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National Security Law

2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 44

Full-Text Articles in Law

Cyber Deterrence, Eric Talbot Jensen Dec 2012

Cyber Deterrence, Eric Talbot Jensen

Faculty Scholarship

Cyber operations by both state actors and non-state actors are increasing in frequency and severity. As nations struggle to defend their networks and infrastructure, their ability to apply the principles of deterrence to cyber activities correspondingly increases in importance. Cyber deterrence offers much more flexibility and increased options from traditional deterrence methodologies developed in the Cold War’s nuclear age. In addition to traditional retaliation, cyber deterrence includes options such as taking legal action; and making networks invisible, resilient, and interdependent. It also presents new ways to view and apply accepted methodologies such as invulnerability. As the U.S. continues to develop …


The United States' Use Of Drones In The War On Terror: The (Il)Legality Of Targeted Killings Under International Law, Milena Sterio Oct 2012

The United States' Use Of Drones In The War On Terror: The (Il)Legality Of Targeted Killings Under International Law, Milena Sterio

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States government began to use drones against al-Qaeda targets. According to several media reports, the United States developed two parallel drone programs: one operated by the military, and one operated in secrecy by the CIA. Under the Obama Administration, the latter program developed and- the number of drone attacks in countries such as Pakistan and Yemen has steadily increased. Because the drone program is operated covertly by the CIA, it has been impossible to determine the precise contours of the program, its legal and normative framework, and whether its operators …


Perceptual Framing Of Homeland Security, Linda Kiltz, James D. Ramsay Aug 2012

Perceptual Framing Of Homeland Security, Linda Kiltz, James D. Ramsay

Security Studies & International Affairs - Daytona Beach

This article analyzes the phenomenon of homeland security through the development of four conceptual lenses that were created out of the existing literatures in criminal justice, public administration, organization behavior, risk management, international relations, and the overlap between them. Using terrorism as a proxy for the homeland security enterprise, these conceptual lenses include: (1) homeland security as a criminal justice problem which views terrorism as a crime; (2) homeland security as a international relations problem which views terrorism as a war; (3) homeland security as an organization design problem which views terrorism as a network of sub-state transnational actors; and …


Who Decides On Security?, Aziz Rana Jul 2012

Who Decides On Security?, Aziz Rana

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

Despite over six decades of reform initiatives, the overwhelming drift of security arrangements in the United States has been toward greater—not less— executive centralization and discretion. This Article explores why efforts to curb presidential prerogative have failed so consistently. It argues that while constitutional scholars have overwhelmingly focused their attention on procedural solutions, the underlying reason for the growth of emergency powers is ultimately political rather than purely legal. In particular, scholars have ignored how the basic meaning of "security" has itself shifted dramatically since World War II and the beginning of the Cold War in line with changing ideas …


Revisiting "Special Needs" Theory Via Airport Searches, Alexander A. Reinert Jul 2012

Revisiting "Special Needs" Theory Via Airport Searches, Alexander A. Reinert

Articles

Controversy has raged since the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) introduced Advanced Imaging Technology, capable of producing detailed images of travelers' bodies, and "enhanced" pat frisks as part of everyday airport travel. In the face of challenges in the courts and in public discourse, the TSA has justified the heightened security measures as a necessary means to prevent terrorist attacks. The purpose of this Essay is to situate the Fourth Amendment implications of the new regime within a broader historical context. Most germane, after the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) introduced sweeping new screening of air travelers in the 1960s and 1970s …


Confronting The Wizard Of Oz: National Security, Expertise, And Secrecy, David Cole Jul 2012

Confronting The Wizard Of Oz: National Security, Expertise, And Secrecy, David Cole

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Aziz Rana’s account of the takeover of American national security by experts, and of the public’s acceptance of that state of affairs, offers an important and novel perspective on what ails us in national security today. In this Comment, I suggest that while Rana is correct to identify our deference to experts as a central aspect of the problem, the problem is more complicated. First, the phenomenon of elite control over foreign and security policy questions is not new, but likely dates back to the founding—when elites ruled not based on expertise but on the basis of status, class, and …


Interest-Balancing Vs. Fiduciary Duty: Two Models For National Security Law, Evan Fox-Decent, Evan J. Criddle May 2012

Interest-Balancing Vs. Fiduciary Duty: Two Models For National Security Law, Evan Fox-Decent, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Taint Of Torture: The Roles Of Law And Policy In Our Descent To The Dark Side, David Cole Apr 2012

The Taint Of Torture: The Roles Of Law And Policy In Our Descent To The Dark Side, David Cole

