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Full-Text Articles in Law

Subjective Beliefs About Contract Enforceability, Jj Prescott, Evan Starr Jul 2022

Subjective Beliefs About Contract Enforceability, Jj Prescott, Evan Starr

Law & Economics Working Papers

This article assesses the content, role, and adaptability of subjective beliefs about contract enforceability in the context of postemployment covenants not to compete (“noncompetes”). We show that employees tend to believe that their noncompetes are enforceable, even when they are not. We provide evidence for both supply- and demand-side stories that explain employees’ persistently inaccurate beliefs. Moreover, we show that believing that unenforceable noncompetes are enforceable likely causes employees to forgo better job options and to perceive that their employer is more likely to take legal action against them if they choose to compete. Finally, we use an information experiment ...


Protecting The Sovereign's Money Monopoly, Gary B. Gordon, Jeffery Zhang Jul 2022

Protecting The Sovereign's Money Monopoly, Gary B. Gordon, Jeffery Zhang

Law & Economics Working Papers

Sovereign states have had a monopoly over the production of circulating currencies for well over a century. Governments, not private entities, issue circulating currencies. Indeed, in 1986, Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz declared that “[t]he question of government monopoly of hand-to-hand currency is likely to remain a largely dead issue.” The advent of stablecoins—privately issued digital money that are pegged to fiat currencies like the U.S. dollar or the Euro—raises the question of the money monopoly from the grave.

Why did sovereign money monopolies come into existence in the 19th and 20th centuries? Should circulating private ...


Too Much Of A Good Thing? A Governing Knowledge Commons Review Of Abundance In Context, Michael J. Madison, Brett M. Frischmann, Madelyn Sanfilippo, Katherine J. Strandburg Jul 2022

Too Much Of A Good Thing? A Governing Knowledge Commons Review Of Abundance In Context, Michael J. Madison, Brett M. Frischmann, Madelyn Sanfilippo, Katherine J. Strandburg

Articles

The economics of abundance, along with the sociology of abundance, the law of abundance, and so forth, should be re-framed, linked, and situated in a common context for empirical rather than conceptual research. Abundance may seem to be a new, big thing, between anxiety over information overload, Big Data, and related technological disruptions. But scholars know that abundance is an ancient phenomenon, which only seemed to disappear as twentieth century social science focused on scarcity instead. Restoring the study of abundance, and figuring out how to solve the problems that abundance might create, means shedding disciplinary blinders and going back ...


A Hague Parallel Proceedings Convention: Architecture And Features, Paul Herrup, Ronald A. Brand Jul 2022

A Hague Parallel Proceedings Convention: Architecture And Features, Paul Herrup, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

In Paul Herrup and Ronald A. Brand, A Hague Convention on Parallel Proceedings, 63 Harvard International Law Journal Online 1(2022), available at https://harvardilj.org/2022/02/a-hague-convention-on-parallel-proceedings/ and https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3894502, we argued that the Hague Conference on Private International Law should not undertake a project to require or prohibit exercise of original jurisdiction in national courts. Rather, the goal of current efforts should be to improve the concentration of parallel litigation in a “better forum,” in order to achieve efficient and complete resolution of disputes in transnational litigation. The Hague Conference ...


Rattlesnakes, Debt, And Arpa § 1005: The Existential Crisis Of American Black Farmers, Maia Foster, P. J. Austin Jun 2022

Rattlesnakes, Debt, And Arpa § 1005: The Existential Crisis Of American Black Farmers, Maia Foster, P. J. Austin

Duke Law Journal Online

No abstract provided.


Criminal Enforcement Of Section 2 Of The Sherman Act: An Empirical Assessment, Daniel A. Crane Jun 2022

Criminal Enforcement Of Section 2 Of The Sherman Act: An Empirical Assessment, Daniel A. Crane

Law & Economics Working Papers

The Biden Justice Department has announced that it may begin to bring criminal monopolization cases under Section 2 of the Sherman Act, a practice that the Department has not employed in almost half a century. The Department's leadership has justified this idea by asserting that it used to be common practice for the Antitrust Division to bring such cases. This Article presents the findings of an empirical study of all of the Justice Department's antitrust case filings. It finds that the Justice Depart brought 175 criminal monopolization cases between 1903 and 1977, but that only 20 of these ...


