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Full-Text Articles in Law

Grand-Vision: An Intelligent System For Optimized Deployment Scheduling Of Law Enforcement Agents, Jonathan Chase, Tran Phong, Kang Long, Tony Le, Hoong Chuin Lau Jun 2021

Grand-Vision: An Intelligent System For Optimized Deployment Scheduling Of Law Enforcement Agents, Jonathan Chase, Tran Phong, Kang Long, Tony Le, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Law enforcement agencies in dense urban environments, faced with a wide range of incidents to handle and limited manpower, are turning to data-driven AI to inform their policing strategy. In this paper we present a patrol scheduling system called GRAND-VISION: Ground Response Allocation and Deployment - Visualization, Simulation, and Optimization. The system employs deep learning to generate incident sets that are used to train a patrol schedule that can accommodate varying manpower, break times, manual pre-allocations, and a variety of spatio-temporal demand features. The complexity of the scenario results in a system with real world applicability, which we demonstrate through simulation ...


Administrative Law In The Automated State, Cary Coglianese Apr 2021

Administrative Law In The Automated State, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the future, administrative agencies will rely increasingly on digital automation powered by machine learning algorithms. Can U.S. administrative law accommodate such a future? Not only might a highly automated state readily meet longstanding administrative law principles, but the responsible use of machine learning algorithms might perform even better than the status quo in terms of fulfilling administrative law’s core values of expert decision-making and democratic accountability. Algorithmic governance clearly promises more accurate, data-driven decisions. Moreover, due to their mathematical properties, algorithms might well prove to be more faithful agents of democratic institutions. Yet even if an automated ...


Reimagining The Duck Stamp, Hunting Licensure And Public Land Preservation, Alec Wayne Boyd-Devine Apr 2021

Reimagining The Duck Stamp, Hunting Licensure And Public Land Preservation, Alec Wayne Boyd-Devine

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The American Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation Stamp, or Duck Stamp, is a form of licensure issued by the Federal Government for waterfowl hunters. Why do physical stamps act as licensure to hunt waterfowl on both public and private land in the United States? How did the stamp become the key that grants access to resources that supposedly should be owned by the public? The duck stamp has been well-documented in conservation communities as a resource which has made significant positive impacts on the environment. The increase of anti-hunting sentiments in our society combined with fewer hunters per capita may ...


Revisiting Hudson County Water Co. V. Mccarter: Realism, The Public Trust Doctrine, And Environmental Conservation In The Lochner Era, Steven Huffman Apr 2021

Revisiting Hudson County Water Co. V. Mccarter: Realism, The Public Trust Doctrine, And Environmental Conservation In The Lochner Era, Steven Huffman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Legal histories of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era tend to focus inordinately on economic regulation within a doctrinal framework in which private rights, equal protection, and “substantive” due process guided judicial decision-making. Consequently, the overarching economic context in prevailing legal historiography obscures an important yet oft-overlooked development in the linkage between public rights, natural resource trusteeship, and the early-twentieth-century environmental conservation movement. This development is inextricably tied to the evolution of water law in the late nineteenth century and the expansion of the American commercial republic. A normative understanding of public water rights during this period is confined to ...


Moonlight: A Photo Essay, David A. Westbrook Feb 2021

Moonlight: A Photo Essay, David A. Westbrook

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Environmental Soft Law As A Governance Strategy, Cary Coglianese Jan 2021

Environmental Soft Law As A Governance Strategy, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Soft law governance relies on nongovernmental institutions that establish and implement voluntary standards. Compared with traditional hard law solutions to societal and economic problems, soft law alternatives promise to be more politically feasible to establish and then easier to adapt in the face of changing circumstances. They may also seem more likely to be flexible in what they demand of targeted businesses and other entities. But can soft law actually work to solve major problems? This Article considers the value of soft law governance through the lens of three major voluntary, nongovernmental initiatives that address environmental concerns: (1) ISO 14001 ...


Law Library Blog (January 2021): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Jan 2021

Law Library Blog (January 2021): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Vaccine Clinical Trials And Data Infrastructure, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

Vaccine Clinical Trials And Data Infrastructure, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

We find ourselves at a momentous turn in the history of vaccines. The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a quasi-global vaccine race that not only compressed vaccine research and development (R&D) timelines, but also paved the way for the administration of a new type of vaccine technology – mRNA vaccines, which work in substantially different ways from the vaccines in use before the pandemic.

While the process of bringing emerging COVID-19 vaccines to market has taken place in an unusually short timeframe, it was largely predicated on the same scientific and regulatory processes that govern the development, approval and deployment of new ...


