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Full-Text Articles in Law

Initiating A New Constitutional Dialogue: The Increased Importance Under Aedpa Of Seeking Certiorari From Judgments Of State Courts, Christopher N. Lasch, Giovanna Shay Feb 2008

Initiating A New Constitutional Dialogue: The Increased Importance Under Aedpa Of Seeking Certiorari From Judgments Of State Courts, Christopher N. Lasch, Giovanna Shay

Faculty Scholarship Series

The Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA) contains a provision restricting federal courts from considering any authority other than holdings of the Supreme Court in determining whether to grant a state prisoner’s petition for habeas corpus. Through an empirical study of cert filings and cases decided by the Supreme Court, we assess this provision’s impact on the development of federal constitutional criminal doctrine. Before AEDPA and other restrictions on federal habeas corpus, lower federal courts and state courts contributed to doctrinal development by engaging in a “dialogue” (as described by Robert M. Cover and T. Alexander Aleinikoff ...


Symbolic Logic: A Razor-Edged Tool For Drafting And Interpreting Legal Documents, Layman E. Allen Jan 1957

Symbolic Logic: A Razor-Edged Tool For Drafting And Interpreting Legal Documents, Layman E. Allen

Faculty Scholarship Series

A LARGE amount of the litigation based on written instruments-whether
statute, contract, will, conveyance or regulation--can be traced to the draftsman's
failure to convey his meaning clearly. Frequently, of course, certain
items may purposely be left ambiguous, but often the question in issue is due
to an inadvertent ambiguity that could have been avoided had the draftsman
clearly expressed what he intended to say. In this Article it is suggested that
a new approach to drafting, using certain elementary notions of symbolic logic,
can go a long way towards eliminating such inadvertent ambiguity. This new
approach makes available to ...


Declaratory Action The Next Step Beyond Equity, Edwin Borchard Jan 1946

Declaratory Action The Next Step Beyond Equity, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

It is a commonplace that the equitable jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery owes its origin (a) to the inflexibility and rigidity of the common law; (b) to the inelasticity of the common law procedure; and (c) to the ineffectiveness or inadequacy of the remedies provided by the common law. It is not so well known that the same limitations, especially after the merger of law and equity, explain the necessity for relief from the restrictions of equity. Whereas it was intended that equity should be flexible, elastic, and effective in meeting all situations (thus, the Constitution of 1787 itself ...


Pennsylvania's Clarifying Amendment For Declaratory Judgments, Edwin Borchard Jan 1944

Pennsylvania's Clarifying Amendment For Declaratory Judgments, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

On May 26 1943, the Pennsylvania legislature adopted the following amendment to Section 6 of the Uniform Declaratory Judgments Act, originally enacted in 1923:1 Sec. 6: Relief by declaratory judgment or decree may be granted in all civil cases where an actual controversy exists between contending parties, or where the court is satisfied that antagonistic claims are present between the parties involved which indicate imminent and inevitable litigation, or where in any such case the court is satisfied' that a party asserts a legal relation, status, right, or privilege in which he has a concrete interest and that there ...


Shall The Executive Agreement Replace The Treaty, Edwin Borchard Jan 1944

Shall The Executive Agreement Replace The Treaty, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

In recent years many political leaders and publicists have sought to prove that the treaty-making process, requiring the "undemocratic." valid and desirable preferably without congressional approval or, by a majority of Congress. 1300 executive agreements have been concluded history, as contrasted 900 i8 that up to 1928 only 15 for good reasons; treaties have been amended by have benefited the nation.

BASES OF THE PROPOSALS FOR CHANGE

The recent proposals for a change in the Constitution, either with or without benefit of a constitutional amendment, have their origin in several grievances and are said to derive moral support from several ...


Challenging Penal Statutes By Declaratory Action, Edwin Borchard Jan 1943

Challenging Penal Statutes By Declaratory Action, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

One of the principal purposes of the declaratory action is the removal of clouds from legal relations. By dissipating peril and insecurity and thus stabilizing legal relations, it avoids the destruction of the status quo, and assures a construction or interpretation of the law before rather than after breach or violence.

