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Full-Text Articles in Law

Employment Status For “Essential Workers”: The Case For Gig Worker Parity, Miriam A. Cherry Jan 2022

Employment Status For “Essential Workers”: The Case For Gig Worker Parity, Miriam A. Cherry

All Faculty Scholarship

This Article explores what I call the “essential worker paradox”: During the pandemic, gig workers have been recognized as providing critical and important services. At the same time, the law has yet to recognize gig workers fully and to commit to providing them with the same basic protections as employees. The Article argues that the stark difference in treatment between gig workers and regular employees has long created unfairness. While views of gig work as a side hustle or work driven by customer convenience may have prevailed in the past, now the meal delivery driver and the on-demand grocery shopper ...


The Soft-Shoe And Shuffle Of Law School Hiring Committee Practices, Carliss N. Chatman, Najarian R. Peters May 2021

The Soft-Shoe And Shuffle Of Law School Hiring Committee Practices, Carliss N. Chatman, Najarian R. Peters

Scholarly Articles

It is in the spirit of Ida B. Wells that we seek to turn the light upon the systemic racism of hiring practices. We believe these practices are indicators of the systemic failures on campuses and in workplaces that prevent them from being antiracist. We seek to use this Essay as a “tool for exposing, analyzing, and challenging the majoritarian stories of racial privilege.”

Our specifc intention is to recognize the largely performative nature of claiming to be committed to an idea while substantively and concretely ensuring the opposite. This Essay is written with specific experiences, patterns, and practices in ...


Potential For Unseaworthiness Claims Based On Covid-19 Transmission, Blaine Payer, Read Porter May 2021

Potential For Unseaworthiness Claims Based On Covid-19 Transmission, Blaine Payer, Read Porter

Sea Grant Law Fellow Publications

No abstract provided.


Moore’S Law, Unemployment, And Homelessness: Why An Increasingly Automated Marketplace Demands Guaranteed Income Programs For Americans, Golden Gate University School Of Law Apr 2021

Moore’S Law, Unemployment, And Homelessness: Why An Increasingly Automated Marketplace Demands Guaranteed Income Programs For Americans, Golden Gate University School Of Law

GGU Law Review Blog

Although the rate of people experiencing homelessness was increasing even before 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic contributed to a further rise in the nation’s unemployment rate. Studies have shown that a one-percent increase in the nation’s unemployment rate could bring an increase in homelessness of 0.065 per every 10,000 people. Unemployment during the pandemic rose to over fourteen percent, meaning that the pandemic will likely precipitate increased levels of homelessness in America. The influx of economic stimulus payments during the pandemic has refocused discussions on the extent to which guaranteed income programs could be used to provide ...


The Auditing Imperative For Automated Hiring, Ifeoma Ajunwa Mar 2021

The Auditing Imperative For Automated Hiring, Ifeoma Ajunwa

AI-DR Collection

The high bar of proof to demonstrate either a disparate treatment or disparate impact cause of action under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, coupled with the “black box” nature of many automated hiring systems, renders the detection and redress of bias in such algorithmic systems difficult. This Article, with contributions at the intersection of administrative law, employment & labor law, and law & technology, makes the central claim that the automation of hiring both facilitates and obfuscates employment discrimination. That phenomenon and the deployment of intellectual property law as a shield against the scrutiny of automated systems combine to form ...


Employee Privacy Rights While Working From Home, Kourtney Speer Feb 2021

Employee Privacy Rights While Working From Home, Kourtney Speer

GGU Law Review Blog

Over the past few decades and especially under the circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a merger of office and home life. More and more employees are working from home. By bringing work home, employees may be unknowingly bringing a diminished expectation of privacy inside their home as well.


Structural Labor Rights, Hiba Hafiz Feb 2021

Structural Labor Rights, Hiba Hafiz

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

American labor law was designed to ensure equal bargaining power between workers and employers. But workers’ collective power against increasingly dominant employers has disintegrated. With union density at an abysmal 6.2 percent in the private sector—a level unequaled since the Great Depression—the vast majority of workers depend only on individual negotiations with employers to lift stagnant wages and ensure upward economic mobility. But decentralized, individual bargaining is not enough. Economists and legal scholars increasingly agree that, absent regulation to protect workers’ collective rights, labor markets naturally strengthen employers’ bargaining power over workers. Existing labor and antitrust law ...