Contracting For Algorithmic Accountability, Cary Coglianese, Erik Lampmann Jan 2021

Contracting For Algorithmic Accountability, Cary Coglianese, Erik Lampmann

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

As local, state, and federal governments increase their reliance on artificial intelligence (AI) decision-making tools designed and operated by private contractors, so too do public concerns increase over the accountability and transparency of such AI tools. But current calls to respond to these concerns by banning governments from using AI will only deny society the benefits that prudent use of such technology can provide. In this Article, we argue that government agencies should pursue a more nuanced and effective approach to governing the governmental use of AI by structuring their procurement contracts for AI tools and services in ways that ...


Power And Statistical Significance In Securities Fraud Litigation, Jill E. Fisch, Jonah B. Gelbach Jan 2021

Power And Statistical Significance In Securities Fraud Litigation, Jill E. Fisch, Jonah B. Gelbach

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Event studies, a half-century-old approach to measuring the effect of events on stock prices, are now ubiquitous in securities fraud litigation. In determining whether the event study demonstrates a price effect, expert witnesses typically base their conclusion on whether the results are statistically significant at the 95% confidence level, a threshold that is drawn from the academic literature. As a positive matter, this represents a disconnect with legal standards of proof. As a normative matter, it may reduce enforcement of fraud claims because litigation event studies typically involve quite low statistical power even for large-scale frauds.

This paper, written for ...


Law Library Blog (November 2020): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Nov 2020

Law Library Blog (November 2020): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


The Internet Never Forgets: Image-Based Sexual Abuse And The Workplace, John Schriner, Melody Lee Rood Oct 2020

The Internet Never Forgets: Image-Based Sexual Abuse And The Workplace, John Schriner, Melody Lee Rood

Publications and Research

Image-based sexual abuse (IBSA), commonly known as revenge pornography, is a type of cyberharassment that often results in detrimental effects to an individual's career and livelihood. Although there exists valuable research concerning cyberharassment in the workplace generally, there is little written about specifically IBSA and the workplace. This chapter examines current academic research on IBSA, the issues with defining this type of abuse, victim blaming, workplace policy, and challenges to victim-survivors' redress. The authors explore monetary motivation for websites that host revenge pornography and unpack how the dark web presents new challenges to seeking justice. Additionally, this chapter presents ...


Revisiting The Law Of Confidence In Singapore And A Proposal For A New Tort Of Misuse Of Private Information, Cheng Lim Saw, Zheng Wen Samuel Chan, Wen Min Chai Oct 2020

Revisiting The Law Of Confidence In Singapore And A Proposal For A New Tort Of Misuse Of Private Information, Cheng Lim Saw, Zheng Wen Samuel Chan, Wen Min Chai

Research Collection School Of Law

This article critically examines the recent Court of Appeal decision in I-Admin (Singapore) Pte Ltd v Hong Ying Ting [2020] 1 SLR 1130 and its implications for the law of confidence. The article begins by setting out the decision at first instance, and then on appeal. It argues that the Court of Appeal’s “modified approach” fails to meaningfully engage the plaintiff ’s wrongful gain interest and places the law’s emphasis primarily, if not wholly, on the plaintiff ’s wrongful loss interest. The new framework also appears to have been influenced by English jurisprudence, which has had a long ...


Research 4.0: Research In The Age Of Automation, Rob Procter, Ben Glover, Elliot Jones Sep 2020

Research 4.0: Research In The Age Of Automation, Rob Procter, Ben Glover, Elliot Jones

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Executive Summary

There is a growing consensus that we are at the start of a fourth industrial revolution, driven by developments in Artificial Intelligence, machine learning, robotics, the Internet of Things, 3-D printing, nanotechnology, biotechnology, 5G, new forms of energy storage and quantum computing. This wave of technical innovations is already having a significant impact on how research is conducted, with dramatic change across research methods in recent years within some disciplines, as this project’s interim report set out.

Whilst there are a wide range of technologies associated with the fourth industrial revolution, this report primarily seeks to understand ...


Rethinking Mistake In The Age Of Algorithms: Quoine Pte Ltd V B2c2 Ltd, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh Sep 2020

Rethinking Mistake In The Age Of Algorithms: Quoine Pte Ltd V B2c2 Ltd, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh

Research Collection School Of Law

Good traders remove emotion from the decision-making process. Automated trading algorithms have enabled this, allowing one to trade round the clock, and without the constant need to monitor one’s investments. But software has gremlins. Given the vast amounts of money involved in such trades, it was only a matter of time before disputes involving automated trading software came before the courts. The decision in Quoine v B2C2 (“Quoine”) represents the first time an apex court in the Commonwealth has ruled on the applicability of contractual principles to situations involving automated trading software.