The aim of this article is to point out the inadequacies in the existing methods of challenging statutes, especially police power statutes carrying a penalty for non-compliance. These methods compel either enforcement or a threat of enforcement as a condition of adjudication; they fail to distinguish different types of ...


State Indemnity For Errors Of Criminal Justice, Edwin Borchard Jan 1941

State Indemnity For Errors Of Criminal Justice, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

All too frequently the public is shocked by the news that Federal or State authorities have convicted and imprisoned a person subsequently proved to have been innocent of any crime. These accidents in the administration of the criminal law happen either through an unfortunate concurrence of circumstances or perjured testimony or are the result of mistaken identity, the conviction having been obtained by zealous prosecuting attorneys on circumstantial evidence. In an earnest effort to compensate in some measure the victims of these miscarriages of justice, Congress in May 1938 enacted a law "to grant relief to persons erroneously convicted in ...


Minimum Standard Of The Treatment Of Aliens, Edwin Borchard Jan 1940

Minimum Standard Of The Treatment Of Aliens, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

Its note of August 3, 1938, the Mexican Government, by its Minister of Foreign Affairs, contested the right of the United States to demand compensation for the agricultural lands of American citizens expropriated by Mexico since 1927. It asserted that the countries vigorously maintained “The principle of equality between nationals and foreigners, considering that the foreigner who voluntarily moves to a country... in search of a personal benefit, accepts in advance, together with the advantages which he is going to enjoy, the risks to which he may find himself exposed. It would be unjust that he should aspire to a ...


Declaratory Judgments And Insurance Litigation, Edwin Borchard Jan 1939

Declaratory Judgments And Insurance Litigation, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

The passage of the Federal Declaratory Judgments Act in 1934 has stimulated throughout the country the employment of the action for declaratory judgment In few branches of commercial activity has it been used more successfully than in insurance litigation. It would be hard to say whether this new device for the construction of written instruments and the clarification and adjudication of all types of legal relations has been more effectively used for the determination of disputed status, the construction of contracts, conflicting claims to property, or administrative law disputes between the Government and the citizen.


Recent Developments In Declaratory Relief, Edwin Borchard Jan 1936

Recent Developments In Declaratory Relief, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

The way of the reformer, like that of the transgressor, is hard. It will be recalled that the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, after an excellent start in 1925 in the application of the procedure for a declaratory judgment in Karihey's Petition had fallen into regrettable error in a number of later cases by assuming that a declaratory judgment could· not be sought or granted when any other "established" remedy was available. This was in direct conflict with the express words of the Declaratory Judgments Act to the effect that declaratory judgments may be rendered "whether or not further relief is ...


Justiciability, Edwin Borchard Jan 1936

Justiciability, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

It might be supposed that justiciability, the very foundation of the judicial function, would be a matter on which courts could hardly differ. Yet there seems to be the greatest confusion among the courts as to when an issue is and is not susceptible of judicial decision. This is largely due to a devotion to phrases and symbols which make historical investigation and theoretical analysis seem an unnecessary encroachment on the judicial prerogative. The very system of stare decisis invites courts to relieve themselves of the necessity of thinking through again ostensible propositions which seem to have once received the ...


International Law Of War Since The War, Edwin Borchard Jan 1934

International Law Of War Since The War, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

In all revolutionary periods customary law tends to suffer from emotional attack and from the popular demand for shortcuts to salvation. The function of law as a guaranty of general security, as a source of reliance for the weak, as a necessary foundation for enterprise 'and commitments, as an alternative to force, corruption, and favoritism, is forgotten in the hysterical exaltation of panaceas, punitive methods, and radical departures from tried experience. This is usually accompanied by depreciation of tradition and precedent as obstacles in the way of the new revelation.


The Uniform Declaratory Judgements Act, Edwin Borchard Jan 1934

The Uniform Declaratory Judgements Act, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

Minnesota is the thirtieth American state to adopt in one form or another, the procedure for declaratory judgments, and the eighteenth to adopt the Uniform Act. The bill proposing it had been pending in the Minnesota legislature for a number of years, and the Uniform Law Commissioners of Minnesota, notably Mr. Donald E. Bridgman, had devoted much energy and intelligence to eliciting the experience of other states as to the practical operation of the act for the information of the Minnesota legislature and, incidentally, of other states that had not yet adopted it. Its passage, therefore, is something of a ...


