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International Humanitarian Law

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Financing Reforms To Meet A Pivotal Moment In Global Health, Kevin A. Klock, Alexandra Finch, Lawrence O. Gostin Mar 2024

Financing Reforms To Meet A Pivotal Moment In Global Health, Kevin A. Klock, Alexandra Finch, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

2024 will be the most important moment for global health since the World Health Organization’s founding in 1948, but only if states give major reforms their full political and financial backing. Bold new commitments in disease surveillance, capacity building, and more equitable access to health products cannot be achieved without ample and sustainable funding. In this essay, we discuss major reforms found in the emerging pandemic agreement and reformed International Health Regulations and then explore the significant challenges and opportunities for financing them.


Refugee Health In Philadelphia, Marc Altshuler, Md Jan 2024

Refugee Health In Philadelphia, Marc Altshuler, Md

Academic Commons Workshops and Presentations

No abstract provided.


Aggressor Status And Its Impact On International Criminal Law Case Selection, Nancy Amoury Combs Jan 2024

Aggressor Status And Its Impact On International Criminal Law Case Selection, Nancy Amoury Combs

Faculty Publications

The laws of war apply equally to all parties to a conflict; thus, a party that violates international law by launching a war is granted the same international humanitarian law rights as a party that is required to defend against the illegal war. This doctrine—known as the equal application doctrine—has been sharply critiqued, particularly by philosophers, who claim the doctrine to be morally indefensible. Lawyers and legal academics, by contrast, defend the equal application doctrine because they reasonably fear that applying different rules to different warring parties will sharply reduce states’ willingness to comply with the international humanitarian law system …


Ending 30 Years Of Imf Exceptionalism: A Call For An Accountability Mechanism At The International Monetary Fund, Luiz Vieria Jan 2024

Ending 30 Years Of Imf Exceptionalism: A Call For An Accountability Mechanism At The International Monetary Fund, Luiz Vieria

Perspectives

This year marks the 30th anniversary of the World Bank’s Inspection Panel (WBIP or Panel), created as the result of grass-roots and international pressure on the Bank to address the well-documented negative impacts on marginalised communities of the Bank-financed Narmada dam and similar projects.

The establishment of the world’s first independent accountability mechanism (IAM) at the World Bank led to the creation of similar mechanisms at nearly all international financial institutions (IFIs), with the IMF an important exception. The establishment of the WBIP and other IAMs was a step-change in accountability, as previously IFIs were only accountable to shareholders …


Environmental War, Climate Security, And The Russia-Ukraine Crisis, Mark P. Nevitt Jan 2024

Environmental War, Climate Security, And The Russia-Ukraine Crisis, Mark P. Nevitt

Faculty Articles

This Article addresses the Russia-Ukraine conflict’s broad implications for energy security, climate security, and environment protections during wartime. I assert that in the short-term the Russian-Ukraine war is poised to hinder much-needed international climate progress. It will stymie international decarbonization efforts and cause greater uncertainty in other climate-destabilized parts of the world, such as the Arctic. While Russia has become a pariah in the eyes of the United States and other Western nations, it has forged new partnerships and capitalized on new, lucrative energy markets outside the West and Global South. But in the long term, the global renewable energy …


Introduction To The Symposium On Digital Evidence, Melinda (M.J.) Durkee, Megiddo Tamar Jan 2024

Introduction To The Symposium On Digital Evidence, Melinda (M.J.) Durkee, Megiddo Tamar

Scholarship@WashULaw

The past few decades have seen radical advances in the availability and use of digital evidence in multiple areas of international law. Witnesses snap cellphone photos of unfolding atrocities and post them online, while others share updates in real time through messaging apps. Immigration officers search cell phones. Private citizens launch open-source online investigations. Investigators scrape social media posts. Digital experts verify authenticity with satellite geolocation. These new types of evidence and digitally facilitated methods and patterns of evidence gathering and analysis are revolutionizing the everyday practice of international law, drawing in an ever-wider circle of actors who can contribute …


Assemblages And Actor Networks In The Borderlands - The Apposition Of Reproductive Rights Along The Mexican-American Border, Madeleine M. Plasencia Jan 2024

Assemblages And Actor Networks In The Borderlands - The Apposition Of Reproductive Rights Along The Mexican-American Border, Madeleine M. Plasencia

