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Full-Text Articles in Law

Are Employee Noncompete Agreements Coercive? Why The Ftc's Wrong Answer Disqualifies It From Rulemaking (For Now), Alan J. Meese Apr 2024

Are Employee Noncompete Agreements Coercive? Why The Ftc's Wrong Answer Disqualifies It From Rulemaking (For Now), Alan J. Meese

Faculty Publications

The Federal Trade Commission recently proposed a rule banning nearly all employee noncompete agreements (“NCAs”) as unfair methods of competition under Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act. The proposed rule reflects two complementary pillars of an aggressive new enforcement agenda championed by Commission Chair Lina Khan, a leading voice in the Neo-Brandeisian antitrust movement. First, such a rule depends on the assumption, rejected by most prior Commissions, that the Act empowers the Commission to issue legislative rules. Proceeding by rulemaking is essential, the Commission has said, to fight a “hyperconcentrated economy” that injures employees and consumers alike. Second, …


Is The Statutory 60-Day Deadline For Filing A Petition For Review Of A Final Mspb Order Jurisdictional?, Anne Marie Lofaso Mar 2024

Is The Statutory 60-Day Deadline For Filing A Petition For Review Of A Final Mspb Order Jurisdictional?, Anne Marie Lofaso

Law Faculty Scholarship

Case at a Glance: The Department of Defense (DOD) furloughed employee Stuart R. Harrow in 2013. Harrow timely challenged DOD’s decision before an administrative judge, who affirmed it. Harrow timely appealed the judge’s decision to the Merit System Protection Board (MSPB or “Board”), which could not act on the appeal for over five years because it lacked a quorum. On May 11, 2022, the MSPB issued a final order, affirming the judge’s decision. However, Harrow did not learn of the decision until August 30. Harrow promptly filed a petition to review the Board’s order with the Federal Circuit, which denied …


Brief For Amicus Curiae Professor Edward A. Zelinsky In Support Of Appellants And Reversal, Edward A. Zelinsky Jan 2024

Brief For Amicus Curiae Professor Edward A. Zelinsky In Support Of Appellants And Reversal, Edward A. Zelinsky

Amicus Briefs

DOL’s tie-breaking rule violates ERISA’s duty of loyalty under ERISA § 404(a)(1)(A). ERISA’s duty of loyalty requires ERISA-regulated trustees to invest plan resources for the “exclusive purpose of . . . providing” economic benefits to plan participants and their beneficiaries, “solely in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries.” The tie-breaking rule violates this stringent statutory duty of loyalty because it permits plan trustees investing plan resources to consider “collateral benefits,” i.e., the welfare of third parties or social goals. But ERISA‟s plain text does not permit this result. The words ““solely” and “exclusive purpose” in § 404(a)(1)(A) do not …


Democracy, Universalism And Informal Employment: The Committee On Freedom Of Association And South Asia, Kamala Sankaran Jan 2024

Democracy, Universalism And Informal Employment: The Committee On Freedom Of Association And South Asia, Kamala Sankaran

Book Chapters

This chapter focuses on how the CFA has influenced democratic processes and trade union rights in South Asia, particularly in relation to the intersection between political and labour rights and the relationship between trade union rights and civil liberties. Ms Sankaran illustrates this relationship by referring to a number of cases in the region in which emergency regulations have impacted on the daily exercise of trade union rights, with reference to the guidance provided by the CFA in this respect. She also recalls the large numbers of workers in the informal economy in the region, who are restricted in the …


Somethings Old, Somethings New And A Lot That’S Blue: Political Economic Reflections On Worker Subordination And The Law In Contemporary Capitalism, Eric Tucker Jan 2024

Somethings Old, Somethings New And A Lot That’S Blue: Political Economic Reflections On Worker Subordination And The Law In Contemporary Capitalism, Eric Tucker

