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Intellectual Property Law

2020

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Articles 1 - 30 of 149

Full-Text Articles in Law

Charging Bull, Fearless Girl, Composition, And Copyright, Richard H. Chused Dec 2020

Charging Bull, Fearless Girl, Composition, And Copyright, Richard H. Chused

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


Open Access: “Information Wants To Be Free”?, Richard Poynder Dec 2020

Open Access: “Information Wants To Be Free”?, Richard Poynder

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

The main points made in this document:

- Internet mantras like information wants to be free misled OA advocates about what is possible in an online world. Amongst other things, these mantras led to the mistaken belief that publishing would be very much cheaper on the internet.

- BOAI was intended to achieve three things: to resolve the longstanding problems of affordability, accessibility, and equity that have long dogged scholarly communication.

- It now seems unlikely that the affordability and equity problems will be resolved, which will impact disproportionately negatively on those in the Global South. And if the geopolitical situation worsens,solving ...


Artificial Intelligence, The Law-Machine Interface, And Fair Use Automation, Peter K. Yu Dec 2020

Artificial Intelligence, The Law-Machine Interface, And Fair Use Automation, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

From IBM Watson's success in Jeopardy! to Google DeepMind's victories in Go, the past decade has seen artificial intelligence advancing in leaps and bounds. Such advances have captured the attention of not only computer experts and academic commentators but also policymakers, the mass media and the public at large. In recent years, legal scholars have also actively explored how artificial intelligence will impact the law. Such exploration has resulted in a fast-growing body of scholarship.

One area that has not received sufficient policy and scholarly attention concerns the law-machine interface in a hybrid environment in which both humans ...


Will China's New Anti-Suit Injunctions Shift The Balance Of Global Frand Litigation?, Jorge L. Contreras Dec 2020

Will China's New Anti-Suit Injunctions Shift The Balance Of Global Frand Litigation?, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

By issuing anti-suit injunctions (ASIs) in Conversant v. Huawei and InterDigital v. Xiaomi in late 2020, Chinese courts have signaled a new willingness to vie for jurisdictional authority in global battles over standard-essential patents and FRAND licensing. While the Supreme People’s Court in Conversant largely followed the pattern of US and UK courts that have issued ASIs in similar cases, the ruling of the Wuhan court in InterDigital is far broader in two major respects. First, its geographic scope is not limited to the country in which InterDigital sought injunctive relief (India), but extends to all jurisdictions in the ...


Legal Terms Of Use And Public Genealogy Websites, Jorge L. Contreras, Kyle Schultz, Craig Teerlink, Tim Maness, Laurence Meyer, Lisa Cannon-Albright Dec 2020

Legal Terms Of Use And Public Genealogy Websites, Jorge L. Contreras, Kyle Schultz, Craig Teerlink, Tim Maness, Laurence Meyer, Lisa Cannon-Albright

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

Public genealogy websites, to which individuals upload family history, genealogy, and sometimes individual genetic data, have been used in an increasing number of public health, epidemiological, and genetic studies. Yet there is little awareness among researchers of the legal rules that govern the use of these online resources. We analyzed the online Terms of Use (TOU) applicable to 17 popular genealogy websites and found that none of them expressly permit scientific research, while at least 13 contain restrictions that may limit or prohibit scientific research using data obtained from those sites. In order to ensure that researchers who use genealogy ...


Pledging Intellectual Property For Covid-19, Jorge L. Contreras Dec 2020

Pledging Intellectual Property For Covid-19, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

COVID-19 differs from other recent public health crises with respect to its sudden onset, its rapid spread, the lack of any known vaccine or cure and resulting shortages of critical medical equipment. The convergence of these factors has prompted both governments and IPR holders around the world to seek ways to increase the availability of IPR necessary to combat the pandemic. Governmental compulsory licensing, IPR pools and voluntary IPR pledges have all been used in the past, though in situations that differ in important respects from the COVID-19 pandemic. Each is designed to result, to a greater or lesser degree ...