Articles

In 1971, Sarah Weddington argued Roe v. Wade as a class action on behalf of pregnant women living in Texas, many of whom, including herself had to flee the State to obtain an abortion in Mexico. In 2021, Texas enacted S. B. 8, otherwise known as the Texas Heartbeat Act, which created a private cause of action for injunctive relief and statutory damages awards against any person assisting in and any physician accused of performing an abortion, thus reigniting the cross-border flows that historically have made Mexico a haven for runaway enslaved people and pregnant persons heading south to freedom. …


Western Feminism Before And After October 7, Lama Abu-Odeh Jan 2024

Western Feminism Before And After October 7, Lama Abu-Odeh

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In this interview, I provide my view on the state of Western feminism before and after the assault on Gaza. The interview includes discussion of the various strands of emergent feminisms in the West and some of their offshoots as they appear in Palestine in the context of Israeli colonialism and resistance to it.


A Critical Juncture For Human Rights In Global Health: Strengthening Human Rights Through Global Health Law Reforms, Benjamin Mason Meier, Luciano Bottini Filho, Judith Bueno De Mesquita, Roojin Habibi, Sharifah Sekalala, Lawrence O. Gostin Dec 2023

A Critical Juncture For Human Rights In Global Health: Strengthening Human Rights Through Global Health Law Reforms, Benjamin Mason Meier, Luciano Bottini Filho, Judith Bueno De Mesquita, Roojin Habibi, Sharifah Sekalala, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), establishing a human rights foundation under the United Nations (UN), has become a cornerstone of global health, central to public health policies throughout the world. As the world commemorates the 75th anniversary of the UDHR on 10 December, this “Human Rights Day” celebration arrives at a critical juncture for human rights in global health, raising an imperative for World Health Organization (WHO) reforms to strengthen the right to health and health-related human rights.


Time To Enumerate The Slave Trade As A Distinct Provision In The Crimes Against Humanity Treaty, Patricia Viseur Sellers, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum, Alexandra Lily Kather Nov 2023

Time To Enumerate The Slave Trade As A Distinct Provision In The Crimes Against Humanity Treaty, Patricia Viseur Sellers, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum, Alexandra Lily Kather

Online Publications

The proposed Draft articles on Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Humanity under consideration at the United Nations General Assembly’s Sixth Committee (Legal) are bereft of a distinct provision to address the international crime of the slave trade.


Intellectual Property And “The Lost Year” Of Covid-19 Deaths, Madhavi Sunder, Haochen Sun Nov 2023

Intellectual Property And “The Lost Year” Of Covid-19 Deaths, Madhavi Sunder, Haochen Sun

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Protecting intellectual property (IP) is a question of life and death. COVID-19 vaccines, partially incentivized by IP, are estimated to have saved nearly 20 million lives worldwide during the first year of their availability in 2021. However, most of the benefits of this life-saving technology went to high- and upper-middle-income countries. Despite 10 billion vaccines being produced by the end of 2021, only 4 percent of people in low-income countries were fully vaccinated. Paradoxically, IP may also be partly responsible for hundreds of thousands of lives lost in 2021, due to an insufficient supply of vaccines and inequitable access during …


Making The World Safer And Fairer In Pandemics, Lawrence O. Gostin, Kevin A. Klock, Alexandra Finch Nov 2023

Making The World Safer And Fairer In Pandemics, Lawrence O. Gostin, Kevin A. Klock, Alexandra Finch

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Global health has long been characterized by injustice, with certain populations marginalized and made vulnerable by social, economic, and health disparities within and among countries. The pandemic only amplified inequalities. In response to it, the World Health Organization and the United Nations have embarked on transformative normative and financial reforms that could reimagine pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response (PPPR). These reforms include a new strategy to sustainably finance the WHO, a UN political declaration on PPPR, a fundamental revision to the International Health Regulations, and negotiation of a new, legally binding pandemic agreement (popularly called the “Pandemic Treaty”). We revisit …


From Bait To Plate—How Forced Labor In China Taints America’S Seafood Supply Chain: Hearing Before The Cong.-Exec. Comm’N On China, 118th Cong., Oct. 24, 2023 (Statement Of Robert K. Stumberg), Robert Stumberg Oct 2023

From Bait To Plate—How Forced Labor In China Taints America’S Seafood Supply Chain: Hearing Before The Cong.-Exec. Comm’N On China, 118th Cong., Oct. 24, 2023 (Statement Of Robert K. Stumberg), Robert Stumberg

Testimony Before Congress

Two-hundred and forty—that’s the number of name-brand stores and institutional suppliers that we all depend on. Through them, we all buy seafood from importers who sell what forced laborers process in Chinese factories and vessels. We do it as families, as schools, as businesses. What is not in that number are the ways we buy forced-labor seafood as governments, mostly through five federal agencies and local school food authorities.