Is Corporate Law Nonpartisan?, Ofer Eldar, Gabriel V. Rauterberg Jun 2022

Is Corporate Law Nonpartisan?, Ofer Eldar, Gabriel V. Rauterberg

Law & Economics Working Papers

Only rarely does the United States Supreme Court hear a case with fundamental implications for corporate law. In Carney v. Adams, however, the Supreme Court had the opportunity to address whether the State of Delaware’s requirement of partisan balance for its judiciary violates the First Amendment. Although the Court disposed of the case on other grounds, Justice Sotomayor acknowledged that the issue “will likely be raised again.” The stakes are high because most large businesses are incorporated in Delaware and thus are governed by its corporate law. Former Governors and Chief Justices of Delaware lined up to defend the ...


Government By Code? Blockchain Applications To Public Sector Governance, Pedro Bustamante, Meina Cai, Marcela Gomez, Colin Harris, Prashabnt Krishnamurthy, Wilson Law, Michael J. Madison, Ilia Murtazashvili, Jennifer Brick Murtazashvili, Tymofiy Mylovanov, Nataliia Shapoval, Annette Vee, Martin B. H. Weiss Jun 2022

Government By Code? Blockchain Applications To Public Sector Governance, Pedro Bustamante, Meina Cai, Marcela Gomez, Colin Harris, Prashabnt Krishnamurthy, Wilson Law, Michael J. Madison, Ilia Murtazashvili, Jennifer Brick Murtazashvili, Tymofiy Mylovanov, Nataliia Shapoval, Annette Vee, Martin B. H. Weiss

Articles

Studies of blockchain governance can be divided into analyses of the governance of blockchains (such as rules and power dynamics within a given network) and governance by blockchains (such as how blockchains can be implemented to improve self-governance of community-based peer production networks). Less emphasis has been placed on applications of distributed ledgers to public sector governance. Our review clarifies that the decentralization and distributive features that enable blockchains to link up loosely connected private organizations and public agencies to improve efficiency and transparency of government transactions. However, most blockchain applications lack clear advantages over the conventional digital recording of ...


Tax Harmony: The Promise And Pitfalls Of The Global Minimum Tax, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Young Ran (Christine) Kim May 2022

Tax Harmony: The Promise And Pitfalls Of The Global Minimum Tax, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Young Ran (Christine) Kim

Law & Economics Working Papers

The rise of globalization has become a double-edged sword for countries seeking to implement a beneficial tax policy. On one hand, there are increased opportunities for attracting foreign capital and the benefits that increased jobs and tax revenue brings to a society. However, there is also much more tax competition among countries to attract foreign capital and investment. As tax competition has grown, effective corporate tax rates have continued to be cut, creating a “race-to-the-bottom” issue.

In 2021, 137 countries forming the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on BEPS passed a major milestone in reforming international tax by successfully introducing the ...


New Developments In Us Treaty Overrides, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah May 2022

New Developments In Us Treaty Overrides, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Law & Economics Working Papers

This note discusses the reservations added in the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations to the US-Chile tax treaty and their implications for the treaty override debate.


Purpose Proposals, Jill E. Fisch Apr 2022

Purpose Proposals, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Repurposing the corporation is the hot issue in corporate governance. Commentators, investors and increasingly issuers, maintain that corporations should shift their focus from maximizing profits for shareholders to generating value for a more expansive group of stakeholders. Corporations are also being called upon to address societal concerns – from climate change and voting rights to racial justice and wealth inequality.

The shareholder proposal rule, Rule 14a–8, offers one potential tool for repurposing the corporation. This Article describes the introduction of innovative proposals seeking to formalize corporate commitments to stakeholder governance. These “purpose proposals” reflect a new dynamic in the debate ...


Liability For Non-Disclosure In Equity Financing, Albert H. Choi, Kathryn E. Spier Apr 2022

Liability For Non-Disclosure In Equity Financing, Albert H. Choi, Kathryn E. Spier

Law & Economics Working Papers

The paper analyzes the effects of holding firms liable for non-disclosure of material information when raising capital. We develop a model in which a privately-informed entrepreneur can choose to withhold information from prospective investors when issuing and selling stock and the investors can bring suit against the firm ex post for (alleged) non-disclosure. The damage payment received by the investors is partially offset by the reduced value of their equity stake. The analysis shows that the equilibrium depends on, among others, (1) the amount of personal capital the entrepreneur has to commit, (2) the frequency with which the entrepreneur is ...


