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Full-Text Articles in Law

How A “Superstar” Ceo Exposes The Necessity For Third Party D&O Insurance, Angela N. Aneiros, Karen Woody Jan 2024

How A “Superstar” Ceo Exposes The Necessity For Third Party D&O Insurance, Angela N. Aneiros, Karen Woody

Scholarly Articles

he influence that “superstar” CEOs have over a company’s board of directors can be alarming. Among other things, Elon’s ability to skirt personal liability for seemingly obvious breaches of duty has raised concerns within the realm of corporate governance and corporate regulation. While much has been written on Elon’s influence on Tesla’s board of directors, one area of the law that often gets overlooked that has exacerbated Elon’s corporate governance issues, is that of directors and officers (D&O) liability insurance. While personally insuring board members seems like a very "Elon" move, it could have broader implications beyond Elon. Are “superstar” …


Integrating Doctrine And Diversity Speaker Series: How Does Diversity, Equity, Inclusion And Belonging Pedagogy Fit In Business Issues And Financial Affairs Classes? Leading With Deib In Wills, Trusts, Estates, Insurance, Contracts, And Taxation Law Classes, Roger Williams University School Of Law Oct 2023

Integrating Doctrine And Diversity Speaker Series: How Does Diversity, Equity, Inclusion And Belonging Pedagogy Fit In Business Issues And Financial Affairs Classes? Leading With Deib In Wills, Trusts, Estates, Insurance, Contracts, And Taxation Law Classes, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Where's The Insurance In Mass Tort Litigation?, Tom Baker Jul 2023

Where's The Insurance In Mass Tort Litigation?, Tom Baker

Articles

This article reports and explains four key findings about the difference between the role of insurance in mass tort litigation and the role of insurance in ordinary tort and corporate governance litigation as reported in earlier research: (1) outside of the insolvency context, mass tort plaintiff lawyers do not build their litigation and settlement strategy around defendants’ liability insurance; (2) mass tort defendants typically retain control over their defense, even when they recover under insurance policies that assign the insurer control over their defense; (3) mass tort defendants typically use their own funds to settle claims, obtaining indemnification from their …


Modelling Climate Litigation Risk For (Re)Insurers, Martin Lockman Jul 2023

Modelling Climate Litigation Risk For (Re)Insurers, Martin Lockman

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

In response to the growing threat of climate change, the insurance industry has made significant investments in modelling and quantifying physical climate risks. However, the emerging risk of climate litigation has proven particularly difficult to model. In 2015 Mark Carney, then-Governor of the Bank of England and Chairman of the Financial Stability Board, warned that climate litigation poses “long-tail risks” for insurers that may be “significant, uncertain and non-linear.” Since that warning, the number of climate-related cases has more than doubled, and the scope and financial significance of climate litigation has become increasingly clear. However, insurers and regulators still struggle …


Pro-Choice Plans, Brendan S. Maher May 2023

Pro-Choice Plans, Brendan S. Maher

Faculty Scholarship

After Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, the United States Constitution may no longer protect abortion, but a surprising federal statute does. That statute is called the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”), and it has long been one of the most powerful preemptive statutes in the entire United States Code. ERISA regulates “employee benefit plans,” which are the vehicle by which approximately 155 million people receive their health insurance. Plans are thus a major private payer for health benefits—and therefore abortions. While many post-Dobbs anti-abortion laws directly bar abortion by making either the receipt or provision of …


A Rising Tide: An Argument For Requiring Municipal Liability Insurance For Public Utility Services In Arkansas, Christopher Brown Apr 2023

A Rising Tide: An Argument For Requiring Municipal Liability Insurance For Public Utility Services In Arkansas, Christopher Brown

Arkansas Law Notes

Municipalities can contribute to sanitary sewer overflows through negligent maintenance, poor design, intrusion on sewer lines, and failure to replace aging sewer systems.Throughout the United States, an aging wastewater system is currently failing and is expected to degrade further, which contributes to sewage backups into residences. Arkansas is one of two states in the United States that prevents a resident from recovering damages from an overflow due to the negligent design or maintenance of sewage utilities by a municipality via statute. This Comment argues for a “middle ground” solution, whereby Arkansas municipalities should be required to obtain liability insurance sufficient …


A Response To Rules Of Medical Necessity, Brendan S. Maher Mar 2023

A Response To Rules Of Medical Necessity, Brendan S. Maher

Faculty Scholarship

Professors Monahan and Schwarcz’s recent Article in the Iowa Law Review, Rules of Medical Necessity, is a must-read for multiple audiences. In this short Response, I informally describe health insurance, and—using that perspective—describe and comment on why Rules of Medical Necessity is a piece of work that not only deserves attention from experts in the field, but is also one that casual readers should choose first when attempting to understand how health insurance works in theory and practice.