The Outlaw Ocean team, led by Ian Urbina, made transparency happen. They aren’t the first to reveal Xinjiang supply chains. But what distinguishes their seafood reporting is that they literally …


Marriage Equality Judgment: The Missing Case Of International Covenants, Nanditta Batra, Naveen Batra Oct 2023

Marriage Equality Judgment: The Missing Case Of International Covenants, Nanditta Batra, Naveen Batra

Popular Media

This article analyses the judgement on marriage equality delivered by a five-judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court of India on 17 October 2o23. The authors argue that, in holding that there is no fundamental right to marry under the Indian Constitution, the court has not taken into account binding international human rights treatises that categorically state the right to marry as a human right.


Twenty Years After Krieger V Law Society Of Alberta: Law Society Discipline Of Crown Prosecutors And Government Lawyers, Andrew Flavelle Martin Oct 2023

Twenty Years After Krieger V Law Society Of Alberta: Law Society Discipline Of Crown Prosecutors And Government Lawyers, Andrew Flavelle Martin

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Krieger v. Law Society of Alberta held that provincial and territorial law societies have disciplinary jurisdiction over Crown prosecutors for conduct outside of prosecutorial discretion. The reasoning in Krieger would also apply to government lawyers. The apparent consensus is that law societies rarely exercise that jurisdiction. But in those rare instances, what conduct do Canadian law societies discipline Crown prosecutors and government lawyers for? In this article, I canvass reported disciplinary decisions to demonstrate that, while law societies sometimes discipline Crown prosecutors for violations unique to those lawyers, they often do so for violations applicable to all lawyers — particularly …


Vaccine Development, The China Dilemma, And International Regulatory Challenges, Peter K. Yu Oct 2023

Vaccine Development, The China Dilemma, And International Regulatory Challenges, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

This article examines the role played by China in the development of international regulatory standards at the intersection of intellectual prop- erty, international trade, and public health. It begins by briefly discussing the role China has played in the global health arena during the COVID-19 pandemic. The article then highlights the difficulty in determining how best to engage with the country in the development of new international regula- tory standards. It shows that the preferred method of engagement will likely depend on one’s perspective on China’s potential contributions and hin- drances: a perspective that focuses on global competition—in the economic, …


Writing And Resisting Colonial Genocide, Heidi Matthews, Luann Good Gingrich, Joel Ong Sep 2023

Writing And Resisting Colonial Genocide, Heidi Matthews, Luann Good Gingrich, Joel Ong

Articles & Book Chapters

Canada has pursued policies of Indigenous assimilation and annihilation, many of which continue today. Among others, these include ‘Indian residential schools’, the Indian Act, welfare-state child removals, the Sixties Scoop, the prohibition of cultural practices, forced sterilization and environmental destruction. We are scholars co-leading a large interdisciplinary programme of research studying ‘colonial genocide’. Our research seeks to understand how historic colonialism and its contemporary manifestations rely on genocidal logic for power and profit. While we begin in Turtle Island, our work has global application. The act of naming is a powerful analytical and political tool, and ‘genocide’ is one of …


Future-Proofing U.S. Laws For War Crimes Investigations In The Digital Era, Rebecca Hamilton Jul 2023

Future-Proofing U.S. Laws For War Crimes Investigations In The Digital Era, Rebecca Hamilton

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Advances in information technology have irrevocably changed the nature of war crimes investigations. The pursuit of accountability for the most serious crimes of concern to the international community now invariably requires access to digital evidence. The global reach of platforms like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter means that much of that digital evidence is held by U.S. social media companies, and access to it is subject to the U.S. Stored Communications Act.