The Gender Pay Gap And High-Achieving Women In The Legal Profession, Milan Markovic, Gabrielle Plickert Apr 2022

The Gender Pay Gap And High-Achieving Women In The Legal Profession, Milan Markovic, Gabrielle Plickert

Faculty Scholarship

Although women have made significant strides in the legal profession, female attorneys continue to earn far less than male attorneys. Relying on survey data from a large sample of full-time attorneys in Texas, we find a gender pay gap of thirty-five thousand dollars at the median that cannot be explained by differences in human capital or occupational segregation. We also provide evidence that the legal market especially disadvantages women who excel in law school. Whereas high academic achievement boosts male lawyers’ incomes substantially, it does not have the same effect on female lawyers’ incomes. High-achieving female lawyers earn less than ...


A New Framework For Digital Taxation, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Young Ran (Christine) Kim, Karen Sam Mar 2022

A New Framework For Digital Taxation, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Young Ran (Christine) Kim, Karen Sam

Law & Economics Working Papers

The international tax regime has wide implications for business, trade, and the international political economy. Under current law, multinational enterprises do not pay their fair share of taxes to market countries where profits are generated because market countries are only allowed to tax companies with a physical presence there. Digital companies, like Google and Amazon, can operate entirely online, thereby avoiding market country taxes. Multinationals can also exploit existing tax rules by shifting their profits to low-tax jurisdictions, thereby avoiding taxes in the residence country where their headquarters are located.

Recently, a global tax deal was reached to tackle these ...


What Is The Law's Role In A Recession?, Gabriel Rauterberg, Joshua Younger Mar 2022

What Is The Law's Role In A Recession?, Gabriel Rauterberg, Joshua Younger

Reviews

In March 2020, the world faced not only a public health emergency but also one of the most profound shocks to the global economy in the modern era — a shock deeper and broader than any other in eighty years. Never before had virtually all of the world’s economies suffered a contraction at the same time (Tooze, p. 5). Global output decreased by nearly 3.4% in 2020, the largest contraction since the Second World War. The United States saw the largest recorded demand shock in its history (-32.9%), and the unemployment rate peaked around 15% during 2020, higher ...


What Is The Law’S Role In A Recession?, Gabriel V. Rauterberg, Joshua Younger Mar 2022

What Is The Law’S Role In A Recession?, Gabriel V. Rauterberg, Joshua Younger

Law & Economics Working Papers

The last two years have seen astonishing changes to how fiscal and monetary authorities in the developed world manage the economy. In the face of the largest global economic contraction since World War II, governments embarked on massive campaigns of economic stimulus, far outpacing the response to the Global Financial Crisis. Central banks similarly engaged in financial intervention on a scale not seen in eighty years. Over roughly a year, the Federal Reserve alone doubled its asset holdings from around $4 trillion to $8 trillion, making for arguably the most aggressive expansion of the United States’ money supply since the ...


Distributed Governance Of Medical Ai, W. Nicholson Price Ii Mar 2022

Distributed Governance Of Medical Ai, W. Nicholson Price Ii

Law & Economics Working Papers

Artificial intelligence (AI) promises to bring substantial benefits to medicine. In addition to pushing the frontiers of what is humanly possible, like predicting kidney failure or sepsis before any human can notice, it can democratize expertise beyond the circle of highly specialized practitioners, like letting generalists diagnose diabetic degeneration of the retina. But AI doesn’t always work, and it doesn’t always work for everyone, and it doesn’t always work in every context. AI is likely to behave differently in well-resourced hospitals where it is developed than in poorly resourced frontline health environments where it might well make ...


Do Cops Know Who To Stop? Assessing Optimizing Models Of Police Behavior With A Natural Experiment, David S. Abrams, Hanming Fang, Priyanka Goonetilleke Mar 2022

Do Cops Know Who To Stop? Assessing Optimizing Models Of Police Behavior With A Natural Experiment, David S. Abrams, Hanming Fang, Priyanka Goonetilleke

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

The standard economic model of police stops implies that the contraband hit rate should rise when the number of stops falls, ceteris paribus. We provide empirical corroboration of such optimizing models of police behavior by examining changes in stops and frisks around two extraordinary events of 2020 - the pandemic onset and the nationwide protests following the killing of George Floyd. We find that hit rates from pedestrian and vehicle stops generally rose as stops and frisks fell dramatically. Using detailed data, we are able to rule out a number of alternative explanations, including changes in street population, crime, police allocation ...