Mitigating Catastrophe Risk For Landowners, Stewart E. Sterk Feb 2023

Mitigating Catastrophe Risk For Landowners, Stewart E. Sterk

Articles

Local, national, and global catastrophes entail significant risk for landowners. The government-sponsored National Flood Insurance Program illustrates how subsidizing insurance against catastrophe risk can result in overinvestment in risk-prone properties. Government intervention, however, has largely been a response to the historical failure of the private insurance industry to provide adequate protection against correlated risks, a failure with the potential to generate underinvestment in land and devastate existing owners.

When data is available about the incidence and severity of potential disasters, improvements in technology have made it more feasible for insurers to calibrate premiums and discounts with greater accuracy, and sophisticated …


Caremark'S Butterfly Effect, Angela N. Aneiros, Karen E. Woody Jan 2023

Caremark'S Butterfly Effect, Angela N. Aneiros, Karen E. Woody

Scholarly Articles

In 1996, the Delaware Court of Chancery detailed the minimum standard for corporate boards of directors (“board”) with regard to corporate compliance programs and monitoring protocols. The landmark Caremark decision held that directors would not face liability for a breach of fiduciary duties unless they failed to implement a system of controls and compliance, or knowingly failed to monitor that system. In order to bring a successful Caremark claim, plaintiffs must prove that the board operated in bad faith by failing to exercise oversight in a sustained or systemic way. The Delaware Court of Chancery opinion noted that the theory …


On Beauty, Scholarship, And Function: The Lessons From, And Importance Of, Legal History In The Development Of The Law Of Marine Insurance: [Review Of] Marine Insurance: A Legal History By Rob Merkin, Andrew B.L. Phang Jan 2023

On Beauty, Scholarship, And Function: The Lessons From, And Importance Of, Legal History In The Development Of The Law Of Marine Insurance: [Review Of] Marine Insurance: A Legal History By Rob Merkin, Andrew B.L. Phang

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

A few words of explanation at the outset are perhaps necessary – if nothing else than to explain the apparently cryptic title of this review essay. What in fact began as a somewhat straightforward review of a book on the history of marine insurance took a wholly unexpected turn and morphed into a general essay on the beauty, scholarship and function of legal history as viewed through the lenses of marine insurance. Indeed, in addition to being a magisterial two-volume history of the law of marine insurance, the present work demonstrates – in the most vividly possible way – at …


Changemakers: Master Of Studies In Law: 'Something New And Different...': Monique Kuester, Roger Williams University School Of Law Jan 2023

Changemakers: Master Of Studies In Law: 'Something New And Different...': Monique Kuester, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


The Case For Pausing Any Immediate Embrace Of The Social Inflation Argument For Legal System Reforms, Kenneth S. Klein Jan 2023

The Case For Pausing Any Immediate Embrace Of The Social Inflation Argument For Legal System Reforms, Kenneth S. Klein

Faculty Scholarship

This paper brings a critical eye to the current conversation about "social inflation," reaching the conclusion that the current calls for legal system reform--whether that be controls on attorney advertising, clamping down on litigation financing, revisiting of fee recovery rules, or other similar reform proposals--currently lack the empirical support and analytical comprehensiveness for. regulators and legislators to act with confidence that the requested reforms will do more good than harm. In a variety of States, insurance premiums are rising faster than general inflation, some insurers are becoming insolvent, and some insurers are leaving markets entirely. Insurers are pointing to social …


Insurance And Enterprise: Cyber Insurance For Ransomware, Tom Baker, Anja Shortland Dec 2022

Insurance And Enterprise: Cyber Insurance For Ransomware, Tom Baker, Anja Shortland