Perpetuating Inequality: What Salary History Bans Reveal About Wages, James Bessen, Chen Meng, Erich Denk Feb 2021

Perpetuating Inequality: What Salary History Bans Reveal About Wages, James Bessen, Chen Meng, Erich Denk

Faculty Scholarship

Pay gaps for women and minorities have persisted after accounting for observable differences. Why? If employers can access applicants’ salary histories while bargaining over wages, they can take advantage of past inequities, perpetuating inequality. Recently, a dozen US states have banned employer access to salary histories. We analyze the effects of these salary history bans (SHBs) on employer wage posting and pay in a difference-in-differences design. Following SHBs, employers posted wages more often and increased pay for job changers, particularly for women (6.4%) and non-whites (7.7%). Bargaining behavior appears to account for much of the persistence of residual ...


Machine Monitoring Of Workers: A Brave New Workplace, Anne M. Lofaso Jan 2021

Machine Monitoring Of Workers: A Brave New Workplace, Anne M. Lofaso

Law Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Age Diversity, Alexander Boni-Saenz Jan 2021

Age Diversity, Alexander Boni-Saenz

All Faculty Scholarship

This Article is the first to examine age diversity in the legal literature, mapping out its descriptive, normative, and legal dimensions. Age diversity is a plural concept, as heterogeneity of age can take many forms in various human institutions. Likewise, the normative rationales for these assorted age diversities are rooted in distinct theoretical foundations, making the case for or against age diversity contextual rather than universal. A host of legal rules play a significant role in regulating age diversity, influencing the presence of different generations in the workplace, judiciary, and Congress. Better understanding the nature and consequences of age diversity ...


Wage Theft Criminalization, Benjamin Levin Jan 2021

Wage Theft Criminalization, Benjamin Levin

Articles

Over the past decade, workers’ rights activists and legal scholars have embraced the language of “wage theft” in describing the abuses of the contemporary workplace. The phrase invokes a certain moral clarity: theft is wrong. The phrase is not merely a rhetorical flourish. Increasingly, it has a specific content for activists, politicians, advocates, and academics: wage theft speaks the language of criminal law, and wage theft is a crime that should be punished. Harshly. Self-proclaimed “progressive prosecutors” have made wage theft cases a priority, and left-leaning politicians in the United States and abroad have begun to propose more criminal statutes ...


Workers' Comp And Contagious Disease: History And Future, Kate E. Britt Jan 2021

Workers' Comp And Contagious Disease: History And Future, Kate E. Britt

Law Librarian Scholarship

Modern workers’ compensation schemes set out to provide financial relief to employees who contract an occupational disease during employment, like miners contracting black lung or contractors exposed to asbestos. Certain professions are understood to stand a particular risk of exposure to contagious diseases. Health-care workers interact with persons carrying contagious disease as a matter of course. What workers’ compensation does not cover are diseases which are so prevalent they are considered an “ordinary disease of life.” These diseases, like the common cold, influenza, or pneumonia, could be contracted by persons regardless of their profession, and workers’ compensation acts generally limit ...


Compensation, Commodification, And Disablement: How Law Has Dehumanized Laboring Bodies And Excluded Nonlaboring Humans, Karen M. Tani Jan 2021

Compensation, Commodification, And Disablement: How Law Has Dehumanized Laboring Bodies And Excluded Nonlaboring Humans, Karen M. Tani

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay reviews Nate Holdren's Injury Impoverished: Workplace Accidents, Capitalism, and Law in the Progressive Era (Cambridge University Press, 2020), which explores the changes in legal imagination that accompanied the rise of workers' compensation programs. The essay foregrounds Holdren’s insights about disability. Injury Impoverished illustrates the meaning and material consequences that the law has given to work-related impairments over time and documents the naturalization of disability-based exclusion from the formal labor market. In the present day, with so many social benefits tied to employment, this exclusion is particularly troubling.