The Pain Of Paying Taxes, Gary M. Lucas Jr Mar 2022

The Pain Of Paying Taxes, Gary M. Lucas Jr

Faculty Scholarship

With a few caveats, standard economic models assume that, from society’s perspective, the payment of a tax constitutes a costless transfer from the taxpayer to the government. The financial loss to the taxpayer is exactly offset by the financial gain to the government, which can use the resulting tax revenue for the benefit of its citizens. In other words, paying taxes forces taxpayers to forgo private consumption, but the resulting loss in utility can be counterbalanced by an increase in utility from government spending. In fact, if the government spends wisely on beneficial public goods that are undersupplied by ...


Tiny Homes: A Big Solution To American Housing Insecurity, Lisa T. Alexander Mar 2022

Tiny Homes: A Big Solution To American Housing Insecurity, Lisa T. Alexander

Faculty Scholarship

“There’s no place like home,” said Dorothy. Yet, millions of people in the United States may face eviction, foreclosure, or homelessness in 2021 and beyond. America is on the brink of an unprecedented housing crisis in the wake of Covid-19. The federal government, and various states and localities, have taken actions to avert a housing crisis in the aftermath of Covid 19. While these actions have undeniably helped mitigate widespread foreclosure and eviction crises, they do not fully address the more fundamental American housing challenge—an inadequate supply of affordable housing at all income levels, a longstanding problem that ...


States And Systemic Risk: An Analysis Of The Dodd-Frank Act's (Un)Cooperative Federalism, Daniel A. Lyons Mar 2022

States And Systemic Risk: An Analysis Of The Dodd-Frank Act's (Un)Cooperative Federalism, Daniel A. Lyons

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The Financial Stability Oversight Council represented an innovative approach to the problem of systemic risk in the American economy. It also represented an innovative form of cooperative federalism. By grafting state regulators onto the Council as nonvoting members, Congress hoped this new federal super-regulator would draw upon a reservoir of state expertise and local knowledge so that the Council’s final decisions reflected a collaborative effort between the nation’s top experts at the federal and state level.

But looking back over the first decade of the Council’s operations, it is clear that this experiment failed to work as ...


Nonparty Interests In Contract Law, Omri Ben-Shahar, David A. Hoffman, Cathy Hwang Feb 2022

Nonparty Interests In Contract Law, Omri Ben-Shahar, David A. Hoffman, Cathy Hwang

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Contract law has one overarching goal: to advance the legitimate interests of the contracting parties. For the most part, scholars, judges, and parties embrace this party primacy norm, recognizing only a few exceptions, such as mandatory rules that bar enforcement of agreements that harm others. This Article describes a distinct species of previously unnoticed contract law rules that advance nonparty interests, which it calls “nonparty defaults."

In doing so, this Article makes three contributions to the contract law literature. First, it identifies nonparty defaults as a judicial technique. It shows how courts deviate from the party primary norm with surprising ...


The Remainder Effect: How Automation Complements Labor Quality, James Bessen, Erich Denk, Chen Meng Feb 2022

The Remainder Effect: How Automation Complements Labor Quality, James Bessen, Erich Denk, Chen Meng

Faculty Scholarship

This paper argues that automation both complements and replaces workers. Extending the Acemoglu-Restrepo model of automation to consider labor quality, we obtain a Remainder Effect: while automation displaces labor on some tasks, it raises the returns to skill on remaining tasks across skill groups. This effect increases between-firm pay inequality while labor displacement affects within-firm inequality. Using job ad data, we find firm adoption of information technologies leads to both greater demand for diverse skills and higher pay across skill groups. This accounts for most of the sorting of skills to high paying firms that is central to rising inequality.