All Faculty Scholarship

Selling insurance gives insurers an incentive to manage insured risks. The “insurance as governance” literature demonstrates that insurers often make insurance conditional on ex ante risk reduction or mitigation. But insurance governs in support of enterprise, not security for its own sake. Tight underwriting inhibits enterprise – not only for insured businesses but also the business of insurance. This paper highlights ex post loss reduction as a form of insurance-based governance. Drawing on interviews with industry insiders, we explore how insurers addressed the evolving problems of moral hazard, uncertainty, and correlated losses since the 1990s. We find that cyber insurance …


Due Process Alignment In Mass Restructurings, Sergio J. Campos, Samir D. Parikh Nov 2022

Due Process Alignment In Mass Restructurings, Sergio J. Campos, Samir D. Parikh

Articles

Mass tort defendants have recently begun exiting multidistrict litigation by filing for bankruptcy. This new strategy ushers defendants into a far more hospitable forum that offers accelerated resolution of all state and federal claims held by both current and future victims.

Bankruptcy's structural, procedural, and substantive benefits also provide defendants with unique optionality. Bankruptcy's resolution promise is alluring, but the process relies on a very large assumption: that future victims can be compelled to relinquish property rights in their cause of action against the corporate defendant and others without consent or notice. Bankruptcy builds an entire resolution structure on the …


The Law And Politics Of Ransomware, Asaf Lubin Oct 2022

The Law And Politics Of Ransomware, Asaf Lubin

Articles by Maurer Faculty

What do Lady Gaga, the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, the city of Valdez in Alaska, and the court system of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul all have in common? They have all been victims of ransomware attacks, which are growing both in number and severity. In 2016, hackers perpetrated roughly four thousand ransomware attacks a day worldwide, a figure which was already alarming. By 2020, however, ransomware attacks reached a staggering number, between 20,000 and 30,000 per day in the United States alone. That is a ransomware attack every eleven seconds, each of which cost victims …


Jotwell's Thirteenth Birthday Celebration, A. Michael Froomkin Oct 2022

Jotwell's Thirteenth Birthday Celebration, A. Michael Froomkin

Articles

No abstract provided.


How A Pandemic Plus Recession Foretell The Post-Job Based Horizon Of Health Insurance, Allison K. Hoffman Jun 2022

How A Pandemic Plus Recession Foretell The Post-Job Based Horizon Of Health Insurance, Allison K. Hoffman

All Faculty Scholarship

For many years, the health insurance that people received through their jobs was considered the gold standard, so much so that it came to be called “Cadillac coverage.” Just as Cadillac has lost its sheen, so has job-based health insurance coverage in many cases. This decline predated the COVID-19 pandemic, yet it has been, and will continue to be, hastened by it. The changes to job-based coverage have prompted people to ask: what’s next? This Article suggests that the lessons from the pandemic could offer an opportunity fundamentally to rethink the way to pay for healthcare in the United States, …


The Case For Banning (And Mandating) Ransomware Insurance, Kyle D. Logue, Adam B. Shniderman Jun 2022

The Case For Banning (And Mandating) Ransomware Insurance, Kyle D. Logue, Adam B. Shniderman

Articles

Ransomware attacks are becoming increasingly pervasive and disruptive, resulting in ransom demands becoming more exorbitant. Payments for ransom costs are increasingly being covered by insurance, which may offer coverage for a variety of cyber-related losses. Some commentators have expressed concern over this market phenomenon. Specifically, the concern is that the presence of insurance is making the ransomware problem worse based on the following theory: because there is ransomware insurance that covers ransom payments, and because paying the ransom is often far cheaper than paying the restoration and business interruption costs covered under the policy, there is an increased tendency to …


Ai Insurance: How Liability Insurance Can Drive The Responsible Adoption Of Artificial Intelligence In Health Care, Ariel Dora Stern, Avi Goldfarb, Timo Minssen, W. Nicholson Price Ii Apr 2022

Ai Insurance: How Liability Insurance Can Drive The Responsible Adoption Of Artificial Intelligence In Health Care, Ariel Dora Stern, Avi Goldfarb, Timo Minssen, W. Nicholson Price Ii

Articles

Despite enthusiasm about the potential to apply artificial intelligence (AI) to medicine and health care delivery, adoption remains tepid, even for the most compelling technologies. In this article, the authors focus on one set of challenges to AI adoption: those related to liability. Well-designed AI liability insurance can mitigate predictable liability risks and uncertainties in a way that is aligned with the interests of health care’s main stakeholders, including patients, physicians, and health care organization leadership. A market for AI insurance will encourage the use of high-quality AI, because insurers will be most keen to underwrite those products that are …