Coronavirus: Pandemics, Artificial Intelligence And Personal Data: How To Manage Pandemics Using Ai And What That Means For Personal Data Protection, Warren B. Chik Sep 2020

Coronavirus: Pandemics, Artificial Intelligence And Personal Data: How To Manage Pandemics Using Ai And What That Means For Personal Data Protection, Warren B. Chik

Research Collection School Of Law

This chapter discusses the hearing of essential and urgent court matters in the Singapore courts during the COVID-19 pandemic. On 27 march 2020, the Singapore judiciary notified courst users that remote hearings were to be implemented for certain types of hearings by means of video and telephone conferencing facilities. Court users were also provided with indicative lists of matters which might be considered essential and urgent.


Coronavirus: Pandemics, Artificial Intelligence And Personal Data: How To Manage Pandemics Using Ai And What That Means For Personal Data Protection, Warren B. Chik Sep 2020

Coronavirus: Pandemics, Artificial Intelligence And Personal Data: How To Manage Pandemics Using Ai And What That Means For Personal Data Protection, Warren B. Chik

Research Collection School Of Law

This chapter discusses the hearing of essential and urgent court matters in the Singapore courts during the COVID-19 pandemic. On 27 march 2020, the Singapore judiciary notified courst users that remote hearings were to be implemented for certain types of hearings by means of video and telephone conferencing facilities. Court users were also provided with indicative lists of matters which might be considered essential and urgent.


An Ecosystem Approach To Ethical Ai And Data Use: Experimental Reflections, Mark Findlay, Josephine Seah Sep 2020

An Ecosystem Approach To Ethical Ai And Data Use: Experimental Reflections, Mark Findlay, Josephine Seah

Research Collection School Of Law

While we have witnessed a rapid growth of ethics documents meant to guide artificial intelligence (AI) development, the promotion of AI ethics has nonetheless proceeded with little input from AI practitioners themselves. Given the proliferation of AI for Social Good initiatives, this is an emerging gap that needs to be addressed in order to develop more meaningful ethical approaches to AI use and development. This paper offers a methodology-a 'shared fairness' approach-aimed at identifying AI practitioners' needs when it comes to confronting and resolving ethical challenges and to find a third space where their operational language can be married with ...


How Intelligent Ci Instruction Gives Law Students A Competitive Edge, Heather Simmons, Beau Steenken, Liz Whittington, Joshua Pluta Jul 2020

How Intelligent Ci Instruction Gives Law Students A Competitive Edge, Heather Simmons, Beau Steenken, Liz Whittington, Joshua Pluta

Presentations

"Competitive intelligence" (CI) is a term that gets bandied about across many sectors, but how exactly do law firms use it to further their business? Academics are aware of CI as a concept, but teaching students how to conduct competitive intelligence requires a more nuanced understanding of how it is actually used. In a discussion moderated by a newer academic librarian who will be teaching competitive intelligence for the first time, a firm librarian will share insights into how competitive intelligence can and should be used, and an academic librarian who regularly teaches competitive intelligence will offer tips on how ...


Busting Myths And Dispelling Doubts About Covid-19, Mark Findlay Jul 2020

Busting Myths And Dispelling Doubts About Covid-19, Mark Findlay

Research Collection School Of Law

The Centre for AI and Data Governance (CAIDG) at Singapore Management University (SMU) has embarked over past months on a programme of research designed to confront concerns about the pandemic and its control. Our interest is primarily directed to the ways in which AI-assisted technologies and mass data sharing have become a feature of pandemic control strategies. We want to know what impact these developments are having on community confidence and health safety. In developing this work, we have come across many myths that need busting.


The Consent Of The Governed, Carter A. Hanson Jul 2020

The Consent Of The Governed, Carter A. Hanson

Student Publications

The Consent of the Governed is a Kolbe Fellowship project investigating gerrymandering through the lens of mathematics, Supreme Court litigation, and the potential for redistricting reform. It was produced as a five-episode podcast during the summer of 2020; this paper is the transcription of the podcast script. The project begins with an analysis of the impact of gerrymandering on the composition of the current U.S. House of Representatives. It then investigates the arguments and stories of Supreme Court gerrymandering cases in the past twenty years within their political contexts, with a focus on the Court's reaction to different ...


Literature Review: How U.S. Government Documents Are Addressing The Increasing National Security Implications Of Artificial Intelligence, Bert Chapman Jun 2020

Literature Review: How U.S. Government Documents Are Addressing The Increasing National Security Implications Of Artificial Intelligence, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

This article emphasizes the increasing importance of artificial intelligence (AI) in military and national security policy making. It seeks to inform interested individuals about the proliferation of publicly accessible U.S. government and military literature on this multifaceted topic. An additional objective of this endeavor is encouraging greater public awareness of and participation in emerging public policy debate on AI's moral and national security implications..