Financial Terms In License Agreements, Jorge L. Contreras Dec 2020

Financial Terms In License Agreements, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

This chapter in the forthcoming casebook Intellectual Property Licensing and Transactions: Theory and Practice (2020, forthcoming), discusses the financial terms of IP licensing agreements including fixed payments, running royalties, sublicensing income, milestone payments, equity compensation and cost reimbursement, as well as most-favored and audit clauses. Numerous areas of recent controversy are addressed including the establishment of royalty rates through the entire market value rule (EMVR) versus the smallest salable patent practicing unit (SSPPU) rule, royalties for bundled rights, rules of thumb discredited by the courts, royalty escalation clauses and more. Examples are drawn primarily from biotechnology, high-tech and copyright licensing ...


No License, No Problem – Is Qualcomm’S Ninth Circuit Antitrust Victory A Patent Exhaustion Defeat?, Jorge L. Contreras, Jorge L. Contreras Dec 2020

No License, No Problem – Is Qualcomm’S Ninth Circuit Antitrust Victory A Patent Exhaustion Defeat?, Jorge L. Contreras, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

The Ninth Circuit’s recent decision in FTC v. Qualcomm (9th Cir., Aug. 11, 2020) is generally viewed as a resounding victory for Qualcomm. But in praising Qualcomm’s egalitarian approach toward rival chip makers, the Ninth Circuit points out that instead of granting licenses to these rivals, Qualcomm merely “declines to enforce its patents” against them “even though they practice Qualcomm’s patents”. As such, the Ninth Circuit states that Qualcomm’s “policy toward rival chipmakers could be characterized as ‘no license, no problem’”. Yet, from the standpoint of patent exhaustion, this approach could actually be a very big ...


First Sale And Exhaustion, Jorge L. Contreras Dec 2020

First Sale And Exhaustion, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

This chapter in the forthcoming case book "Intellectual Property Licensing and Transactions: Theory and Practice" addresses issues of first sale and exhaustion for licensing transactions involving patents, copyrights and trademarks. Among the issues considered are licensing versus sale of software, patent exhaustion, post-sale restrictions, international exhaustion and gray market imports.


Antitrust And Competition Issues, Jorge L. Contreras Dec 2020

Antitrust And Competition Issues, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

This Chapter offers a broad overview of the impact of U.S. antitrust laws on IP licensing and transactions. A basic understanding of antitrust law is critical to the analysis of IP licensing arrangements, whether concerning patents, copyrights or trademarks. This chapter offers a summary of the antitrust doctrines that arise frequently in IP and technology-focused transactions — price fixing and market allocation, resale price maintenance, tying, monopolization, refusals to deal, standard setting and pay-for-delay settlements, with coverage of the major cases and enforcement agency guidance. Antitrust issues also play a role in the analysis of joint ventures, which are discussed ...


U.S. Federal Genomic Data Release And Access Policies, Jorge L. Contreras Dec 2020

U.S. Federal Genomic Data Release And Access Policies, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

Researchers today have access to a vast aggregation of human and nonhuman genomic data, largely on an open access basis. According to the Joint Genome Institute’s Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD), data from more than 40,000 sequencing projects around the world, representing more than 375,000 different organisms, were publicly available to researchers as of July 2020. The availability of this tremendous public resource is due, in large part, to the data release policies developed a quarter century ago, toward the beginning of the Human Genome Project (HGP), which have been carried forward, in modified form, to the present ...


Economic Analyses Of Federal Scientific Collections: Methods For Documenting Costs And Benefits, David E. Schindel, Economic Study Group Of The Interagency Working Group On Scientific Collections Nov 2020

Economic Analyses Of Federal Scientific Collections: Methods For Documenting Costs And Benefits, David E. Schindel, Economic Study Group Of The Interagency Working Group On Scientific Collections

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Federal object-based scientific collections have been created to serve agency missions and, in a few cases, to comply with legislative and regulatory mandates. “Project collections” (those managed by the researchers who obtained them for restricted use) and their costs and benefits were considered too varied for standard methodologies that assess costs and benefits. In a few cases, departments and agencies are required by legislation or regulations to retain objects in long-term “institutional collections.” In most cases, decisions to retain objects are based on long-term costs relative to the perceived potential for benefits to taxpayers. Federal collections vary in their philosophies ...


