of ourselves as intentional and potentially rational creatures, as people and not simply as machines, mental states will inevitably remain central to ascriptions of culpability and responsibility more generally. It is also desirable. Nonetheless, we are in a condition of unprecedented internal ...


Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb Jan 2021

Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A patriotic POW is brainwashed by his North Korean captors into refusing repatriation and undertaking treasonous anti-American propaganda for the communist regime. Despite the general abhorrence of treason in time of war, the American public opposes criminal liability for such indoctrinated soldiers, yet existing criminal law provides no defense or mitigation because, at the time of the offense, the indoctrinated offender suffers no cognitive or control dysfunction, no mental or emotional impairment, and no external or internal compulsion. Rather, he was acting purely in the exercise of free of will, albeit based upon beliefs and values that he had not ...


The Impact Of Voluntariness Of Apologies On Victims’ Responses In Restorative Justice: Findings Of A Quantitative Study [Dataset], Alfred Allan, Justine De Mott, Isolde Larkins, Laura Turnbull, Tracey Warwick, Lacey Willett, Maria M. Allan Jan 2021

The Impact Of Voluntariness Of Apologies On Victims’ Responses In Restorative Justice: Findings Of A Quantitative Study [Dataset], Alfred Allan, Justine De Mott, Isolde Larkins, Laura Turnbull, Tracey Warwick, Lacey Willett, Maria M. Allan

Research Datasets

Combined data of three studies (N=164; 121 and 236 respectively) that investigated whether the voluntariness of apologies influenced recipients’ perception of the sincerity of apologies; acceptance of apologies; willingness to forgive offenders; and intended retributive behavior towards offenders.


Self-Actualization And The Need To Create As A Limit On Copyright, Christopher S. Yoo Jan 2021

Self-Actualization And The Need To Create As A Limit On Copyright, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Personhood theory is almost invariably cited as one of the primary theoretical bases for copyright. The conventional wisdom views creative works as the embodiment of their creator’s personality. This unique connection between authors and their works justifies giving authors property interests in the results of their creative efforts.

This Chapter argues that the conventional wisdom is too limited. It offers too narrow a vision of the ways that creativity can develop personality by focusing exclusively on the results of the creative process and ignoring the self-actualizing benefits of the creative process itself. German aesthetic theory broadens the understanding of ...


Critical Review Of The Use Of The Rorschach In European Courts, Igor Areh, Fanny Verkampt, Alfred Allan Jan 2021

Critical Review Of The Use Of The Rorschach In European Courts, Igor Areh, Fanny Verkampt, Alfred Allan

ECU Publications Post 2013

In relation to the admissibility of evidence obtained using projective personality tests arose in F v. Bevándorlási és Állampolgársági Hivatam (2018). The Court of Justice of the European Union has held that an expert’s report can only be accepted if it is based on the international scientific community’s standards, but has refrained from stipulating what these standards are. It appears timely for European psychologists to decide what standards should be applied to determine whether or not a test is appropriate for psycholegal use. We propose standards and then apply them to the Rorschach because it was used in ...


Juveniles In The Interrogation Room: Defense Attorneys As A Protective Factor, Caitlin N. August, Kelsey S. Henderson Dec 2020

Juveniles In The Interrogation Room: Defense Attorneys As A Protective Factor, Caitlin N. August, Kelsey S. Henderson

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications and Presentations

Juveniles are more susceptible in the interrogation room than adults, due to a host of vulnerabilities that put them at risk. Scholars have suggested that requiring the presence of a defense attorney during interrogations can protect juveniles from making an unintelligent waiver; variations of this type of policy have been mandated in some states across the United States (e.g., Illinois and California). The current study takes an exploratory, qualitative approach to examine how defense attorneys may act as a protective factor in the interrogation room. We interviewed 19 juvenile defenders using a semi-structured interview method; questions focused on experiences ...


Is Executive Function The Universal Acid?, Stephen J. Morse Nov 2020

Is Executive Function The Universal Acid?, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay responds to Hirstein, Sifferd and Fagan’s book, Responsible Brains (MIT Press, 2018), which claims that executive function is the guiding mechanism that supports both responsible agency and the necessity for some excuses. In contrast, I suggest that executive function is not the universal acid and the neuroscience at present contributes almost nothing to the necessary psychological level of explanation and analysis. To the extent neuroscience can be useful, it is virtually entirely dependent on well-validated psychology to correlate with the neuroscientific variables under investigation. The essay considers what executive function is and what the neuroscience adds to ...