Noncompetes And Other Post-Employment Restraints On Competition: Empirical Evidence From Trade Secret Litigation, Christopher B. Seaman Jan 2021

Noncompetes And Other Post-Employment Restraints On Competition: Empirical Evidence From Trade Secret Litigation, Christopher B. Seaman

Scholarly Articles

Noncompete clauses in employment agreements are both common and controversial. An estimated twenty-eight million Americans—nearly twenty percent of the U.S. workforce—are currently bound by a noncompete. The traditional view that noncompete agreements can facilitate increased productivity by encouraging employers to invest in employee training has been challenged by numerous legal and economics scholars in recent years, who contend noncompetes hinder employment options for skilled workers and limit information spillovers, which are both vital drivers of innovation. Based on these claims, several states have recently limited the enforcement of noncompetes, and legislation is pending at the federal level ...


Dispatch – United States: “Proposition 22: A Vote On Gig Worker Status In California”, Miriam Cherry Jan 2021

Dispatch – United States: “Proposition 22: A Vote On Gig Worker Status In California”, Miriam Cherry

All Faculty Scholarship

Under California court decisions and then the California Legislature's 2019 AB5 bill, gig workers were poised to become employees under the law. But all that changed when in November 2020 the voters approved Proposition 22, which provides for a complicated set of new rules that gives gig workers some rights of employees, but not others, (like the right to bargain collectively). This "Dispatch" examines the events around the passage of Proposition 22 in more detail.


From Mandates To Governance: Restructuring The Employment Relationship, Brett Mcdonnell, Matthew T. Bodie Jan 2021

From Mandates To Governance: Restructuring The Employment Relationship, Brett Mcdonnell, Matthew T. Bodie

All Faculty Scholarship

Employers are saddled with a dizzying array of responsibilities to their employees. Meant to advance a wide array of workplace policies, these demands have saddled employment with the burden of numerous social ends. However, that system has increasingly come under strain, as companies seek to shed employment relationships and workers lose important protections when terminated. In this Article, we propose that employers and employees should be given greater flexibility with a move from mandates to governance. Many of the employment protections required from employers stem from employees’ lack of organizational power. The imbalance is best addressed by providing workers with ...


Gaps In Worker Protections That Increase Essential Workers’ Exposure To Covid-19, Ruqaiijah Yearby Jan 2021

Gaps In Worker Protections That Increase Essential Workers’ Exposure To Covid-19, Ruqaiijah Yearby

All Faculty Scholarship

States and localities designated more than 55 million Americans as essential workers. Essential workers not only comprise those employed by the health care and food and agriculture industry, but also include teachers, grocery store workers, transit and airline workers, mail and delivery workers, energy sector and utility workers, and domestic workers (Petition for Emergency, 2020). Racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionately employed as essential workers, with Black Americans the most likely to be essential workers (Petition for Emergency, 2020). Essential workers have been left vulnerable to workplace COVID-19 infections and deaths in large part due to the federal and state ...


Exploring Sectoral Solutions For Digital Workers: The Status Of The Artist Act Approach, Sara Slinn Jan 2021

Exploring Sectoral Solutions For Digital Workers: The Status Of The Artist Act Approach, Sara Slinn

Articles & Book Chapters

Digital workers have not had significant success in securing conventional forms of collective workplace representation, particularly statutory collective bargaining. This article examines an established sectoral bargaining statute, the Status of the Artist Act (SOA), as a possible model for collective bargaining legislation that is better suited to regulating digital work than the Wagner Act model (WAM) of labor legislation. Key features of the WAM labor legislation pose significant barriers for digital worker organizing. First, the necessity for applicant unions to demonstrate a threshold level of support among workers requires applicants to accurately estimate the number of workers in the proposed ...


Disclosing Discrimination, Stephanie Bornstein Jan 2021

Disclosing Discrimination, Stephanie Bornstein

UF Law Faculty Publications

In the United States, enforcement of laws prohibiting workplace discrimination rests almost entirely on the shoulders of employee victims, who must first file charges with a government agency and then pursue litigation themselves. While the law forbids retaliation against employees who complain, this does little to prevent it, in part because employees are also responsible for initiating any claims of retaliation they experience as a result of their original discrimination claims. The burden on employees to complain—and their justified fear of retaliation if they do so—results in underenforcement of the law and a failure to spot and redress ...