All Papers

Debates over worker subordination are central to discussions of the efficacy of protective labour and employment law whose central mission in a capitalist political economy, after all, is to reduce but not eliminate subordination. When protective labour and employment law seems to be fulfilling its mission discussions of worker subordination seem to ebb, but the topic becomes more urgent as the efficacy of the law declines. Not surprisingly, as labour law’s efficacy has been declining over the past several decades, we are in the midst of a revival of debates over worker subordination, the premise of this special issue. While …


Labour, Labour Law And Capitalist Rent-Seeking: Rentier Capitalism And Labour In Historical Perspective, Eric Tucker Jan 2024

Labour, Labour Law And Capitalist Rent-Seeking: Rentier Capitalism And Labour In Historical Perspective, Eric Tucker

All Papers

The rise of rentier capitalism in advanced capitalist countries has detrimentally affected large numbers of worker and impaired the efficacy of protective labour and employment laws. However, capitalist rent-seeking is not unique to rentier capitalism, but rather has taken a variety of forms over time. This chapter begins by exploring the evolving meaning of rent and changing practices of capitalist rent-seeking. It then considers the ways in which workers responded to those practices in both rent-rich and rent-poor sectors of the economy, including through the enactment of labour and employment laws appropriate to, but only partially successful in addressing labour …


Redistributing Justice, Benjamin Levin, Kate Levine Jan 2024

Redistributing Justice, Benjamin Levin, Kate Levine

Scholarship@WashULaw

This article surfaces an obstacle to decarceration hiding in plain sight: progressives’ continued support for the carceral system. Despite increasingly prevalent critiques of criminal law from progressives, there hardly is a consensus on the left in opposition to the carceral state. Many left-leaning academics and activists who may critique the criminal system writ large remain enthusiastic about criminal law in certain areas—often areas where defendants are imagined as powerful and victims as particularly vulnerable. In this article, we offer a novel theory for what animates the seemingly conflicted attitude among progressives toward criminal punishment—the hope that the criminal system can …


The Chicken-And-Egg Of Law And Organizing: Enacting Policy For Power Building, Kate Andrias, Benjamin I. Sachs Jan 2024

The Chicken-And-Egg Of Law And Organizing: Enacting Policy For Power Building, Kate Andrias, Benjamin I. Sachs

Faculty Scholarship

In a historical moment defined by massive economic and political inequality, legal scholars are exploring ways that law can contribute to the project of building a more equal society. Central to this effort is the attempt to design laws that enable the poor and working class to organize and build power with which they can countervail the influence of corporations and the wealthy. Previous work has identified ways in which law can, in fact, enable social-movement organizing by poor and working-class people. But there’s a problem. Enacting laws to facilitate social-movement organizing requires social movements already powerful enough to secure …


Constitutional Clash: Labor, Capital, And Democracy, Kate Andrias Jan 2024

Constitutional Clash: Labor, Capital, And Democracy, Kate Andrias

Faculty Scholarship

In the last few years, workers have engaged in organizing and strike activity at levels not seen in decades; state and local legislators have enacted innovative workplace and social welfare legislation; and the National Labor Relations Board has advanced ambitious new interpretations of its governing statute. Viewed collectively, these efforts — “labor’s” efforts for short — seek not only to redefine the contours of labor law. They also present an incipient challenge to our constitutional order. If realized, labor’s vision would extend democratic values, including freedom of speech and association, into the putatively private domain of the workplace. It would …


California’S 2023 Legislative Cycle: Governor Newsom Provides Victories And Losses For The Labor Movement, Victoria Chan Nov 2023

California’S 2023 Legislative Cycle: Governor Newsom Provides Victories And Losses For The Labor Movement, Victoria Chan

GGU Law Review Blog

During the 2023 legislative cycle, the California Legislature sent more than 900 bills to Governor Gavin Newsom’s desk for his review. Of the 900 bills, thirteen bills were sponsored by the California Labor Federation (CLF) in support of major labor initiatives. The CLF is a coalition of 1,200 unions dedicated to protecting workers. The CLF indicated that this past legislative year was a “fantastic year for organized labor in the [California] State Legislature,” specifically, thirteen of its sponsored bills passed the California Legislature and arrived at the Governor’s desk for his review.