A Retrospective Analysis Of Sex Education Messages Received By Lgb Youth, Jacqueline Bible, Alejandra Kaplan, Lisa D. Lieberman, Eva Goldfarb Sep 2020

A Retrospective Analysis Of Sex Education Messages Received By Lgb Youth, Jacqueline Bible, Alejandra Kaplan, Lisa D. Lieberman, Eva Goldfarb

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Using focus groups, this qualitative study asked thirty-five gay, lesbian, and bisexual (LGB) young adults to reflect on messages they received about sex and sexuality around the time they first had sex. Focus groups were conducted, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Through thematic analysis, the authors identified two messaging sources identified by participants: (1) formal education sources (i.e., school and parents), and (2) informal education sources (e.g., internet, peers). Formal sources often included messages perpetuating heteronormative assumptions, emphasizing abstinence, pregnancy and HIV/STI prevention, or silence as a form of messaging. Informal sources consisted of LGB-specific information. These findings ...


Promote Healing And Restore Lives: Clinicians’ Reflections On Their Experiences In Working With Survivors Of Trafficking, Brittany Burch Jul 2020

Promote Healing And Restore Lives: Clinicians’ Reflections On Their Experiences In Working With Survivors Of Trafficking, Brittany Burch

McNair Scholars Research

Humans are shaped by their personal beliefs, values, and individual philosophies of life. Personal ideologies of humanitarian aid can root a deep desire to provide help and assistance to the vulnerable within our community. This desire often manifests itself specifically in clinicians seeking to provide healing, hope, and restoration in the lives of women and men. (Thullesen, 2019). Human trafficking is a prominent human rights and social justice issue that is embedded within our society. This study focused on clinicians’ experiences and perspectives in working with victims of human trafficking.

The data was collected through interviews of clinicians working directly ...


Opioid Overdoses Among High-Risk Medicaid Members: Healthcare Cost, Service Utilization, And Risk Factor Analysis, Judith A. Savageau, Melissa Brindisi, Faye Miller, Laura A. Sefton, Adam Stoler, Margaret Harvey, Dana Bernson Jul 2020

Opioid Overdoses Among High-Risk Medicaid Members: Healthcare Cost, Service Utilization, And Risk Factor Analysis, Judith A. Savageau, Melissa Brindisi, Faye Miller, Laura A. Sefton, Adam Stoler, Margaret Harvey, Dana Bernson

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

Research Objective: Identify risk factors associated with opioid overdoses among three high-risk populations of Medicaid members related to cost and service utilization.

Study Design: Repeated cross-sectional study using five years of Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth) claims and state agency data.

Population Studied: MassHealth members aged 11-64 years considered to be high-risk (homeless, unstably housed, and/or criminal justice-involved) and in need of support services, especially those with extensive behavioral health (BH) needs. These three populations were identified as being particularly vulnerable to non-fatal and/or fatal opioid overdoses.

Principal Findings: MassHealth members who were both justice-involved and unstably housed were at ...


Interactions Between Need For Cognition And Ambivalent Sexism In Jurors’ Perceptions Of Expert Credibility, Trina Iyamuremye Uwineza, Morgan Hurtz, Laurel Westerman, Erika Boohar, Kaela Meyer, Halleigh Kelchen, Sarah Eagan, Sarah Gervais Apr 2020

Interactions Between Need For Cognition And Ambivalent Sexism In Jurors’ Perceptions Of Expert Credibility, Trina Iyamuremye Uwineza, Morgan Hurtz, Laurel Westerman, Erika Boohar, Kaela Meyer, Halleigh Kelchen, Sarah Eagan, Sarah Gervais

UCARE Research Products

The current study examined interactions between Need for Cognition scores (NCS) and Ambivalent Sexism scores (ASI; Hostile (HS) and Benevolent sexism (BS)) on perceptions of expert witness credibility. Participants (N = 467) with ages that ranged from 19–70 years (M=26.35, SD=9.20) completed the Need for Cognition Scale (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982), Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996), and Witness Credibility Scale (Brodsky, Griffin, & Cramer, 2010), and viewed a female expert witness providing scientific testimony in a civil trial. We hypothesized that 1) men who were low on need for cognition and high on benevolent sexism would perceive ...