Federal Declaratory Judgments Act, Edwin Borchard Jan 1934

Federal Declaratory Judgments Act, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

It is especially appropriate to publish in the Virginia Law Review the first extensive commentary on the Federal Declaratory Judgments Act. The credit for its enactment falls largely to ex-Governor, now Representative, Andrew J. Montague, of Virginia, who piloted the Act through the House of Representatives on four separate occasions. His persistence over a period of many years was finally rewarded when on June 14, 1934, President Roosevelt signed the Act (Pub. 343) giving the Federal Courts power to render such judgments.


Declaratory Judgments - Germany, Edwin Borchard Jan 1933

Declaratory Judgments - Germany, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

Other codes and statutes also provide for declaratory judgments. The Code of Criminal Procedure provides that, when the question as to whether an act is punishable depends upon the determination of a legal relationship, this issue shall be decided by the criminal court. The law of noncontentious jurisdiction provides that the Court of Registration (Registergericht) may postpone an order of registration which depends upon the determination of a disputed legal relationship until that dispute has been decided by declaration. Judgments upon disputed claims in bankruptcy and in execution proceedings are declaratory. By the law of associations, a member may sue ...


Declaratory Judgments In Administrative Law, Edwin Borchard Jan 1933

Declaratory Judgments In Administrative Law, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

The declaratory judgment, now adopted in thirty-three American states and territories, has demonstrated its value in the speedy and effective determination of numerous controversies involving status, contracts and other written instruments, and property relations. Its utility in the adjudication of conflicting claims between the citizen and the administration, however, a field of litigation to which it is admirably suited, has not been fully appreciated. It is not merely its speed, inexpensiveness, and efficiency which commend the judicial declaration of rights in administrative law, nor yet the fact that it enables disputes to be determined in their incipiency before they have ...


French Administrative Law, Edwin Borchard Jan 1933

French Administrative Law, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

In a time of rapid economic and social change the historical separation of powers tends to become blurred and indistinct. Notwithstanding the social necessity for breaking down this incident of the natural law of the eighteenth century, it has survived in the United States to an extent unknown in other countries, possibly in part because of the indigenous nature of one of its sustaining causes, namely, the unwillingness of the United States Supreme Court to exercise jurisdiction in any but the most pressing of cases, with the consequent undue limitation of the concept "judicial."' But the facts of life defy ...


Judicial Relief For Insecurity, Edwin Borchard Jan 1933

Judicial Relief For Insecurity, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

In an earlier article' an attempt was made to criticize the narrowness of view which has limited the concept of "wrongs" and "cause of action” to committed delicts, and the concept of the judicial process, to their redress. This superficial view of legal relations and of the judicial function has obscured realization of the fact that harm is done and rights are impaired or jeopardized by mere dispute or challenge before and without any physical attack. The mere existence of an instrument, the denial of a right, the assertion of an unfounded claim, the existence of conflicting claims to the ...


Declaratory Judgments In New Jersey, Edwin Borchard Jan 1932

Declaratory Judgments In New Jersey, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

New Jersey was the State which, by the statute of 1915 and the case of In re Ungaro’s Will, began the current movement for the introduction of the declaratory judgment into American procedure. Appreciation of its beneficent effect is attested by the fact that thirty-one American jurisdictions have now adopted it as an aid in the solution of contested issues of law, before one party or the other has incurred the risk of loss or damage by acting upon his own interpretation of his rights under a contract, will, statute, or other legal instrument or relation. Its history in ...


Declaratory Judgment In The United States, Edwin Borchard Jan 1931

Declaratory Judgment In The United States, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

The common law and other legal systems long professed the assumption that it was necessary to commit physical damage or injury (a wrong) or to threaten an immediate injury, before the protection of the courts could be invoked by the person requiring

judicial protection. It was apparently not sufficiently realized that rights may be impaired and disturbed and injuries suffered by the mere assertion of claims which throw rights into doubt, uncertainty, and jeopardy. So the mere unfounded assertion that a person is married or unmarried, illegitimate, insane; the mere fact that title to property is challenged; the mere fact ...