Below is a preview of two workers’ rights …


Does Title Vii Prohibit Discrimination In Employment-Transfer Decisions Only If They Cause Materially Significant Disadvantages For Employees?, Anne Marie Lofaso Nov 2023

Does Title Vii Prohibit Discrimination In Employment-Transfer Decisions Only If They Cause Materially Significant Disadvantages For Employees?, Anne Marie Lofaso

Law Faculty Scholarship

Case at a Glance: Petitioner Jatonya Clayborn Muldrow, a sergeant for the St. Louis Police Department, was transferred to another unit within the department. Muldrow sued the City of St. Louis for making a discriminatory transfer decision in alleged violation of Title VII. This case presents the question of whether Title VII prohibits discriminatory transfer decisions absent a separate court determination that the decision caused Muldrow materially significant disadvantages.


From Bait To Plate—How Forced Labor In China Taints America’S Seafood Supply Chain: Hearing Before The Cong.-Exec. Comm’N On China, 118th Cong., Oct. 24, 2023 (Statement Of Robert K. Stumberg), Robert Stumberg Oct 2023

From Bait To Plate—How Forced Labor In China Taints America’S Seafood Supply Chain: Hearing Before The Cong.-Exec. Comm’N On China, 118th Cong., Oct. 24, 2023 (Statement Of Robert K. Stumberg), Robert Stumberg

Testimony Before Congress

Two-hundred and forty—that’s the number of name-brand stores and institutional suppliers that we all depend on. Through them, we all buy seafood from importers who sell what forced laborers process in Chinese factories and vessels. We do it as families, as schools, as businesses. What is not in that number are the ways we buy forced-labor seafood as governments, mostly through five federal agencies and local school food authorities.

The Outlaw Ocean team, led by Ian Urbina, made transparency happen. They aren’t the first to reveal Xinjiang supply chains. But what distinguishes their seafood reporting is that they literally …


Baseball, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, And The Judicial Strike Zone - Home Run Or Foul On The Play?, Jan L. Jacobowitz Oct 2023

Baseball, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, And The Judicial Strike Zone - Home Run Or Foul On The Play?, Jan L. Jacobowitz

Articles

Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Micky Mantle, and Shoeless Joe Jackson—There are many well-known baseball legends, but perhaps less well-known is the story of Kenesaw Mountain Landis, a judge turned baseball commissioner who inspired not only baseball fans, but also the American Bar Association’s first Judicial Canon of Ethics. The parallel stories of baseball’s greatest scandal, the judge appointed to be the first baseball commissioner, and the development of the judicial canons, provide context for the current controversial judicial prohibition--the appearance of impropriety.


Political Polarization In America: Its Impact On Industrial Democracy And Labor Law, Rafael Gely Oct 2023

Political Polarization In America: Its Impact On Industrial Democracy And Labor Law, Rafael Gely

Faculty Publications

This article explores the impact that political polarization is having in the social, legal, and regulatory space, particularly on American worker-management relations. Polarization is affecting decisions involving social relationships and market transactions, the ability of institutions built to generate debate and discussion to successfully complete these missions, and people's willingness to listen to and engage with views contrary to their own.