Public Opinions Of Unmanned Aerial Technologies In 2014 To 2019: A Technical And Descriptive Report, Lisa M. Pytlikzillig, Janell C. Walther, Carrick Detweiler, Sebastian Elbaum, Adam Houston Apr 2020

Public Opinions Of Unmanned Aerial Technologies In 2014 To 2019: A Technical And Descriptive Report, Lisa M. Pytlikzillig, Janell C. Walther, Carrick Detweiler, Sebastian Elbaum, Adam Houston

Lisa PytlikZillig Publications

The primary purpose of this report is to provide a descriptive and technical summary of the results from similar surveys administered in fall 2014 (n = 576), 2015 (n = 301), 2016 (ns = 1946 and 2089), and 2018 (n = 1050) and summer 2019 (n = 1300). In order to explore a variety of factors that may impact public perceptions of unmanned aerial technologies (UATs), we conducted survey experiments over time. These experiments randomly varied the terminology (drone, aerial robot, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), unmanned aerial system (UAS)) used to describe the technology, the purposes of the technology (for economic, environmental, or security goals ...


Healthcare Avoidance Due To Anticipated Discrimination Among Transgender People: A Call To Create Trans-Affirmative Environments, Luisa Kcomt, Kevin M. Gorey, Betty Jo Barrett, Sean Esteban Mccabe Jan 2020

Healthcare Avoidance Due To Anticipated Discrimination Among Transgender People: A Call To Create Trans-Affirmative Environments, Luisa Kcomt, Kevin M. Gorey, Betty Jo Barrett, Sean Esteban Mccabe

Social Work Publications

Transgender people encounter interpersonal and structural barriers to healthcare access that contribute to their postponement or avoidance of healthcare, which can lead to poor physical and mental health outcomes. Using the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey, this study examined avoidance of healthcare due to anticipated discrimination among transgender adults aged 25 to 64 (N ¼ 19,157). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether gender identity/expression, socio-demographic, and transgender-specific factors were associated with healthcare avoidance. Almost one-quarter of the sample (22.8%) avoided healthcare due to anticipated discrimination. Transgender men had increased odds of healthcare avoidance (AOR ...


The Wicked Problem Of Child Abuse, Haley L. Dunkelberger Jan 2020

The Wicked Problem Of Child Abuse, Haley L. Dunkelberger

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

There is another connection that can be seen between serial killers besides the titles as such; facing some form of abuse as a child. Child abuse is a wicked problem that cannot easily be solved or stopped. However, ending abuse and saving victimized children may also save many others. Though serial killers are a very small minority of the population, there is still a desire to stop them in their tracts or even prevent that future entirely. Abuse often leads to something known as the cycle of violence, as well as many other mental and physical repercussions. If as a ...


Tramitación Social Después Del Trauma Colectivo: Un Análisis De Las Respuestas Colectivas En Torno El Trabajo De Las Abuelas De Plaza De Mayo De Argentina Después De La Última Dictadura Cívico-Militar / Social Processing After Collective Trauma: An Analysis Of The Collective Responses Around The Work Of Argentina’S Abuelas De Plaza De Mayo After The Most Recent Civic-Military Dictatorship, Sarah Horwitz Jan 2020

Tramitación Social Después Del Trauma Colectivo: Un Análisis De Las Respuestas Colectivas En Torno El Trabajo De Las Abuelas De Plaza De Mayo De Argentina Después De La Última Dictadura Cívico-Militar / Social Processing After Collective Trauma: An Analysis Of The Collective Responses Around The Work Of Argentina’S Abuelas De Plaza De Mayo After The Most Recent Civic-Military Dictatorship, Sarah Horwitz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Este ensayo investiga las respuestas colectivas al trabajo de las Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo en la Argentina. Las Abuelas son un grupo de mujeres con hijos y nietos que fueron desaparecidos sistemáticamente junto con 30.000 personas durante la última dictadura cívicomilitar de 1976 a 1983. En 1977, las Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo se juntaron para encontrar a sus nietos y nietas, muchos de los cuales habían sido entregados a familias cercanas a la dictadura. Aunque al día de hoy han recuperado más de 100 nietos y nietas, todavía falta más de 300. Esta investigación utiliza entrevistas personales ...