Initial Public Offering And Optimal Corporate Governance, Albert H. Choi Feb 2022

Initial Public Offering And Optimal Corporate Governance, Albert H. Choi

Law & Economics Working Papers

This paper examines the long-standing debate over whether firms have a market-based incentive to adopt optimal governance provisions at their initial public offering (IPO). Various scholars and practitioners have argued that firms that offer stock to the public with suboptimal governance structure will be penalized by the market through a lower IPO price. At the same time, others have documented empirical evidence that many IPO firms have putatively suboptimal governance provisions, such as anti-takeover provisions and dual class structure, and many, especially those with dual-class structure, enjoy a market premium at their IPO. This paper attempts to bridge this gap ...


Antitrust Interoperability Remedies, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Feb 2022

Antitrust Interoperability Remedies, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Compelled interoperability can be a useful remedy for dominant firms, including large digital platforms, who violate the antitrust laws. They can address competition concerns without interfering unnecessarily with the structures that make digital platforms attractive and that have contributed so much to economic growth.

Given the wide variety of structures and business models for big tech, “interoperability” must be defined broadly. It can realistically include everything from “dynamic” interoperability that requires real time sharing of data and operations, to “static” interoperability which requires portability but not necessarily real time interactions. Also included are the compelled sharing of intellectual property or ...


Why Aim Law Toward Human Survival, John William Draper Feb 2022

Why Aim Law Toward Human Survival, John William Draper

Librarian Scholarship at Penn Law

Our legal system is contributing to humanity’s demise by failing to take account of our species’ situation. For example, in some cases law works against life and supports interests such as liberty or profit maximization.

If we do not act, science tells us that humanity bears a significant (and growing) risk of catastrophic failure. The significant risk inherent in the status quo is unacceptable and requires a response. We must act. It is getting hotter. When we decide to act, we need to make the right choice.

There is no better choice. You and all your relatives have rights ...


The Economic (In) Significance Of Executive Pay Esg Incentives, David Walker Feb 2022

The Economic (In) Significance Of Executive Pay Esg Incentives, David Walker

Faculty Scholarship

The hottest topic in corporate governance circles today involves company commitments to and pursuit of ESG (environmental, social, and governance) initiatives in addition to the traditional pursuit of profits. One facet of this debate has to do with how to motivate executives to pursue ESG goals. Increasingly, companies tie executive pay to ESG performance, although even strong ESG advocates debate the advisability of doing so. This Article joins the fray by closely examining ESG-based CEO pay arrangements at a subset of companies with leadership positions on the Business Roundtable, an industry trade group that embraced ESG in a 2019 statement ...


Selling Antitrust, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Feb 2022

Selling Antitrust, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Antitrust enforcers and its other defenders have never done a good job of selling their field to the public. That is not entirely their fault. Antitrust is inherently technical, and a less engaging discipline to most people than, say, civil rights or criminal law. The more serious problem is that when the general press does talk about antitrust policy it naturally gravitates toward the fringes, both the far right and the far left. Extreme rhetoric makes for better press than the day-to-day operations of a technical enterprise. The extremes are often stated in overdramatized black-and-white terms that avoid the real ...


Influence By Intimidation: Business Lobbying In The Regulatory Process, Alex Acs, Cary Coglianese Feb 2022

Influence By Intimidation: Business Lobbying In The Regulatory Process, Alex Acs, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Interest group influence in the policy process is often assumed to occur through a mechanism of exchange, persuasion, or subsidy. Here, we explore how business groups may also exert influence by intimidating policymakers—a form of persuasion, but one based not on the provision of policy information but of political information. We develop a theory where a business firm lobbies a regulator to communicate political information about its capacity to commit to future influence-seeking activities that would sanction the regulator. The regulator assesses the credibility of this message by evaluating the firm’s commitment to lobbying. Guided by our theory ...


Gamestop And The Reemergence Of The Retail Investor, Jill E. Fisch Feb 2022

Gamestop And The Reemergence Of The Retail Investor, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

The GameStop trading frenzy in January 2021 was perhaps the highest profile example of the reemergence of capital market participation by retail investors, a marked shift from the growing domination of those markets by large institutional investors. Some commentators have greeted retail investing, which has been fueled by app-based brokerage accounts and social media, with alarm and called for regulatory reform. The goals of such reforms are twofold. First, critics argue that retail investors need greater protection from the risks of investing in the stock market. Second, they argue that the stock market, in term, needs protection from retail investors ...