This is the first Article to look at the legal landscape facing international investigators seeking access to digital evidence regarding genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and aggression. It …


Benchmarks For Reducing Civilian Harm In Armed Conflict: Learning Feasible Lessons About Systemic Change, Peter Margulies Jul 2023

Benchmarks For Reducing Civilian Harm In Armed Conflict: Learning Feasible Lessons About Systemic Change, Peter Margulies

Law Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Origins Of Covid-19 — Why It Matters (And Why It Doesn’T), Lawrence O. Gostin, Gigi K. Gronvall Jun 2023

The Origins Of Covid-19 — Why It Matters (And Why It Doesn’T), Lawrence O. Gostin, Gigi K. Gronvall

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

When Health emergencies arise, scientists seek to discover the cause — such as how a pathogen emerged and spread — because this knowledge can enhance our understanding of risks and strategies for prevention, preparedness, and mitigation. Yet well into the fourth year of the Covid-19 pandemic, intense political and scientific debates about its origins continue. The two major hypotheses are a natural zoonotic spillover, most likely occurring at the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, and a laboratory leak from the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV). It is worth examining the efforts to discover the origins of SARS-CoV-2, the political obstacles, and …


Advancing Equity In The Pandemic Treaty, Lawrence O. Gostin, Kevin A. Klock, Katherine Ginsbach, Sam F. Halabi, Taylor Hall-Debnam, Janelle Lewis, Vanessa S. Perlman, Katie Robinson May 2023

Advancing Equity In The Pandemic Treaty, Lawrence O. Gostin, Kevin A. Klock, Katherine Ginsbach, Sam F. Halabi, Taylor Hall-Debnam, Janelle Lewis, Vanessa S. Perlman, Katie Robinson

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

There is a broad consensus around equity’s importance. Even countries that hoarded supplies during the acute phase of COVID-19 seem to understand that the international community must find a means to ensure fairer allocation of medical resources when the next health crisis hits. But there has been little agreement about the concrete steps needed to operationalize fairer access and benefit sharing. That is, what are the workable mechanisms that could reduce the divide between richer and poorer populations? The World Health Assembly, the governing body of the World Health Organization, has appointed an Intergovernmental Negotiating Body to develop a pandemic …


Does Electoral Proximity Influence Commitment To International Human Rights Law?, Nolan Ragland May 2023

Does Electoral Proximity Influence Commitment To International Human Rights Law?, Nolan Ragland

Baker Scholar Projects

The core international human rights treaties from the United Nations have been signed and ratified by varying groups of states, and much of previous research has been dominated by a desire to explain ratification of international human rights law (IHRL) through the democratic lock-in effect and states’ economic and political ties to one another. In this paper, I seek to understand when states are ratifying IHRL, testing whether the presence of elections influences commitment to three of the nine core international human rights treaties: the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of …


The Eagle’S Eye On The Rising Dragon: Why The United States Has Shifted Its View Of China, Jackson Craig Scott May 2023

The Eagle’S Eye On The Rising Dragon: Why The United States Has Shifted Its View Of China, Jackson Craig Scott

Baker Scholar Projects

Since 1978, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has long been viewed as an economic trading partner of the United States of America (US). The PRC has grown to be an economic powerhouse, and the US directly helped with that process and still benefits from it. However, during the mid-2010’s, US rhetoric began to turn sour against the PRC. The American government rhetoric toward the PRC, beginning with the Obama administration, switched. As Trump’s administration came along, they bolstered this rhetoric from non-friendly to more or less hostile. Then, Biden’s administration strengthened Trump’s rhetoric. Over the past ten years or …


Prosecuting Gender Persecution At The Icc: Definitions, Policies, And Practice, Milena Sterio, Yvonne Dutton May 2023

Prosecuting Gender Persecution At The Icc: Definitions, Policies, And Practice, Milena Sterio, Yvonne Dutton

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This Article's primary goal is to highlight the International Criminal Court (ICC)'s Office of the Prosecutor (OTP)'s Gender Persecution Policy, while also demonstrating its place in the trajectory of the ICC's progress in changing the course of human history as relates to the recognition of and prosecution of sexual and gender-based (SGBV) crimes. To that end, some background is necessary to contextualize the ICC's current policy and practice as relates to the crime of gender persecution. Part II discusses the Rome Statute's unique contributions to the development of international criminal law regarding SGBV crimes, including the crime of gender persecution. …