Justifying Bad Deals, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan Jan 2020

Justifying Bad Deals, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the past decade, psychological and behavioral studies have found that individual commitment to contracts persists beyond personal relationships and traditional promises. Even take-it-or-leave it consumer contracts get substantial deference from consumers — even when the terms are unenforceable, even when the assent is procedurally compromised, and even when the drafter is an impersonal commercial actor. Indeed, there is mounting evidence that people import the morality of promise into situations that might otherwise be described as predatory, exploitative, or coercive. The purpose of this Article is to propose a framework for understanding what seems to be widespread acceptance of regulation via ...


The Effects Of Criminal Embeddedness On School Violence In Brazil, Elenice De Souza De Souza Oliveira, Braulio Figueiredo Alves Da Silva, Silvio Segundo Salej Higgins Oct 2019

The Effects Of Criminal Embeddedness On School Violence In Brazil, Elenice De Souza De Souza Oliveira, Braulio Figueiredo Alves Da Silva, Silvio Segundo Salej Higgins

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

This study examines the influence of criminal embeddedness on the intensity of criminal behavior among primary and secondary school students in a large Brazilian city. A database conceived by the Center for the Study of Crime and Public Security at the Federal University in Minas Gerais is used to analyze the involvement of youths displaying delinquent behavior at home or at school and how school performance and peer relationships are effected. Based on differential association and learning theories, the main hypotheses are (1) the greater the criminal embeddedness, the lower the degree of school satisfaction as well as future expectation ...


Logistic And Structural Considerations For The Use Of Psychological First Aid In Humanitarian Emergencies, Taylor Johnson Oct 2019

Logistic And Structural Considerations For The Use Of Psychological First Aid In Humanitarian Emergencies, Taylor Johnson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Following the IASC recommendations for implementation of psychological first aid (PFA) in 2007, providing PFA in humanitarian emergencies as a method of psychosocial support has become one of the standard interventions in the wake of crises. However, the impact of PFA on future mental health outcomes remains largely unstudied and many structural and logistic factors (e.g. training of PFA providers, reviewing evidence to inform practice, and policy considerations) must be managed in order to ensure appropriate, high-quality PFA in humanitarian emergencies. This research aims to synthesize both primary interview data and the existing literature surrounding PFA in humanitarian emergencies ...


Pensaba Que Te Había Olvidado: El Daño Duradero De La Trauma Que Viene De Tortura En La Dictadura Chilena, Antonia Mcdonnell Capossela Oct 2019

Pensaba Que Te Había Olvidado: El Daño Duradero De La Trauma Que Viene De Tortura En La Dictadura Chilena, Antonia Mcdonnell Capossela

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Research question: Is there a more useful model to characterize the torture that was implemented in Chile using the context of theory and history to establish an in-depth understanding of the symptomology and effects of the experience of torture survivors?

Objective: The general objective of this study is to establish the origin of the methods of torture used during the Pinochet dictatorship and use these results to suggest a model of reparations that is more wholistic. The specific objectives are to understand the intervention and instruction by the CIA in Chile, to study the testimonies of torture during the dictatorship ...


“Para Nunca Más Vivirlo, Nunca Más Negarlo”: El Legado De Violencia Sexual Durante La Dictadura, Isabel De La Torre Oct 2019

“Para Nunca Más Vivirlo, Nunca Más Negarlo”: El Legado De Violencia Sexual Durante La Dictadura, Isabel De La Torre

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Research Question: What are the mental health effects of sexual political violence against women during the dictatorship and during the current socio-political movement?

Objectives: The general objective of this study is to identify how sexual political violence has been used in Chile against women and to analyze its consequences on the mental health of survivors. More specifically, this study attempts to investigate the mechanisms sexual political torture during the dictatorship and now, visibilize the unique damages to mental health caused by this type of violence, and analyze the dictatorial legacy in regards to sexual violence and the current socio-political climate ...