Researching Colorado Employment Law, Jill Sturgeon Jan 2021

Researching Colorado Employment Law, Jill Sturgeon

Articles

No abstract provided.


The Law Of Employee Data: Privacy, Property, Governance, Matthew T. Bodie Jan 2021

The Law Of Employee Data: Privacy, Property, Governance, Matthew T. Bodie

All Faculty Scholarship

The availability of data related to the employment relationship has ballooned into an unruly mass of personal characteristics, performance metrics, biometric recordings, and creative output. The law governing this collection of information has been awkwardly split between privacy regulations and intellectual property rights, with employees generally losing on both ends. This Article rejects a binary approach that either carves out private spaces ineffectually or renders data into isolated pieces of ownership. Instead, the law should implement a hybrid system that provides workers with continuing input and control without blocking efforts at joint production. In addition, employers should have fiduciary responsibilities ...


Let's Get Serious - The Clear Case For Compensating The Student Athlete - By The Numbers - A University Of Michigan Athletic Program Case Study, Neal Newman Jan 2021

Let's Get Serious - The Clear Case For Compensating The Student Athlete - By The Numbers - A University Of Michigan Athletic Program Case Study, Neal Newman

Faculty Scholarship

Should college athletes be compensated for their play and if so, how? The first question has been a debate for some time now. But the second question—the “how”—not so much. This writing addresses both questions in depth. With the Ed O’Bannon case that was decided back in August of 2014 and the palaver the Northwestern football team raised in their efforts to unionize, it is acknowledged that the discussions on this issue may have reached its crescendo years ago. That is until now. On September 27, 2019, Gavin Newsom, the Governor of California, signed into law Senate ...


Can Contract Emancipate? Contract Theory And The Law Of Work, Hanoch Dagan, Michael A. Heller Jan 2021

Can Contract Emancipate? Contract Theory And The Law Of Work, Hanoch Dagan, Michael A. Heller

Faculty Scholarship

Contract and employment law have grown apart. Long ago, each side gave up on the other. In this Article, we re-unite them to the betterment of both. In brief, we demonstrate the emancipatory potential of contract for the law of work.

Today, the dominant contract theories assume a widget transaction between substantively equal parties. If this were an accurate description of what contract is, then contract law would be right to expel workers. Worker protections would indeed be better regulated by – and relegated to – employment and labor law. But contract law is not what contract theorists claim. Neither is contract ...


Challenging Gender Discrimination In Closely Held Firms: The Hope And Hazards Of Corporate Oppression Doctrine, Meredith R. Miller Jan 2021

Challenging Gender Discrimination In Closely Held Firms: The Hope And Hazards Of Corporate Oppression Doctrine, Meredith R. Miller

Scholarly Works

The #MeToo Movement has ushered sexual harassment out of the shadows and thrown a spotlight on the gender pay gap in the workplace. Harassment and unfair treatment have, however, been difficult to extinguish. This has been true for all workers, including partners – those women who are owners in their firms and claim that they have suffered harassment or unfair treatment based on gender. That is because a partner’s lawsuit for discrimination often will suffer an insurmountable hurdle: plaintiff’s status as a partner in the firm means that they may not be considered an “employee” under the relevant employment ...


Restoration: The Role Stakeholder Governance Must Play In Recreating A Fair And Sustainable American Economy A Reply To Professor Rock, Leo E. Strine Jr. Dec 2020

Restoration: The Role Stakeholder Governance Must Play In Recreating A Fair And Sustainable American Economy A Reply To Professor Rock, Leo E. Strine Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In his excellent article, For Whom is the Corporation Managed in 2020?: The Debate Over Corporate Purpose, Professor Edward Rock articulates his understanding of the debate over corporate purpose. This reply supports Professor Rock’s depiction of the current state of corporate law in the United States. It also accepts Professor Rock’s contention that finance and law and economics professors tend to equate the value of corporations to society solely with the value of their equity. But, I employ a less academic lens on the current debate about corporate purpose, and am more optimistic about proposals to change our ...