Antitrust And Platform Monopoly, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Nov 2020

Antitrust And Platform Monopoly, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Are large digital platforms that deal directly with consumers “winner take all,” or natural monopoly, firms? That question is surprisingly complex and does not produce the same answer for every platform. The closer one looks at digital platforms the less they seem to be winner-take-all. As a result, competition can be made to work in most of them. Further, antitrust enforcement, with its accommodation of firm variety, is generally superior to any form of statutory regulation that generalizes over large numbers.

Assuming that an antitrust violation is found, what should be the remedy? Breaking up large firms subject to extensive ...


Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Nov 2020

Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Blogs

The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement (AfCFTA) will add a new dispute settlement system to the plethora of judicial mechanisms designed to resolve trade disputes in Africa. Against the discontent of Member States and limited impact the existing highly legalized trade dispute settlement mechanisms have had on regional economic integration in Africa, this paper undertakes a preliminary assessment of the AfCFTA Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM). In particular, the paper situates the AfCFTA-DSM in the overall discontent and unsupportive practices of African States with highly legalized dispute settlement systems and similar WTO-Styled DSMs among other shortcomings. Notwithstanding the transplantation of ...


"Fair Use" Through Fundamental Rights In Europe: When Freedom Of Artistic Expression Allows Creative Appropriations And Opens Up Statutory Copyright Limitations, Christophe Geiger Nov 2020

"Fair Use" Through Fundamental Rights In Europe: When Freedom Of Artistic Expression Allows Creative Appropriations And Opens Up Statutory Copyright Limitations, Christophe Geiger

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

This chapter discusses the evolution in jurisprudential understanding of the relationship between copyright and freedom of artistic expression in the European Union. It demonstrates how courts in France and several other EU member states have accepted a “fair use” approach that applies fundamental rights as external limitations to copyright law, in compliance with the case law of the European Court of Human Rights but contrasting with the recent conflicting position of the Court of Justice of the European Union. The chapter first analyses the application of freedom of artistic expression to copyright law on a case-by-case basis and shows that ...


Competitive Harm From Vertical Mergers, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Oct 2020

Competitive Harm From Vertical Mergers, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The antitrust enforcement Agencies' 2020 Vertical Merger Guidelines introduce a nontechnical application of bargaining theory into the assessment of competitive effects from vertical acquisitions. The economics of such bargaining is complex and can produce skepticism among judges, who might regard its mathematics as overly technical, its game theory as excessively theoretical or speculative, or its assumptions as unrealistic.

However, we have been there before. The introduction of concentration indexes, particularly the HHI, in the Merger Guidelines was initially met with skepticism but gradually they were accepted as judges became more comfortable with them. The same thing very largely happened again ...


Copyright, Andrea Wallace Oct 2020

Copyright, Andrea Wallace

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Copyright is intended to incentivize the production of new creative works and protect authors’ connection to them. In return, the author receives exclusive rights over the creative work and can commercialize or release them for various uses. Once the copyright expires, these works pass into the public domain and can be used by anyone to produce new creative works and knowledge.

GLAMs (Galleries, Archives, Libraries, and Museums) protect, preserve, and extend access to these works (and many other materials) for the appreciation of current and future generations. This is often facilitated today by digitizing collections and making them available online ...


Equitable Defenses In Patent Law, Christa J. Laser Oct 2020

Equitable Defenses In Patent Law, Christa J. Laser

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In patent law, “unenforceability” can have immense consequences. At least five equitable doctrines make up the defense of “unenforceability” as it was codified into the Patent Act in 1952: laches; estoppel; unclean hands; patent misuse; and according to some, inequitable conduct. Yet in the seventy years since incorporation of equitable defenses into the patent statute, the Supreme Court has not clarified their reach. Indeed, twice in the last four years, the Supreme Court avoided giving complete guidance on the crucial questions of whether, and when, such equitable defenses are available to bar damages in cases brought at law.