Developing Open Source Software Using Version Control Systems: An Introduction To The Git Language For Documenting Your Computational Research, Jared D. Smith, Jonathan D. Herman Jun 2020

Developing Open Source Software Using Version Control Systems: An Introduction To The Git Language For Documenting Your Computational Research, Jared D. Smith, Jonathan D. Herman

All ECSTATIC Materials

Version control systems track the history of code as it is committed (saved) by any number of developers. Have you made a coding error and cannot debug it? Version control systems allow for resetting code back to when it worked, and show what code has changed since previous commits.

The contents of this lecture provide an introduction to the git version control language, GitHub for cloud hosting open source code repositories, and tutorials that demonstrate common and useful git and GitHub practices. This lecture is intended to be coupled with a discussion on creating reproducible computational research.

The zipped folder ...


The Global Sustainability Footprint Of Sovereign Wealth Funds, Hao Liang, Luc Renneboog Jun 2020

The Global Sustainability Footprint Of Sovereign Wealth Funds, Hao Liang, Luc Renneboog

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

With the emergence of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) around the world managing equity of over $8 trillion, their impact on the corporate landscape and social welfare is being scrutinized. This study investigates whether and how SWFs incorporate environmental, social, and governance (ESG) considerations in their investment decisions in publicly listed corporations, as well as the subsequent evolution of target firms' ESG performance. We find that SWF funds do consider the level of past ESG performance as well as recent ESG score improvement when taking ownership stakes in listed companies. These results are driven by the SWF funds that do have ...


Deploying Machine Learning For A Sustainable Future, Cary Coglianese May 2020

Deploying Machine Learning For A Sustainable Future, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

To meet the environmental challenges of a warming planet and an increasingly complex, high tech economy, government must become smarter about how it makes policies and deploys its limited resources. It specifically needs to build a robust capacity to analyze large volumes of environmental and economic data by using machine-learning algorithms to improve regulatory oversight, monitoring, and decision-making. Three challenges can be expected to drive the need for algorithmic environmental governance: more problems, less funding, and growing public demands. This paper explains why algorithmic governance will prove pivotal in meeting these challenges, but it also presents four likely obstacles that ...


Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman May 2020

Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Article 1 of the US Constitution assigns the US Congress numerous responsibilities. These include creating new laws, revising existing laws, funding government programs, and conducting oversight of these programs' performance. Oversight of US Government agency space policy programs is executed by various congressional space policy committees including the House and Senate Science Committees, Armed Services, and Appropriations Committees. These committees conduct many public hearings on space policy, which invite expert witnesses to testify on US space policy programs and feature debate on the strengths and weaknesses of these programs. Documentation produced by these committees is widely available to the public ...


Law School News: Dennis W. Nixon: Doctor Of Laws, Honoris Causa 05-09-2020, Roger Williams University School Of Law May 2020

Law School News: Dennis W. Nixon: Doctor Of Laws, Honoris Causa 05-09-2020, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Regulating Personal Data Usage In Covid-19 Control Conditions, Mark Findlay, Nydia Remolina May 2020

Regulating Personal Data Usage In Covid-19 Control Conditions, Mark Findlay, Nydia Remolina

Centre for AI & Data Governance

As the COVID-19 health pandemic ebbs and flows world-wide, governments and private companies across the globe are utilising AI-assisted surveillance, reporting, mapping and tracing technologies with the intention of slowing the spread of the virus. These technologies have capacity to amass and share personal data for community control and citizen safety motivations that empower state agencies and inveigle citizen co-operation which could only be imagined outside times of real and present personal danger. While not cavilling with the short-term necessity for these technologies and the data they control, process and share in the health regulation mission (provided that the technology ...


Trust In And Ethical Design Of Carebots: The Case For Ethics Of Care, Gary Kok Yew Chan May 2020

Trust In And Ethical Design Of Carebots: The Case For Ethics Of Care, Gary Kok Yew Chan

Research Collection School Of Law

The paper has two main objectives: to examine the challenges arising from the use of carebots as well as to discuss how the design of carebots can deal with these challenges. First, it notes that the use of carebots to take care of the physical and mental health of the elderly, children and the disabled as well as to serve as assistive tools and social companions encounter a few main challenges. They relate to the extent of the care robots’ ability to care for humans, potential deception by robot morphology and communications, (over)reliance on or attachment to robots, and ...


Keeping Ai Under Observation: Anticipated Impacts On Physicians' Standard Of Care, Iria Giuffrida, Taylor Treece Apr 2020

Keeping Ai Under Observation: Anticipated Impacts On Physicians' Standard Of Care, Iria Giuffrida, Taylor Treece

Faculty Publications

As Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools become increasingly present across industries, concerns have started to emerge as to their impact on professional liability. Specifically, for the medical industry--in many ways an inherently "risky" business--hospitals and physicians have begun evaluating the impact of Al tools on their professional malpractice risk. This Essay seeks to address that question, zooming in on how AI may affect physicians' standard of care for medical malpractice claims.