Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

Law Enforcement and Corrections

2018

Institution
Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 83

Full-Text Articles in Law

Collaborations Between The Juvenile Justice System And Home Visiting Programs, Francine Sherman, Jessica Greenstone Winestone, Rebecca Fauth Dec 2018

Collaborations Between The Juvenile Justice System And Home Visiting Programs, Francine Sherman, Jessica Greenstone Winestone, Rebecca Fauth

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Prosecutorial Dismissals As Teachable Moments (And Databases) For The Police, Adam M. Gershowitz Nov 2018

Prosecutorial Dismissals As Teachable Moments (And Databases) For The Police, Adam M. Gershowitz

Faculty Publications

The criminal justice process typically begins when the police make a warrantless arrest. Although police usually do a good job of bringing in the “right” cases, they do make mistakes. Officers sometimes arrest suspects even though there is no evidence to prove an essential element of the crime. Police also conduct unlawful searches and interrogations. And officers make arrests in marginal cases—schoolyard fights are a good example—in which prosecutors do not think a criminal conviction is appropriate. Accordingly, prosecutors regularly dismiss cases after police have made warrantless arrests and suspects have sat in jail for days, or even ...


Employing Older Prisoner Empirical Data To Test A Novel S 7 Charter Claim, Adelina Iftene Nov 2018

Employing Older Prisoner Empirical Data To Test A Novel S 7 Charter Claim, Adelina Iftene

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This article builds the case for expanding s 7 of the Charter of Canadian Rights and Freedoms to apply to prison regulations and decisions in the specific context of an aging prison population. As original empirical data shows, prisons are highly insensitive to age-related problems, and inappropriate or insufficient medical treatment receives official sanction from a wide range of correctional documents. The stark inadequacies of the current system endanger older prisoners’ security of the person, and sometimes their lives, in ways that violate their rights under s 7, since the deprivations they suffer result from legislative policies and state conduct ...


Reforming Restrictive Housing: The 2018 Asca-Liman Nationwide Survey Of Time-In-Cell, Judith Resnik, Anna Vancleave, Kristen Bell, Alexandra Harrington, Gregory Conyers, Catherine Mccarthy, Jenny Tumas, Annie Wang Oct 2018

Reforming Restrictive Housing: The 2018 Asca-Liman Nationwide Survey Of Time-In-Cell, Judith Resnik, Anna Vancleave, Kristen Bell, Alexandra Harrington, Gregory Conyers, Catherine Mccarthy, Jenny Tumas, Annie Wang

Other Scholarship

Reforming Restrictive Housing: The 2018 ASCA-Liman Nationwide Survey of Time-in-Cell is the fourth in a series of research projects co-authored by the Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA) and the Arthur Liman Center at Yale Law School. These monographs provide a unique, longitudinal, nationwide database. The topic is “restrictive housing,” often termed “solitary confinement,” and defined as separating prisoners from the general population and holding them in cells for an average of 22 hours or more per day for 15 continuous days or more.

The 2018 monograph is based on survey responses from 43 prison systems that held 80.6 ...


Brief Of National Law Professors Of Criminal, Procedural, And Constitutional Law, In Re Humphrey, California Supreme Court, Regarding The Imposition Of Money Bail And Conditions Of Pretrial Release, Sandra G. Mayson, Kellen R. Funk Oct 2018

Brief Of National Law Professors Of Criminal, Procedural, And Constitutional Law, In Re Humphrey, California Supreme Court, Regarding The Imposition Of Money Bail And Conditions Of Pretrial Release, Sandra G. Mayson, Kellen R. Funk

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

When the government proposes to incarcerate a person before trial, it must provide thorough justification, whether the mechanism of detention is a transparent detention order or its functional equivalent, the imposition of unaffordable money bail. A court contemplating money bail must determine whether it is likely to result in detention. If so, and the court nonetheless wishes to impose it, the court must find, by clear and convincing evidence established through an adversary hearing, that the unaffordable bail amount serves a compelling interest of the state that no less restrictive condition of release can meet. This will rarely be the ...


Safety & Risk Management News October 2018, Tara Chinn Oct 2018

Safety & Risk Management News October 2018, Tara Chinn

Otterbein Police Department

No abstract provided.


Discriminatory Job Knowledge Tests, Police Promotions, And What Title Vii Can Learn From Tort Law, Mark S. Brodin Oct 2018

Discriminatory Job Knowledge Tests, Police Promotions, And What Title Vii Can Learn From Tort Law, Mark S. Brodin

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Nationally, the continued use of selection devices by police departments—such as multiple-choice examinations requiring memorization of police manuals—stifles advancement for a disproportionate number of otherwise qualified minority candidates, and hinders the desired diversification of the upper ranks. These exams have little to do with predicting success as a sergeant or other police supervisor. The traditional Title VII approach, a disparate impact challenge, has proven unsatisfactory given the relative ease with which the exams can be “content validated” in court. This Article proposes a new approach familiar to tort lawyers—the inference of intent from actions taken with foreseeable ...