Autonomous Vehicle Regulation & Trust: The Impact Of Failures To Comply With Standards, William H. Widen, Phillip Koopman Apr 2022

Autonomous Vehicle Regulation & Trust: The Impact Of Failures To Comply With Standards, William H. Widen, Phillip Koopman

Articles

The autonomous vehicle (AV) industry works very hard to create public trust in both AV technology and its developers. Building trust is part of a strategy to permit the industry itself to manage the testing and deployment of AV technology without regulatory interference. This article explains how industry actions to promote trust (both individually and collectively) have created concerns rather than comfort with this emerging technology. The article suggests how the industry might change its current approach to law and regulation from an adversarial posture to a more cooperative one in which a space is created for government regulation consistent …


The Deep Architecture Of American Covid-19 Tort Reform 2020-21, Anthony J. Sebok Apr 2022

The Deep Architecture Of American Covid-19 Tort Reform 2020-21, Anthony J. Sebok

Articles

The rapid emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic produced massive state actions to protect in public health through the exercise of the police powers by local, state and national governments. In the United States there were calls early in the crisis to exercise the state’s power over tort law: As early as April 2020, the American Tort Reform Association published a White Paper, Responding to the Coming Lawsuit Surge that called for “reasonable constraints on . . . lawsuits that pose an obstacle to the coronavirus response effort, place businesses in jeopardy, and further damage the economy.”

This article, prepared for …


What History Can Tell Us About The Future Of Insurance And Litigation After Covid-19, Kenneth S. Abraham, Tom Baker Apr 2022

What History Can Tell Us About The Future Of Insurance And Litigation After Covid-19, Kenneth S. Abraham, Tom Baker

All Faculty Scholarship

This Article, written for the annual Clifford Symposium on Tort Law and Social Policy, chronicles a series of developments in American history that profoundly influenced the course of insurance and insurance law, in order to predict the post-COVID-19 future of these fields. In each instance, there was a direct and decided cause-and-effect relationship between these developments and subsequent change in the world of insurance and insurance law. As important as the influence of COVID-19 is at present and probably will be in the future, in our view the COVID-19 pandemic will not be as significant an influence on insurance and …


Nonparty Interests In Contract Law, Omri Ben-Shahar, David A. Hoffman, Cathy Hwang Feb 2022

Nonparty Interests In Contract Law, Omri Ben-Shahar, David A. Hoffman, Cathy Hwang

All Faculty Scholarship

Contract law has one overarching goal: to advance the legitimate interests of the contracting parties. For the most part, scholars, judges, and parties embrace this party primacy norm, recognizing only a few exceptions, such as mandatory rules that bar enforcement of agreements that harm others. This Article describes a distinct species of previously unnoticed contract law rules that advance nonparty interests, which it calls “nonparty defaults."

In doing so, this Article makes three contributions to the contract law literature. First, it identifies nonparty defaults as a judicial technique. It shows how courts deviate from the party primary norm with surprising …


It’S About Lyme: Why Congress Must Enact Medical Insurance Coverage Laws For Lyme Disease Patients Now, Jennifer Barrett Jan 2022

It’S About Lyme: Why Congress Must Enact Medical Insurance Coverage Laws For Lyme Disease Patients Now, Jennifer Barrett

Seattle University Law Review SUpra

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates approximately 476,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease in the United States each year. While many will recover with a short course of antibiotics, up to 35% will suffer from persistent symptoms after initial treatment. Despite scientific evidence showing the infection can persist long after initial treatment, most insurance companies restrict access to treatment beyond twenty-eight days, leaving patients to bear much of the financial burden. To limit crippling out-of-pocket expenses, Congress must enact legislation mandating coverage for the treatment of clinically diagnosed Lyme disease and co-infections based on the International …


Racial Discrimination In Life Insurance, William G. Gale, Kyle D. Logue, Nora Cahill, Rachel Gu, Swati Joshi Jan 2022

Racial Discrimination In Life Insurance, William G. Gale, Kyle D. Logue, Nora Cahill, Rachel Gu, Swati Joshi