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Was the Bush administration’s decision to employ “enhanced interrogation techniques” a mistake of policy, a violation of law, or both? This essay responds to Philip Zelikow’s insider account of how the decision to use these techniques was reached. The author suggests that while Zelikow makes a strong case that the decision to authorize the CIA to use coercive interrogation tactics was a mistaken policy judgment, it is important not to lose sight of the fact that it was also illegal. The latter conclusion demands a different response than the former. In particular, it underscores the necessity for accountability. The author …


The Law Of Operational Targeting: Viewing The Loac Through An Operational Lens, Gary Corn Apr 2012

The Law Of Operational Targeting: Viewing The Loac Through An Operational Lens, Gary Corn

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Air and missile warfare is and will almost certainly continue to be a ubiquitous aspect of contemporary armed conflicts. Yet, the law related to the regulation of this aspect of warfare has failed to develop at the same pace as the methods and means of employing such combat assets. The Manual on International Law Applicable to Air and Missile Warfare (AMW Manual)' is therefore without question an important development in the law of armed conflict. Although not hard law, it reflects the consensus of some of the most respected jus in bello scholars in the world on how existing law …


The Advanced Persistent Threat And The Role Of Cybersecurity Education, Gary C. Kessler Mar 2012

The Advanced Persistent Threat And The Role Of Cybersecurity Education, Gary C. Kessler

Security Studies & International Affairs - Daytona Beach

"The changing face of infowar • The Advanced Persistent Threat • Examples of recent cyber attacks • Mitigation and preparation • Formalizing the response • The role(s) of education"--Overview


The Advanced Persistent Threat And The Role Of Cybersecurity Education, Gary C. Kessler Mar 2012

The Advanced Persistent Threat And The Role Of Cybersecurity Education, Gary C. Kessler

Applied Aviation Sciences - Daytona Beach

No abstract provided.


Be Careful What You Wish For: Changing Doctrines, Changing Technologies And The Lower Cost Of War, Rosa Brooks Mar 2012

Be Careful What You Wish For: Changing Doctrines, Changing Technologies And The Lower Cost Of War, Rosa Brooks

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The collective security structure created by the U.N. Charter is becoming shakier than ever, and two recent trends pose particular challenges to Charter rules on the use of force. The first trend involves a normative shift in understandings of state sovereignty, and the second trend involves improvements in technology--specifically, the rapid evolution of unmanned aerial vehicles, precision weapons, and surveillance technologies. Each trend on its own raises difficult issues. Together, they further call into question international law’s ability to meaningfully constrain the use of force by states.


A Sea Change In Security: How The ‘War On Terror’ Strengthened Human Rights, Michael Galchinsky Jan 2012

A Sea Change In Security: How The ‘War On Terror’ Strengthened Human Rights, Michael Galchinsky

English Faculty Publications

In many ways the Bush administration's "war on terror" weakened states' respect for their human rights obligations, and the UN Security Council's initial response to 9/11 seemed to follow the Bush administration's lead. In keeping with its historical lack of engagement with human rights questions, the SC in 2001-2003 did little to ensure that the counter-terrorism measures it demanded of states would take their obligations under human rights and humanitarian law into account. However, starting in 2002, a backlash against the perceived excesses wrought by the SC’s counter-terrorism measures gained momentum. Other UN bodies, as well as NGOs, regional intergovernmental …


Judicial Formalism And The State Secrets Privilege, Sudha Setty Jan 2012

Judicial Formalism And The State Secrets Privilege, Sudha Setty

Faculty Scholarship

Congress has, in the last few years, toyed with the idea of attempting to rein in the executive’s increasing reliance on the state secrets privilege as a means of escaping the possibility of accountability. The Author examines one high-profile case, that of Binyam Mohamed and other plaintiffs claiming that they had been subject to extraordinary rendition, torture, and prolonged detention. The Mohamed litigation offers evidence of a disturbing trend of U.S. courts retreating to formalistic reasoning to extend unwarranted deference to the executive branch in security-related contexts. In this essay the Author limits her analysis to the recent jurisprudence surrounding …


The Rise Of National Security Secrets, Sudha Setty Jan 2012

The Rise Of National Security Secrets, Sudha Setty

Faculty Scholarship

Professor Aziz Rana urges a broad and populist reconsideration of the idea that the administration and military are best positioned to make decisions about national security issues. This Article calls for a rethinking of national security secrecy as well. The centralization of security decision-making power in the early Cold War era fostered a culture of government secrecy, with Congress and the judiciary enabling the rise of national security secrecy out of fear that they were ill-equipped to make security-related decisions, and public fear of internal and international security threats trumping concerns about legitimacy or democratic accountability. This culture of secrecy …


National Security Interest Convergence, Sudha Setty Jan 2012

National Security Interest Convergence, Sudha Setty

Faculty Scholarship

Over a decade after the attacks of September 11, 2001, lawmakers, scholars, activists, and policy makers continue to confront the questions of whether and to what extent robust counterterrorism laws and policies should be reined in to protect against the abuse of civil rights and the marginalization of outsider groups. This Article uses political and critical race theory to identify areas of national security interest convergence in which political will can be marshaled to limit some national security policies.