Emerging Best Practices For The Management And Treatment Of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning, And Intersex Youth In Juvenile Justice Settings, Brenda V. Smith, Hayley Gorenberg, J. Rhodes Perry, Lisa Belmarsh, Shaena Johnson, Steven Jett, Rebecca Walters, Macarena Saez, Dana Shoenberg, Terry Schuster, Josh Delaney, Karen Bachar, Mykel Selph, Mark Seymour, Sharita Gruberg, Chris Daley, Mark Yarhouse Oct 2018

Emerging Best Practices For The Management And Treatment Of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning, And Intersex Youth In Juvenile Justice Settings, Brenda V. Smith, Hayley Gorenberg, J. Rhodes Perry, Lisa Belmarsh, Shaena Johnson, Steven Jett, Rebecca Walters, Macarena Saez, Dana Shoenberg, Terry Schuster, Josh Delaney, Karen Bachar, Mykel Selph, Mark Seymour, Sharita Gruberg, Chris Daley, Mark Yarhouse

Reports

In 2016 according to the U.S. Department of Justice, 856,130 youth were arrested and 45,567 juveniles were held in 1,772 residential juvenile facilities across the country. Detained and confined youth share many characteristics: most are from poor communities and lack access to quality health care. Mental illness and sexually transmitted infections are prevalent. Compared to their non-confined counterparts, incarcerated youth also experience higher rates of substance abuse and homelessness, are educationally behind their peers, are disproportionately identified as needing special education services, and are more likely to have had traumatic experiences (including sexual and emotional abuse ...


Centering Women In Prisoners' Rights Litigation, Amber Baylor Oct 2018

Centering Women In Prisoners' Rights Litigation, Amber Baylor

Faculty Scholarship

This Article consciously employs both a dignity rights-based framing and methodology. Dignity rights are those rights that are based on the Kantian assertion of “inalienable human worth.”29 This framework for defining rights spans across a number of disciplines, including medicine and human rights law.30 Disciplinary sanctions like solitary confinement or forced medication might be described as anathema to human dignity because of their degrading effect on an individual’s emotional and social well-being.

This Article relies on first-person oral histories where possible. Bioethics scholar Claire Hooker argues that including narratives in work on dignity rights “is both a ...


Judicious Imprisonment, Gregory Jay Hall Sep 2018

Judicious Imprisonment, Gregory Jay Hall

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Starting August 21, 2018, Americans incarcerated across the United States have been striking back — non-violently. Inmates with jobs are protesting slave-like wages through worker strikes and sit-ins. Inmates also call for an end to racial disparities and an increase in rehabilitation programs. Even more surprisingly, many inmates have begun hunger strikes. Inmates are protesting the numerous ills of prisons: overcrowding, inadequate health care, abysmal mental health care contributing to inmate suicide, violence, disenfranchisement of inmates, and more. While recent reforms have slightly decreased mass incarceration, the current White House administration could likely reverse this trend. President Donald Trump’s and ...


Legal Optimism: Restoring Trust In The Criminal Justice System Through Procedural Justice, Positive Psychology And Just Culture Event Reviews, John Hollway Sep 2018

Legal Optimism: Restoring Trust In The Criminal Justice System Through Procedural Justice, Positive Psychology And Just Culture Event Reviews, John Hollway

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Like any complex, dynamic system, the American criminal justice system makes mistakes. Unfortunately, criminal justice organizations lack a systematic process enabling them to learn from cases of error. Ignoring or minimizing errors erodes organizational legitimacy and contributes to a downward spiral of legal cynicism that increases violent crime. This paper describes the application of positive psychology and procedural justice to restore legal optimism – confidence and trust that the criminal justice system will respond in a just fashion to criminal activity – through Just Culture Event Reviews (JCERs), non-blaming multi-stakeholder reviews of cases where the system has erred. JCERs identify contributing factors ...


Dave Sprout Interview, 2018, Jennifer Thomson Sep 2018

Dave Sprout Interview, 2018, Jennifer Thomson

Bucknell: Occupied

Jennifer Thomson, assistant professor of History at Bucknell University, interviews Dave Sprout of the Lewisburg Prison Project. Thomson and Sprout discussed the recent closure of the Special Management Unit (SMU) of the United States Penitentiary, Lewisburg. Sprout discussed a recent system-wide lockdown, and policy changes implemented by the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. Policy changes will affect prisoner access to original pieces of mail.