Labor Redemption In Work Law, Andrew Elmore Dec 2020

Labor Redemption In Work Law, Andrew Elmore

Articles

People with criminal records are not a protected class under Title VII, and many employers fear that hiring people with criminal records invites negligent hiring liability. Ban the Box privacy laws delay but may not deter overbroad criminal background checks. This Article challenges this standard account by shifting focus to the state in imposing arbitrary barriers to work. I expose a dignity interest in the removal of these unnecessary barriers, or "labor redemption." I find foundations of labor redemption in successful constitutional challenges to denials of public employment and occupational licenses. Labor redemption is also, increasingly, a statutory right, in ...


The State Giveth And Taketh Away: Public Sector Labour Law, The Legitimacy Of The Legislative Override Power And Constitutional Freedom Of Association In Canada, Claire Mumme Dec 2020

The State Giveth And Taketh Away: Public Sector Labour Law, The Legitimacy Of The Legislative Override Power And Constitutional Freedom Of Association In Canada, Claire Mumme

Law Publications

This article investigates the role of courts and legislatures in the design and enforcement of labour laws in the context of public sector employment. It does so by focusing on government employers’ legislative ability to temporarily override public sector labour rights, or to displace outcomes achieved under their processes. This issue is analysed through a case study of Canada, a country which offers constitutional protections for freedom of association, but which is also constructing a highly deferential approach to the constitutional review of override statutes. As a result of this deference, governments have been afforded significant leeway in the use ...


Video: No, You Can’T Touch My Hair: The Importance, Necessity, And Controversy Of The Crown Act, Randolph Bracy Iii, Adjoa B. Asamoah, The Honorable Ashleigh Parker Dunston, Doris "Wendy" Green, Linda Harrison, Dr. Stephen Wigley, Dpm Nov 2020

Video: No, You Can’T Touch My Hair: The Importance, Necessity, And Controversy Of The Crown Act, Randolph Bracy Iii, Adjoa B. Asamoah, The Honorable Ashleigh Parker Dunston, Doris "Wendy" Green, Linda Harrison, Dr. Stephen Wigley, Dpm

NSU Law Seminar Series

The Black Law Students Association welcomes you to our Fall 2020 panel event, which focuses on the 2019 CROWN Act. The CROWN Act, which stands for “Creating a Respectful and Open World for Natural Hair,” is a law that prohibits race-based hair discrimination, which is the denial of employment and educational opportunities because of hair texture or protective hairstyles including braids, locs, twists or bantu knots.

This panel focuses on the legal perspective from different vantage points. Attendees will learn more about the Act, how it was handled, and the current political climate surrounding the Act. National CROWN Act and ...


2020 Supplementary Directory Of New Bargaining Agents And Contracts In Institutions Of Higher Education, 2013-2019, William A. Herbert, Jacob Apkarian, Joseph Van Der Naald Nov 2020

2020 Supplementary Directory Of New Bargaining Agents And Contracts In Institutions Of Higher Education, 2013-2019, William A. Herbert, Jacob Apkarian, Joseph Van Der Naald

Publications and Research

The 2020 Supplementary Directory is an analysis of data for the period 2013-2019 of new bargaining units, bargaining agents, and contracts in higher education following publication of our last directory in 2012. The 2020 Supplementary Directory includes a listing of all new bargaining relationships concerning faculty, department chairs, librarians, postdoctoral scholars, academic researchers, and/or graduate student employees. It also includes data about bargaining units that existed prior to 2013 but did not appear in the last directory such as postdoctoral scholar and academic researcher bargaining units. Unlike prior directories, the 2020 Supplementary Directory includes a detailed unit composition description ...


What We Owe Workers As A Matter Of Common Humanity: Sickness And Caregiving Leaves And Pay In The Age Of Pandemics, Eric Tucker, Leah F. Vosko, Sarah Marsden Nov 2020

What We Owe Workers As A Matter Of Common Humanity: Sickness And Caregiving Leaves And Pay In The Age Of Pandemics, Eric Tucker, Leah F. Vosko, Sarah Marsden

Articles & Book Chapters

No abstract provided.