Legislators act in their political self-interest — both in terms of responding to party forces and constituents — in casting votes …


Introduction: Targeting In An Asymmetrical World, D. A. Jeremy Telman Jan 2012

Introduction: Targeting In An Asymmetrical World, D. A. Jeremy Telman

Law Faculty Publications

This is the introduction to a collection of articles to be published in the Valparaiso University Law Review. The articles address the challenges presented by non-traditional warfare and non-traditional combatants in the contexts of the War on Terror and the trend toward multilateral and humanitarian interventions. Two of the contributions, those of Jonathan Hafetz and David Frakt, detail the hybrid model, part criminal law, part law of war, that the United States developed for addressing the status of detainees in the War on Terror. Two of the contributions, those of Rachel VanLandingham and Iain Pedden, propose international models for addressing …


Intolerable Abuses: Rendition For Torture And The State Secrets Privilege, D. A. Jeremy Telman Jan 2012

Intolerable Abuses: Rendition For Torture And The State Secrets Privilege, D. A. Jeremy Telman

Law Faculty Publications

In Mohamed v. Jeppesen Dataplan, Inc., the Ninth Circuit, sitting en banc, dismissed a complaint brought by five men claiming to have been victims of the U.S. government’s extraordinary rendition program, alleged to involve international kidnapping and torture at foreign facilities. Procedurally required to accept plaintiffs’ allegations as true, the court nonetheless dismissed the complaint before discovery had begun based on the state secrets privilege and the Totten doctrine, finding that the very subject matter of plaintiffs’ complaint was a state secret and that the defendant corporation could not defend itself without evidence subject to the privilege. This Article contends …


Beyond War: Bin Laden, Escobar, And The Justification Of Targeted Killing, Luis E. Chiesa, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt Jan 2012

Beyond War: Bin Laden, Escobar, And The Justification Of Targeted Killing, Luis E. Chiesa, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Using the May 2011 killing of Osama bin Laden as a case study, this Article contributes to the debate on targeted killing in two distinct ways, each of which has the result of downplaying the centrality of international humanitarian law (IHL) as the decisive source of justification for targeted killings.

First, we argue that the IHL rules governing the killing of combatants in wartime should be understood to apply more strictly in cases involving the targeting of single individuals, particularly when the targeting occurs against nonparadigmatic combatants outside the traditional battlefield. As applied to the bin Laden killing, we argue …


Ten Years After 9/11: The Changing Terrorist Threat, Kenneth Anderson, Michael Leiter, John Carlin, Ivan Fong, Daniel Marcus, Stephen Vladeck Jan 2012

Ten Years After 9/11: The Changing Terrorist Threat, Kenneth Anderson, Michael Leiter, John Carlin, Ivan Fong, Daniel Marcus, Stephen Vladeck

Presentations

On September 8, 2011, the American University National Security Law Brief and the Law and Government Program at American University’s Washington College of Law hosted a candid discussion on the changes throughout the American legal system in the 10 years since the tragic September 11th attacks. The event featured a keynote address from Michael Leiter, Director of the National Counterterrorism Center from 2007-2011, followed by a panel discussion with John Carlin, Principal Deputy to the Assistant Attorney General of the Department of Justice’s National Security Division; Ivan Fong, General Counsel at the Department of Homeland Security; Stephen Vladeck, Professor of …


Inadvertent Implications Of The War Powers Resolution, Michael A. Newton Jan 2012

Inadvertent Implications Of The War Powers Resolution, Michael A. Newton

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The constitutional infirmity of the War Powers Resolution has been uniformly demonstrated by more than four decades of bipartisan experience. The Resolution manifestly fails to eliminate the healthy interbranch tensions that are in our constitutional DNA with respect to military deployments. In its context, the override of President Nixon's veto represented little more than a stark act of congressional opportunism. The President's veto message was prescient in warning that the Resolution is dangerous to the best interests of our Nation. This article suggests that the act represents an attempted abdication of the enumerated obligation of Congress to oversee military operations …


Post-9/11 Lawyers, Trevor C. W. Farrow Jan 2012

Post-9/11 Lawyers, Trevor C. W. Farrow

Articles & Book Chapters

Based on notes made by the author during a visit to the World Trade Center site in lower Manhattan.


Ethical Issues Of The Practice Of National Security Law: Some Observations, Charles J. Dunlap Jan 2012

Ethical Issues Of The Practice Of National Security Law: Some Observations, Charles J. Dunlap

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Responses To The Five Questions, Charles J. Dunlap Jr. Jan 2012

Responses To The Five Questions, Charles J. Dunlap Jr.