How To End “Illegal Immigration”, Kari E. Hong Sep 2018

How To End “Illegal Immigration”, Kari E. Hong

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Since President Trump has taken office, it is clearer than ever that there are two ways to end “illegal immigration.” The first route — started by President Obama and ratcheted up by President Trump with relentless cruelty — is an actual effort to deport millions and exclude millions more. The second is to legalize those without status who have been, are, and will continue to contribute to America’s families, communities, and future.

This essay argues that the latter choice, restoring the paths to legalization that once were part of our nation’s laws, is the only realistic way forward to restore ...


Law Enforcement Firearms Instructor, Caleb Groner Aug 2018

Law Enforcement Firearms Instructor, Caleb Groner

Title III Professional Development Reports

Law Enforcement Firearms Instructor School, Bolivar Mo, July 30th, 2018-August 3rd, 2018


Crime, Punishment, And Legal Error: A Review Of The Experimental Literature, Kathryn Zeiler, Erica Puccetti Aug 2018

Crime, Punishment, And Legal Error: A Review Of The Experimental Literature, Kathryn Zeiler, Erica Puccetti

Faculty Scholarship

When individuals violate the law, detection and verification of the violation are rarely, if ever, perfect. Before the state can dole out punishment, it must first identify a suspect and then produce sufficient evidence to persuade a judge and/or jury beyond some threshold level of confidence that the suspect, in fact, violated the law. The court might be uncertain that the state has the right person. If the suspect is undoubtedly the one who caused the harm, the court might be unsure about whether his act constitutes a violation of the law (e.g., whether the suspect was, in ...


Litigating Federal Habeas Corpus Cases: One Equitable Gateway At A Time, Eve Brensike Primus Jul 2018

Litigating Federal Habeas Corpus Cases: One Equitable Gateway At A Time, Eve Brensike Primus

Other Publications

Habeas corpus, also known as the Great Writ, was meant to be a “bulwark against convictions that violate fundamental fairness,” according to the Supreme Court. Yet today, federal courts provide relief in fewer than half of one percent of cases in which a non-capital state prisoner seeks relief through habeas. The Great Writ, it would seem, is no longer so great. In Litigating Federal Habeas Corpus Cases: One Equitable Gateway at a Time, Eve Brensike Primus examines the various procedural and substantive hurdles that have been erected in the past half century that make it nearly impossible for state prisoners ...


2018 Annual Campus Security And Fire Safety Report, Larry Banaszak Jul 2018

2018 Annual Campus Security And Fire Safety Report, Larry Banaszak

Otterbein Police Department

This report is designed to provide you with important information about security and fire safety on campus. In addition to outlining the details of the many safety programs Otterbein offers its community members, the report also contains statistics about reported crimes and fire safety initiatives on campus.


Reforming Policing, André Douglas Pond Cummings Jul 2018

Reforming Policing, André Douglas Pond Cummings

Faculty Scholarship

Law enforcement killing of unarmed black men and police brutality visited upon minority citizens continues to confound the United States. Despite protests, clarion calls for reform, admitted training shortcomings and deficiencies among U.S. law enforcement officers, conferences, summits, and movements to reform policing, the solution to ending undisciplined police violence and the hostile killings of unarmed minority individuals at the hands of U.S. police seems to elude us. Why should this be? The United States is home to some of the most creative, innovative, pathmarking, and course-changing thinkers the world has ever known. This challenge — police killing of ...


Catholic Social Thought And Criminal Justice Reform, R. Michael Cassidy Jul 2018

Catholic Social Thought And Criminal Justice Reform, R. Michael Cassidy

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Professor Cassidy examines the criminal justice reform movement in the United States through the lens of Catholic social thought. In particular, he focuses on God’s gift of redemption and the Gospels’ directives that we love one another and show mercy toward the poor, the oppressed and the imprisoned. Cassidy then examines the implications of these fundamental Catholic teachings for the modern debate about the death penalty, sentencing reform, prisoner reentry and parole.


Wrong Turn On The Ex Post Facto Clause, Paul D. Reingold, Kimberly Thomas Jun 2018

Wrong Turn On The Ex Post Facto Clause, Paul D. Reingold, Kimberly Thomas

Articles

The Ex Post Facto Clause bars any increase in punishment after the commission of a crime. But deciding what constitutes an increase in punishment can be tricky. At the front end of a criminal case, where new or amended criminal laws might lengthen prisoners’ sentences if applied retroactively, courts have routinely struck down such changes under the Ex Post Facto Clause. At the back end, however, where new or amended parole laws or policies might lengthen prisoners’ sentences in exactly the same way if applied retroactively, courts have used a different standard and upheld the changes under the Ex Post ...