Law & Economics Working Papers

We examine the historical and statistical relationship between race and life insurance. Life insurance can play a central role in households’ financial security. Race has played an important and changing role in the provision of life insurance in the U.S. from slave insurance before the Civil War, to “Scientific Racism” continuing into the 20th century, to policies that do not explicitly mention race in recent decades. In empirical work using new data, we confirm earlier work showing that Black individuals have higher life insurance coverage rates than white individuals, controlling for observable characteristics. We find no difference in the likelihood …


Third Party Moral Hazard And The Problem Of Insurance Externalities, Gideon Parchomovsky, Peter Siegelman Jan 2022

Third Party Moral Hazard And The Problem Of Insurance Externalities, Gideon Parchomovsky, Peter Siegelman

All Faculty Scholarship

Insurance can lead to loss or claim-creation not just by insureds themselves, but also by uninsured third parties. These externalities—which we term “third party moral hazard”—arise because insurance creates opportunities both to extract rents and to recover for otherwise unrecoverable losses. Using examples from health, automobile, kidnap, and liability insurance, we demonstrate that the phenomenon is widespread and important, and that the downsides of insurance are greater than previously believed. We explain the economic, social and psychological reasons for this phenomenon, and propose policy responses. Contract-based methods that are traditionally used to control first-party moral hazard can be welfare-reducing in …


A Deeper Dive Into Nautilus: Differentiating Insurer Efforts To Recover Defense Costs And Assessing Recoupment In The Wake Of The Ali Restatement, Jeffrey W. Stempel Jan 2022

A Deeper Dive Into Nautilus: Differentiating Insurer Efforts To Recover Defense Costs And Assessing Recoupment In The Wake Of The Ali Restatement, Jeffrey W. Stempel

Scholarly Works

Insurers and Policyholder have for decades contested whether the typical general liability policy requires policyholders to reimburse insurers for defense costs where a claim is ultimately held not to be one for which a defense is required. Although a slight majority of decisions favors insurers, the recent trend has favored policyholders, as reflected in §21 of the American Law Institute Restatement of the Law, Liability Insurance (“RLLI”), one of several contested portions of the RLLI. In Nautilus Insurance v. Access Medical, the Nevada Supreme Court provided the most extensive post-RLLI analysis of the dispute, ruling in favor of the …


The Color Of Property And Auto Insurance: Time For Change, Jennifer B. Wriggins Jan 2022

The Color Of Property And Auto Insurance: Time For Change, Jennifer B. Wriggins

Faculty Publications

Insurance company executives issued statements condemning racism and urging change throughout society and in the insurance industry after the huge Black Lives Matter demonstrations in summer 2020. The time therefore is ripe for examining insurance as it relates to race and racism, including history and current regulation. Two of the most important types of personal insurance are property and automobile. Part I begins with history, focusing on property insurance, auto insurance, race, and racism in urban areas around the mid-twentieth century. Private insurers deemed large areas of cities where African Americans lived to be “blighted” and refused to insure all …


Third-Party Moral Hazard And The Problem Of Insurance Externalities, Peter Siegelman, Gideon Parchomovsky Jan 2022

Third-Party Moral Hazard And The Problem Of Insurance Externalities, Peter Siegelman, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Articles and Papers

Insurance can lead to loss or claim creation not only by insureds but also by uninsured third parties. These externalities-which we call third-party moral hazard-arise because insurance creates opportunities both to extract rents and to recover otherwise unrecoverable losses. Using examples from health, automobile, kidnap, and liability insurance, we demonstrate that the phenomenon is widespread and important and that the downsides of insurance are greater than previously believed. We explain the economic, social, and psychological reasons for this phenomenon and propose policy responses. Contract-based methods that are traditionally used to control first-party moral hazard can be welfare reducing in the …


Federal Courts’ Recalcitrance In Refusing To Certify State Law Covid-19 Business Interruption Insurance Issues, Christopher French Jan 2022

Federal Courts’ Recalcitrance In Refusing To Certify State Law Covid-19 Business Interruption Insurance Issues, Christopher French

Journal Articles

Over 2,000 COVID-19 business interruption insurance cases have been filed in state and federal courts the past two years with most of the cases filed in or removed to federal courts. The cases are governed by state law. Rather than certify the novel state law issues presented in the cases to the respective state supreme courts that ultimately will determine the law applicable in the cases, each of the eight federal circuit courts to issue decisions on the merits in such cases to date has done so by making an Erie guess regarding how the controlling state supreme courts would …