Several interpretive ...


Intellectual Property Pools And Aggregation, Jorge L. Contreras Oct 2020

Intellectual Property Pools And Aggregation, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

This chapter in the forthcoming case book "Intellectual Property Licensing and Transactions: Theory and Practice" covers IP pooling, with an emphasis on patents. It begins with a discussion of the theoretical benefit of pooling, including efficiency gains and the avoidance of blocking positions, thickets and anti-commons. It then addresses antitrust analysis of pooling transactions from Standard Oil (Indiana) v. United States (U.S. 1931) through the 2017 DOJ-FTC Antitrust Guidelines. The chapter then turns to pools created to facilitate standard-setting, including the MPEG-2 and 3GPP Pools, and discusses the concept of complementarity and essentiality of pooled assets. It concludes with ...


"An Hundred Stories In Ten Days": Covid-19 Lessons For Culture, Learning And Copyright Law, Carys J. Craig, Bob Tarantino Oct 2020

"An Hundred Stories In Ten Days": Covid-19 Lessons For Culture, Learning And Copyright Law, Carys J. Craig, Bob Tarantino

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

In the face of a pandemic, copyright law may seem a frivolous concern; but its importance lies in the ever-expanding role that it plays in either enabling or constraining the kinds of communicative activities that are critical to a flourishing life. In this article, we reflect on how the cultural and educative practices that have burgeoned under quarantine conditions shed new light on a longstanding problem: the need to recalibrate the copyright system to better serve its purposes in the face of changing social and technological circumstances. We begin by discussing how copyright restrictions have manifested in a variety of ...


Good Faith In Canadian Trademark Applications, David Vaver Oct 2020

Good Faith In Canadian Trademark Applications, David Vaver

Articles & Book Chapters

On June 17, 2019, a new ground of trademark invalidation and opposition took effect in Canada: that “an application [for registration] was filed in bad faith.” This cryptic provision was enacted in 2018 to modify the package of 2014 amendments to the Trademarks Act that, when proclaimed into effect in 2019, radically changed Canada’s trademark system by allowing for the first time the registration of trademarks without evidence of use.

This Comment explores why the bar on bad faith applications was enacted and how it may work in practice.


The State Of Altmetrics: A Tenth Anniversary Celebration, Kathy Christian, Euan Adie, Gemma Derrick, Fereshteh Didegah, Paul Groth, Cameron Neylon, Jason Priem, Shenmeng Xu, Zohreh Zahedi, Yin-Leng Theng, Saeed-Ul Hassan, Naif R. Aljohani, Timothy D. Bowen, Vanesh M. Patel, Robin Haunschild, Lutz Bornmann, Mike Taylor, Liesa Ross, Stacy Konkiel Oct 2020

The State Of Altmetrics: A Tenth Anniversary Celebration, Kathy Christian, Euan Adie, Gemma Derrick, Fereshteh Didegah, Paul Groth, Cameron Neylon, Jason Priem, Shenmeng Xu, Zohreh Zahedi, Yin-Leng Theng, Saeed-Ul Hassan, Naif R. Aljohani, Timothy D. Bowen, Vanesh M. Patel, Robin Haunschild, Lutz Bornmann, Mike Taylor, Liesa Ross, Stacy Konkiel

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Altmetric’s mission is to help others understand the influence of research online.We collate what people are saying about published research in sources such as the mainstream media, policy documents, social networks, blogs, and other scholarly and non-scholarly forums to provide a more robust picture of the influence and reach of scholarly work. Altmetric works with some of the biggest publishers, funders, businesses and institutions around the world to deliver this data in an accessible and reliable format.

Contents

Altmetrics, Ten Years Later, Euan Adie (Altmetric (founder) & Overton)

Reflections on Altmetrics, Gemma Derrick (University of Lancaster), Fereshteh Didegah (Karolinska ...