Does Labour Law Trust Workers? Questioning Underlying Assumptions Behind Managerial Prerogatives, Valerio De Stefano, Ilda Durri, Charalampos Stylogiannis, Mathias Wouters Aug 2023

Does Labour Law Trust Workers? Questioning Underlying Assumptions Behind Managerial Prerogatives, Valerio De Stefano, Ilda Durri, Charalampos Stylogiannis, Mathias Wouters

Articles & Book Chapters

This article explores the relationship between modern labour law, trust-based management, and collective labour relations. It begins by examining the historical origins of labour law, which was established to give employers the means to govern their workforce, based on the assumption that workers were untrustworthy.We argue that this notion still persists, albeit in a refined form, and that advancements in technology can exacerbate the negative consequences of managerial prerogatives. The article highlights the need to re-examine the extent of managerial prerogatives and provides several examples of businesses that have adopted trust-based models of organization, leading to positive outcomes. However, the …


The Global Health And Care Worker Compact: Evidence Base And Policy Considerations, Eric A. Friedman, Robert Bickford, Charles Bjork, James Campbell, Giorgio Cometto, Alexandra Finch, Catherine Kane, Sarah A. Wetter, Lawrence O. Gostin Jul 2023

The Global Health And Care Worker Compact: Evidence Base And Policy Considerations, Eric A. Friedman, Robert Bickford, Charles Bjork, James Campbell, Giorgio Cometto, Alexandra Finch, Catherine Kane, Sarah A. Wetter, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Background During the COVID-19 pandemic, and recognising the sacrifice of health and care workers alongside discrimination, violence, poor working conditions and other violations of their rights, health and safety, in 2021 the World Health Assembly requested WHO to develop a global health and care worker compact, building on existing normative documentation, to provide guidance to ‘protect health and care workers and safeguard their rights’.

Methods A review of existing international law and other normative documents was conducted. We manually searched five main sets of international instruments: (1) International Labour Organization conventions and recommendations; (2) WHO documents; (3) United Nations (UN) …


Estimating The Impact Of The Age Of Criminal Majority: Decomposing Multiple Treatments In A Regression Discontinuity Framework, Michael Mueller-Smith, Benjamin David Pyle, Caroline Walker Jul 2023

Estimating The Impact Of The Age Of Criminal Majority: Decomposing Multiple Treatments In A Regression Discontinuity Framework, Michael Mueller-Smith, Benjamin David Pyle, Caroline Walker

Faculty Scholarship

This paper studies the impact of adult prosecution on recidivism and employment trajectories for adolescent, first-time felony defendants. We use extensive linked Criminal Justice Administrative Record System and socio-economic data from Wayne County, Michigan (Detroit). Using the discrete age of majority rule and a regression discontinuity design, we find that adult prosecution reduces future criminal charges over 5 years by 0.48 felony cases (↓ 20%) while also worsening labor market outcomes: 0.76 fewer employers (↓ 19%) and $674 fewer earnings (↓ 21%) per year. We develop a novel econometric framework that combines standard regression discontinuity methods with predictive machine learning …


Introduction: The Arc Of Race In Professional And Collegiate Sports Symposium, Kenneth D. Ferguson Jul 2023

Introduction: The Arc Of Race In Professional And Collegiate Sports Symposium, Kenneth D. Ferguson

Faculty Works

This introduction will highlight the five articles featured in the symposium issue of the UMKC Law Review and will also situate those articles in the Sports Law Symposium titled, The Arc of Race in Professional and Collegiate Sports. The goal of the two-day virtual symposium was to bring together leading legal, social science, and medical science scholars to engage in discourse concerning how race and gender have affected and continue to influence decision making in professional and collegiate sports. The symposium exposed how race, culture, ethnicity, and gender affect a wide range of phenomena in scientific fields such as neuropsychological …


Negligent Hiring: Recidivism And Employment With A Criminal Record, Benjamin David Pyle Jul 2023

Negligent Hiring: Recidivism And Employment With A Criminal Record, Benjamin David Pyle

Faculty Scholarship

This paper tackles a difficult legal and policy challenge—reducing the impact of criminal justice records on job applicants’ chances in a manner that does not spur more discrimination—by looking at how another area of law, tort liability, impacts employers’ decision-making. It uses theoretical and empirical methods to study the most common reason employers report being reluctant to hire workers with a criminal record: legal liability generated by the tort of negligent hiring. While the purpose of the tort is ostensibly to protect and make whole those harmed when an employee misbehaves in a foreseeable manner, I show that, in practice, …