The Constitutionality Of Declaratory Judgments, Edwin Borchard Jan 1931

The Constitutionality Of Declaratory Judgments, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

It is not uncommon in the United States for opponents of statutory reform, or even defendants against unwelcome suits, to advance the objection of unconstitutionality. Declaratory judgment statutes have not escaped this custom. Although it will strike an informed student as strange that the procedure for the rendering of declaratory judgments should be attacked as unconstitutional, the fact is that the issue has been raised in a number of American cases, though never in any other country. The special ground asserted has been that the declaratory judgment imposes on the courts powers non-judicial in character and that it requires them ...


Government Liability In Tort, Edwin Borchard Jan 1925

Government Liability In Tort, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

Probably no function of a municipal corporation is more “governmental" in character than the care of its highways, streets and bridges. In theory, therefore, the city should be immune from responsibility for negligence in such matters; and such was the common law. Precisely the opposite result, however, constitutes the weight of judicial authority in this country, even in the absence of statue, on the commonly advanced ground that the duty of taking care of the public highways is ministerial in character. The conclusion deserves approval, though not necessarily the ground on which it is based. More difficult to support is ...


The Uniform Act On Declaratory Judgments, Edwin Borchard Jan 1921

The Uniform Act On Declaratory Judgments, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

The national conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws at its session in St. Louis in August, 1920, approved the first draft of a Uniform Act on Declaratory Judgments. At the next session of the Conference in 1921 the Act will probably receive final approval and be recommended to legislatures for enactment. The importance of the recommendations of this August body in promoting the enactment of legislation in our states warrants some comment upon the draft they have approved.


Earning Of Freight On Uncompleted Voyages, Edwin Borchard Jan 1921

Earning Of Freight On Uncompleted Voyages, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

An inevitable consequence of the Great War was the interruption or breaking up of commercial voyages it necessarily brought about. These acts of interference have occasioned much litigation on the question of the amount of freight earned by vessels thus rendered unable to complete their voyages, and have given renewed importance to an interesting subject of admiralty and contract law. The imagination has not conjured more varied and romantic circumstances than the actual facts of maritime adventure, as disclosed in the prosaic pages of the law reports. It may, therefore, be of interest to discover how the courts have dealt ...


Declaratory Judgment A Needed Procedural Reform, Edwin Borchard Jan 1918

Declaratory Judgment A Needed Procedural Reform, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

It is now our purpose to undertake an analysis of numerous declaratory actions and judgments, with a view to determine the scope of and the limitations upon this useful form of procedure. An examination of declaratory judgments in the various jurisdictions in which the institution has been adopted reveals a remarkable similarity of fundamental principles characterizing the practice of making judicial declarations. As our interest is confined to the practice, emphasis will be laid not upon the- decision itself as a matter of substantive law, but rather upon the type of question submitted for declaratory judgment, the cases in which ...


Some Lessons From The Civil Law, Edwin Borchard Jan 1916

Some Lessons From The Civil Law, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

The purpose of this brief article is not so much to set forth any specific institutions disclosed by a study of the civil law, as to point out some of those defects of our own system which are accentuated by comparison with the civil law, defects due to the methods rather than the substance of the common law. There is no desire to urge such a radical and perhaps impossible step as the substitution of civil law methods for our own; but in the consideration of plans for the improvement of our law, it may be profitable to observe that ...


Contractual Claims In International Law, Edwin M. Borchard Jan 1913

Contractual Claims In International Law, Edwin M. Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

Diplomatic protection is often invoked by citizens of one country in cases arising out of contracts entered into with citizens of another, or with a foreign government. With the constant growth in international intercourse and the exploitation of backward countries by foreign capital, this class of cases has assumed large proportions and has given rise to many perplexing and delicate diplomatic situations. The foreign offices of some of the more important Governments have differentiated these claims from tortious claims arising out of direct injuries to the person or property of their citizens committed by an authority of the state, either ...