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


A Tale Of Two Brothers: The Impact Of The Khadr Cases On Canadian Anti-Terrorism Law, Robert Currie Jan 2012

A Tale Of Two Brothers: The Impact Of The Khadr Cases On Canadian Anti-Terrorism Law, Robert Currie

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

After something of a slow start, Canada’s post-9/11 terrorism laws have seen a fair amount of traffic over the last several years, and many of these prosecutions were high-profile in both the public and the legal senses. The case of the “Toronto 18” was well-chewed over by the press, coverage oscillating between grim amusement at the apparent incompetence of some of the accused and the sobering danger presented by others. The Supreme Court of Canada recently granted leave to appeal in the cases of Momin Khawaja, who was convicted for various terrorist activities carried out within and outside Canada, and …


Stoney Road Out Of Eden: The Struggle To Recover Insurance For Armenian Genocide Deaths And Its Implications For The Future Of State Authority, Contract Rights, And Human Rights, Jeffrey W. Stempel, Sarig Armenian, David Mcclure Jan 2012

Stoney Road Out Of Eden: The Struggle To Recover Insurance For Armenian Genocide Deaths And Its Implications For The Future Of State Authority, Contract Rights, And Human Rights, Jeffrey W. Stempel, Sarig Armenian, David Mcclure

Scholarly Works

The Armenian Genocide during the waning days of the Ottoman Empire continues to represent one of history’s underappreciated atrocities. Comparatively few people even know about the 1.5 million deaths or the government-sponsored extermination attempt that provided Hitler with a blueprint for the Nazi Holocaust. Unlike the Holocaust, however, there was never any accounting demanded of those responsible for the Armenian Genocide. In the aftermath of both tragedies, insurers seized upon the resulting disarray and victimization to deny life insurance benefits owed as a result of the killings. American-based litigation to vindicate rights under the Armenian polices faced substantial legal and …


A Whole Lot Of Substance Or A Whole Lot Of Rhetoric? A Perspective On A Whole-Of-Government Approach To Security Challenges, Charles J. Dunlap Jr. Jan 2012

A Whole Lot Of Substance Or A Whole Lot Of Rhetoric? A Perspective On A Whole-Of-Government Approach To Security Challenges, Charles J. Dunlap Jr.

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Sow What You Reap? Using Predator And Reaper Drones To Carry Out Assassinations Or Targeted Killings Of Suspected Islamic Terrorists, Thomas M. Mcdonnell Jan 2012

Sow What You Reap? Using Predator And Reaper Drones To Carry Out Assassinations Or Targeted Killings Of Suspected Islamic Terrorists, Thomas M. Mcdonnell

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article explores whether targeted killing of suspected Islamist terrorists comports with international law generally, whether any special rules apply in so-called “failed states,” and whether deploying attack drones poses special risks for the civilian population, for humanitarian and human rights law, and for the struggle against terrorism. Part I of this article discusses the Predator Drone and its upgraded version Predator B, the Reaper, and analyzes their technological capabilities and innovations. Part II discusses international humanitarian law and international human rights law as applied to a state’s targeting and killing an individual inside or outside armed conflict or in …


Mission Creep In National Security Law, Fletcher N. Baldwin Jr., Daniel R. Koslosky Jan 2012

Mission Creep In National Security Law, Fletcher N. Baldwin Jr., Daniel R. Koslosky

UF Law Faculty Publications

Many anti-terrorism measures are enacted with broad public support. There is often a general willingness on the part of the public to accept greater civil liberties deprivations in the face of a specific threat, or otherwise in times of general crisis, than would otherwise be the case. Sweeping anti-terrorism legislation is frequently crafted in reaction to the presence, or perceived presence, of immense, imminent danger. The medium and long-term consequences of the legislation may not fully be comprehended when political leaders and policymakers take swift action in the face strong public pressure in light of a recent terrorist attack or …


Disclosure’S Effects: Wikileaks And Transparency, Mark Fenster Jan 2012

Disclosure’S Effects: Wikileaks And Transparency, Mark Fenster

UF Law Faculty Publications

Constitutional, criminal, and administrative laws regulating government transparency, and the theories that support them, rest on the assumption that the disclosure of information has transformative effects: disclosure can inform, enlighten, and energize the public, or it can create great harm and stymie government operations. To resolve disputes over difficult cases, transparency laws and theories typically balance disclosure’s beneficial effects against its harmful ones—what I have described as transparency’s balance. WikiLeaks and its vigilante approach to massive document leaks challenge the underlying assumption about disclosure’s effects in two ways. First, WikiLeaks’ ability to receive and distribute leaked information cheaply, quickly, and …