Black And Blue Police Arbitration Reforms, Michael Z. Green Jun 2023

Black And Blue Police Arbitration Reforms, Michael Z. Green

Faculty Scholarship

The racial justice protests that engulfed the country after seeing a video of the appalling killing of a Black male, George Floyd, by a Minnesota police officer in 2020 has led to a tremendous number of questions about dealing with racial issues in policing. Similar concerns arose a little more than fifty years ago when police unions gained power to respond to the civil rights protests occurring during those times by establishing strong protections for their officers in light of brutality claims. This rhythmic progression of protests and union responses is destined to continue without any lasting reforms focused on …


Gender, Race, And Job Satisfaction Of Law Graduates, Joni Hersch Jun 2023

Gender, Race, And Job Satisfaction Of Law Graduates, Joni Hersch

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Studies typically find that lawyers have high job satisfaction and that women are not less satisfied than are men. But racial differences as well as gender differences by race or ethnicity in satisfaction may be masked because most lawyers identify as racially White. To examine whether job satisfaction differs by race and whether gender and race/ethnicity have an intersectional relation to job satisfaction, I use data on nearly 13,000 law graduates drawn from six waves of the National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG) conducted between 2003 and 2019. The NSCG uniquely provides a large enough sample to examine intersectionality in …


Competing Policies Within The Sending State: Labour Export And The Provision Of Primary Healthcare In The Philippines, Romeo Luis A. Macabasag, Yasmin Y. Ortiga Jun 2023

Competing Policies Within The Sending State: Labour Export And The Provision Of Primary Healthcare In The Philippines, Romeo Luis A. Macabasag, Yasmin Y. Ortiga

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

In framing nations as places that either send or receive migrants, there is a danger in defining migrant-sending nations as monolithic entities driven by a single mandate of exporting labour to a global economy. Using the concept of viscosity, we argue that sending states comprise multiple state agencies with varying interests, which can either impede, slow, or facilitate labour emigration. We demonstrate our argument by examining the Philippines' nurse retention policies against the backdrop of the country's labour export policies. While these retention policies led to an influx of Filipino nurses to rural health centres, these nurses considered such mobility …


(A)Woke Workplaces, Michael Z. Green May 2023

(A)Woke Workplaces, Michael Z. Green

Faculty Scholarship

With heightened expectations for a reckoning in response to the broad support for the Black Lives Matter movement after the senseless murder of George Floyd in 2020, employers explored many options to improve racial understanding through discussions with workers. In rejecting any notions of the existence of structural or systemic discrimination, let alone the need to address the consequences of such discrimination, certain groups have begun to oppose BLM by seeking to diminish any social justice actions. One of those key resistance efforts includes labelling in pejorative terms any employers that pursue anti-racism objectives via social justice statements or internal …


Pro-Choice Plans, Brendan S. Maher May 2023

Pro-Choice Plans, Brendan S. Maher

Faculty Scholarship

After Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, the United States Constitution may no longer protect abortion, but a surprising federal statute does. That statute is called the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”), and it has long been one of the most powerful preemptive statutes in the entire United States Code. ERISA regulates “employee benefit plans,” which are the vehicle by which approximately 155 million people receive their health insurance. Plans are thus a major private payer for health benefits—and therefore abortions. While many post-Dobbs anti-abortion laws directly bar abortion by making either the receipt or provision of …


Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind? Remote Work And Contractual Distancing, Nicola Countouris, Valerio De Stefano May 2023

Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind? Remote Work And Contractual Distancing, Nicola Countouris, Valerio De Stefano