The Global Health Architecture: Governance And International Institutions To Advance Population Health Worldwide, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman, Alexandra Finch Apr 2023

The Global Health Architecture: Governance And International Institutions To Advance Population Health Worldwide, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman, Alexandra Finch

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Policy Points Global health institutions and instruments should be reformed to fully incorporate the principles of good health governance: the right to health, equity, inclusive participation, transparency, accountability, and global solidarity. New legal instruments, like International Health Regulations amendments and the pandemic treaty, should be grounded in these principles of sound governance. Equity should be embedded into the prevention of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from catastrophic health threats, within and across nations and sectors. This includes the extant model of charitable contributions for access to medical resources giving way to a new model that empowers low- and middle-income …


Integrating Doctrine & Diversity Speaker Series: The Rule Of Law In Crisis: Talking About Core Legal Values, Human Rights, And Current Events In Us Law School Classes 2023, Roger Williams University School Of Law Mar 2023

Integrating Doctrine & Diversity Speaker Series: The Rule Of Law In Crisis: Talking About Core Legal Values, Human Rights, And Current Events In Us Law School Classes 2023, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Call For Proposals 2023: The Social Practice Of Human Rights And The And The 6th International Conference On The Right To Development, University Of Dayton Mar 2023

Call For Proposals 2023: The Social Practice Of Human Rights And The And The 6th International Conference On The Right To Development, University Of Dayton

Content presented at the Social Practice of Human Rights Conference

Call for proposals: We welcome contributions that focus on the following sub-themes or any related topic:

  • Inclusive development — redistributive models; business and human rights; rights-based economies and financial institutions; global supply chains; inequalities; and Agenda 2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals.

  • Social transformation, movements, and resistance — new forms of civic and cultural engagement, education, and pedagogy; the intersection of theater, art and activism; music, performance, and visual culture; new technologies; resistance to anti-rights movements; and democratic fragility.

  • Climate change and sustainability — climate and environmental justice; ecological disaster; natural resources exploitation; building sustainable futures; corporate interests; and fiscal …


Flyer: 2023 Conference, University Of Dayton Mar 2023

Flyer: 2023 Conference, University Of Dayton

Content presented at the Social Practice of Human Rights Conference

Promotional flyer: The University of Dayton Human Rights Center, the Centre for Human Rights of the Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria, and the University of the Free State Centre for Human Rights, South Africa, jointly convene the 2023 Social Practice of Human Rights Conference and the 6th International Conference on the Right to Development, set for Nov. 2-4, 2023.

The call for proposals is now available, and submissions are open through May 8, 2023.


Transgender Erasure: Barriers Facing Transgender Refugees In Canada, Sean Rehaag, Alexandra Verman Jan 2023

Transgender Erasure: Barriers Facing Transgender Refugees In Canada, Sean Rehaag, Alexandra Verman

All Papers

This paper explores the experiences of transgender refugee claimants in Canada’s refugee status determination system, using mixed methods: quantitative analysis of data obtained from the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB), reviews of published and unpublished decisions, country condition documentation packages and IRB guidelines, as well as interviews with refugee lawyers. Using these methods, we explore how credibility arises in transgender refugee claims, noting the impact of medicalization and country conditions materials on transgender claims, and drawing parallels between medical gatekeeping and credibility assessments in refugee claims. We identify potential explanations for low recorded numbers of transgender claims as rooted in …


The Intenational Crimial Court (Icc) As A Mechanism For Global Justice And Rule Of Law, Paolo Davide Farah Jan 2023

The Intenational Crimial Court (Icc) As A Mechanism For Global Justice And Rule Of Law, Paolo Davide Farah

Book Chapters

Throughout history, institutions have been the chosen platforms for governing and regulating society. However, in the twenty-first century, with unprecedented connectivity and interdependence, working toward multilateral solutions for global challenges, whether in climate change through the UNFCCC or in trade via the World Trade Organization, has become increasingly complex. This rise in complexity within the international landscape has not been met with proportional attention to cooperation, conflict resolution, and harmonizing human values.

It is relevant to highlight the intersection between the International Criminal Court (ICC) and broader questions within international humanitarian law, (IHL) its interconnections and intertwinement with International Criminal …