The Domestic Effect Of South Africa's Treaty Obligations: The Right To Education And The Copyright Amendment Bill, Sanya Samtani Oct 2020

The Domestic Effect Of South Africa's Treaty Obligations: The Right To Education And The Copyright Amendment Bill, Sanya Samtani

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

On 16 June 2020, the President of South Africa returned the Copyright Amendment Bill [B-13 of 2017] to Parliament, expressing reservations regarding its constitutionality and compliance with international law. In this paper, I describe the constitutional implications of compliance with international law and the binding international obligations incumbent upon South Africa in respect of copyright and international human rights law. In doing so, I argue that the Bill of Rights acts as a magnet, compelling all organs of state to give greater normative weight to those international obligations that map onto the Bill of Rights as compared to those that ...


District Court: Final Order (2020), Orinda Evans Sep 2020

District Court: Final Order (2020), Orinda Evans

Georgia State University Copyright Lawsuit

No abstract provided.


Covert Deception, Strategic Fraud, And The Rule Of Prohibited Intervention (Originally Published As Part Of The Hoover Institution’S Aegis Series), Gary Corn Sep 2020

Covert Deception, Strategic Fraud, And The Rule Of Prohibited Intervention (Originally Published As Part Of The Hoover Institution’S Aegis Series), Gary Corn

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Preserving An Independent Judiciary In Turbulent Times, Kathleen M. O'Malley Sep 2020

Preserving An Independent Judiciary In Turbulent Times, Kathleen M. O'Malley

Stanley H. Mervis Lecture

No abstract provided.


The Meaning Of Mcdonald's [(R)], Laura A. Heymann Sep 2020

The Meaning Of Mcdonald's [(R)], Laura A. Heymann

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Open Is Not Forever: A Study Of Vanished Open Access Journals, Mikael Laakso, Lisa Matthias, Najko Jahn Sep 2020

Open Is Not Forever: A Study Of Vanished Open Access Journals, Mikael Laakso, Lisa Matthias, Najko Jahn

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

The preservation of the scholarly record has been a point of concern since the beginning of knowledge production. With print publications, the responsibility rested primarily with librarians, but the shift towards digital publishing and, in particular, the introduction of open access (OA) have caused ambiguity and complexity. Consequently, the long-term accessibility of journals is not always guaranteed, and they can even disappear from the web completely. The purpose of this exploratory study is to systematically study the phenomenon of vanished journals, something that has not been done before. For the analysis, we consulted several major bibliographic indexes, such as Scopus ...


The Ip Law Book Review, V.10 #1, William T. Gallagher, Samuel F. Ernst Sep 2020

The Ip Law Book Review, V.10 #1, William T. Gallagher, Samuel F. Ernst

Intellectual Property Law

LANDMARK CASES IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW, edited by Jose Bellido. Reviewed by Maurizio Borghi, Centre for Intellectual Property Policy & Management (CIPPM), Bournemouth University.

UNITED STATES V. APPLE: COMPETITION IN AMERICA by Chris Sagers. Reviewed by Shubha Ghosh, Syracuse University College of Law. A response is given by Professor Sagers following the review.

PATENT REMEDIES AND COMPLEX PRODUCTS: TOWARD A GLOBAL CONSENSUS, edited by C. Bradford Biddle, Jorge. L. Contreras, Brian J. Love, and Norman V. Siebrasse. Reviewed by Bernard Chao, University of Denver Sturm College of Law.


Knowledge Based View Of University Tech Transfer—A Systematic Literature Review And Meta-Analysis, Clovia Hamilton, Philbin P. Simon Sep 2020

Knowledge Based View Of University Tech Transfer—A Systematic Literature Review And Meta-Analysis, Clovia Hamilton, Philbin P. Simon

Technology & Society Faculty Publications

Research and technology commercialization at research-intensive universities has helped to develop provincial economies resulting in university startups, the growth of other new companies and associated employment. University technology transfer offices (TTOs) oversee the process of technology transfer into the commercial marketplace and these organizational units can be considered in the context of enabling effective knowledge management. However, what enables productive TTO performance has not been comprehensively researched. Therefore, this research study adopted the knowledge-based view as the theoretical construct to support a comprehensive investigation into this area. This was achieved through employing a systematic literature review (SLR) combined with a ...