The Pro Bono Collaborative Project Spotlight: Pro Bono Collaborative Aci Civil Legal Clinics Project Expands To Women's Facility (05-03-2018), Roger Williams University School Of Law May 2018

The Pro Bono Collaborative Project Spotlight: Pro Bono Collaborative Aci Civil Legal Clinics Project Expands To Women's Facility (05-03-2018), Roger Williams University School Of Law

Pro Bono Collaborative Staff Publications

No abstract provided.


A Review Of Various Actions By The Federal Bureau Of Investigation And Department Of Justice In Advance Of The 2016 Election, Office Of The Inspector General, U.S. Department Of Justice May 2018

A Review Of Various Actions By The Federal Bureau Of Investigation And Department Of Justice In Advance Of The 2016 Election, Office Of The Inspector General, U.S. Department Of Justice

U.S. Department of Justice Publications and Materials

The Department of Justice (Department) Office of the Inspector General (OIG) undertook this review of various actions by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Department in connection with the investigation into the use of a private email server by former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Clinton served as Secretary of State from January 21, 2009, until February 1, 2013, and during that time used private email servers hosting the @clintonemail.com domain to conduct official Department of State (State Department) business. In 2014, in response to a request from the State Department to Clinton for “copies of any Federal ...


Rhode Island's Top Lawyer: Peter Kilmartin, Rwu Class Of 1998 5-2018, Roger Williams University School Of Law May 2018

Rhode Island's Top Lawyer: Peter Kilmartin, Rwu Class Of 1998 5-2018, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Transcending Through Education: Noah Kilroy, Rwu Class Of 2013 5-2018, Roger Williams University School Of Law May 2018

Transcending Through Education: Noah Kilroy, Rwu Class Of 2013 5-2018, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Errors In Misdemeanor Adjudication, Samuel R. Gross May 2018

Errors In Misdemeanor Adjudication, Samuel R. Gross

Articles

Millions of defendants are convicted of misdemeanors in the United States each year but almost none obtain exonerations, primarily because ordinarily exoneration is far too costly and time consuming to pursue for anything less than years of imprisonment. The National Registry of Exonerations lists all known exonerations in the United States since 1989 — 2,145 cases, as of the end of 2017; only 85 are misdemeanors, 4%. In all but one of these misdemeanor exonerations the defendants were convicted of crimes that never happened; by comparison, more than three-quarters of felony exonerees were convicted of actual crimes that other people ...


Getting It Righted: Access To Counsel In Rapid Removals, Kari E. Hong, Stephen Manning Apr 2018

Getting It Righted: Access To Counsel In Rapid Removals, Kari E. Hong, Stephen Manning

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Rapid removals — the catchall phrase for expedited removal, reinstatement of removal, and administrative orders — have been devastatingly efficient, accounting for 76 percent of all removals that have occurred in the past 20 years. That means that 4.2 million people have been ordered out of the country without a hearing, without a judge, without an appeal, and without an attorney. In 2014, President Obama made a political calculus to push asylum seekers, mostly mothers with their children fleeing from Central America, out of the country within 10 to 15 days to deter others from seeking protection in the United States ...


Expedited Removal And Due Process: A "Testing Crucible Of Basic Principle" In The Time Of Trump, Daniel Kanstroom Apr 2018

Expedited Removal And Due Process: A "Testing Crucible Of Basic Principle" In The Time Of Trump, Daniel Kanstroom

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


A New Mens Rea For Rape: More Convictions And Less Punishment, Kari E. Hong Apr 2018

A New Mens Rea For Rape: More Convictions And Less Punishment, Kari E. Hong

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

There is no doubt that the law of rape is in need of reform. Compared to other crimes, reported rapes are convicted at 1/3 the rate of robberies and 1/6 the rate of assaults. Because knowing the identity of an assailant should lead to more, not fewer, convictions, this low conviction rate then is surprising given that acquaintance rapes—where the attacker is known to the victim—account for 80% of all rapes. Criminal law serves a vital purpose when it can clearly define criminal conduct and separate it from lawful activity. To effectively draw this line, criminal ...


The State Of American Juvenile Justice, Merril Sobie Apr 2018

The State Of American Juvenile Justice, Merril Sobie

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article will summarize the major twenty-first century state legislative and case law developments. It will also briefly note the expansion of state and local initiatives limiting the prosecution of youthful offenders, such as diversion and restorative justice programs.

The state of American juvenile justice has improved significantly in the past several years. However, the reforms are best viewed as a work in progress. Much has been accomplished, but much remains to be accomplished. Crucially, after a generation of “tough on kids” measures, we are on the road toward a true “justice” system for children.


Cardinal Safety Newsletter- March 2018, Otterbein Police Department Mar 2018

Cardinal Safety Newsletter- March 2018, Otterbein Police Department

Otterbein Police Department

No abstract provided.