Articles & Book Chapters

Since the Covid-19 pandemic, remote work has acquired quasi-Marmite status. It has become difficult, if not impossible, to approach the issue in a measured and dispassionate way, which is one of the reasons books such as the present one are being published. Remote work is often seen as anathema by some who associate it with laziness, low productivity and the degradation of the social fabric of firms and of their creative and collaborative potential. The notorious views of CEOs such as Tesla and Twitter’s Elon Musk or JP Morgan’s Jamie Dimon come to mind, indicative – in the view of …


Introduction To The Future Of Remote Work, Nicola Countouris, Valerio De Stefano, Agnieszka Piasna, Silvia Rainone May 2023

Introduction To The Future Of Remote Work, Nicola Countouris, Valerio De Stefano, Agnieszka Piasna, Silvia Rainone

Articles & Book Chapters

Debates on the future of work have taken a more fundamental turn in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic. Early in 2020, when large sections of the workforce were prevented from coming to their usual places of work, remote work became the only way for many to continue to perform their professions. What had been a piecemeal, at times truly sluggish, evolution towards a multilocation approach to work suddenly turned into an abrupt, radical and universal shift. It quickly became clear that the consequences of this shift were far more significant and far-reaching than simply changing the workplace’s address. They …


Between Risk Mitigation And Labour Rights Enforcement: Assessing The Transatlantic Race To Govern Ai-Driven Decision-Making Through A Comparative Lens, Valerio De Stefano, Antonio Aloisi Apr 2023

Between Risk Mitigation And Labour Rights Enforcement: Assessing The Transatlantic Race To Govern Ai-Driven Decision-Making Through A Comparative Lens, Valerio De Stefano, Antonio Aloisi

Articles & Book Chapters

In this article, we provide an overview of efforts to regulate the various phases of the artificial intelligence (AI) life cycle. In doing so, we examine whether—and, if so, to what extent—highly fragmented legal frameworks are able to provide safeguards capable of preventing the dangers that stem from AI- and algorithm-driven organisational practices. We critically analyse related developments at the European Union (EU) level, namely the General Data Protection Regulation, the draft AI Regulation, and the proposal for a Directive on improving working conditions in platform work. We also consider bills and regulations proposed or adopted in the United States …


The Recipe For Success: How Local Massachusetts And Rhode Island Restaurants Navigated And Survived Covid Restrictions, Han Lambert Apr 2023

The Recipe For Success: How Local Massachusetts And Rhode Island Restaurants Navigated And Survived Covid Restrictions, Han Lambert

Honors Projects in History and Social Sciences

The COVID-19 pandemic and the government restrictions adopted during the pandemic have had a detrimental impact on the continued survival and growth of many industries, including the restaurant industry. This study identifies critical regulations relating to COVID-19, implemented in Rhode Island and Massachusetts, as well as on a federal level, which directly impacted the restaurant industry. It is essential that certain economic and social factors are isolated as a means of establishing trends. In the case of this study, a mixed methods approach was used. The number of restaurants open, the amount of restaurant revenue, and the level of consumer …


Regulating Ai At Work: Labour Relations, Automation, And Algorithmic Management, Valerio De Stefano, Virginia Doellgast Apr 2023

Regulating Ai At Work: Labour Relations, Automation, And Algorithmic Management, Valerio De Stefano, Virginia Doellgast

Articles & Book Chapters

Recent innovations in artificial intelligence (AI) have been at the core of massive technological changes that are transforming work. AI is now widely used to automate business processes and replace labour-intensive tasks while changing the skill demands for those that remain. AI-based tools are also deployed to invasively monitor worker conduct and to automate HR management processes.

Through the dual lens of comparative labour law and employment relations research, the articles in this special issue of Transfer investigate the role of collective bargaining and government policy in shaping strategies to deploy new digital and AI-based technologies at work. Together, they …


Spring 2023 Newsletter, Golden Gate University School Of Law Apr 2023

Spring 2023 Newsletter, Golden Gate University School Of Law

Women’s Employment Rights Clinic

No abstract provided.