Creating A “Good” Olmstead Plan For People With Serious Mental Illness: An Empirical Evaluation Of The Legal Frameworks, Andrea Avila Aug 2019

Creating A “Good” Olmstead Plan For People With Serious Mental Illness: An Empirical Evaluation Of The Legal Frameworks, Andrea Avila

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Olmstead v. L.C. ex rel Zimring (1999) was a landmark US Supreme Court decision holding that unjustified segregation of people with disabilities is impermissible discrimination; specifically, if the clinician and client believe community integration to be appropriate, the state must have reasonable accommodations in place for the client to be in the community. Enforcement of the Olmstead decision for people with serious mental illness has taken many shapes, from the DOJ’s settlement agreements requiring substantive development of community mental health services and aggressive community integration protocols, to the Third Circuit approach which requires only lower census numbers in ...


Better With Science: Strengthening Patron Learning, Heather Simmons, Alyson Drake, Joseph Lawson Jul 2019

Better With Science: Strengthening Patron Learning, Heather Simmons, Alyson Drake, Joseph Lawson

Presentations

A baseline understanding of cognitive theory and educational psychology concepts is critical to successful student learning. With librarians in all settings providing more teaching and training than ever, designing educational experiences with these concepts in mind will result in greater retention and understanding for their patrons. This program will discuss five important ideas from cognitive learning science and give examples of how librarians and other information professionals can incorporate those theories into their instructional offerings. Participants will then work in groups to brainstorm ways various theories can be applied as they design or restructure their own instructional programs.

Takeaways:

1 ...


Against The Received Wisdom: Why Should The Criminal Justice System Give Kids A Break?, Stephen J. Morse Jul 2019

Against The Received Wisdom: Why Should The Criminal Justice System Give Kids A Break?, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Professor Gideon Yaffe’s recent, intricately argued book, The Age of Culpability: Children and the Nature of Criminal Responsibility, argues against the nearly uniform position in both law and scholarship that the criminal justice system should give juveniles a break not because on average they have different capacities relevant to responsibility than adults, but because juveniles have little say about the criminal law, primarily because they do not have a vote. For Professor Yaffe, age has political rather than behavioral significance. The book has many excellent general analyses about responsibility, but all are in aid of the central thesis about ...


Assessing Cognitive Interview Mnemonics And Their Effectiveness With Non-Native English Speakers, Bryan Keith Wylie Jun 2019

Assessing Cognitive Interview Mnemonics And Their Effectiveness With Non-Native English Speakers, Bryan Keith Wylie

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The cognitive interview is a widely recommended forensic interviewing strategy which elicits more details than comparison interviews. However, little research has attended to which of its component mnemonics drive the overall effect. Furthermore, some mnemonics—like asking witnesses to recall in reverse order—are cognitively demanding. Responding to cognitively demanding interview mnemonics may be challenging for witnesses who are already under heavy cognitive load, such as non-native English speakers. Speaking a second language is a cognitively difficult task that may leave non-native English speakers with limited cognitive resources to devote to complex interviewing mnemonics. Other mnemonics, though, may be particularly ...


From Reformatories, To Today, And Into The Future: What Needs To Change For Female Offenders, Alyson Berry May 2019

From Reformatories, To Today, And Into The Future: What Needs To Change For Female Offenders, Alyson Berry

Senior Honors Projects

In society, and within the criminal justice system, women have always been deemed insignificant and many of their problems have been neglected. Even as time has progressed, convicted women's physical and mental needs are still disregarded as well as their motivation, risk, and recidivism rates. Since the late 1800s, the number of incarcerated women has risen. This indicates a need for change in the current system to decrease the population of female offenders and their likelihood of becoming repeat offenders. In order to determine what aspects have worked and which ones need to be revised, different time periods need ...


Law Library Blog (April 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Apr 2019

Law Library Blog (April 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Codifying A Sharia-Based Criminal Law In Developing Muslim Countries, Paul H. Robinson Apr 2019

Codifying A Sharia-Based Criminal Law In Developing Muslim Countries, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper reproduces presentations made at the University of Tehran in March 2019 as part of the opening and closing remarks for a Conference on Criminal Law Development in Muslim-Majority Countries. The opening remarks discuss the challenges of codifying a Shari’a-based criminal code, drawing primarily from the experiences of Professor Robinson in directing codification projects in Somalia and the Maldives. The closing remarks apply many of those lessons to the situation currently existing in Iran. Included is a discussion of the implications for Muslim countries of Robinson’s social psychology work on the power of social influence and internalized ...