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Indigenous, Indian, and Aboriginal Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

A Human Rights And Legal Analysis Of The Understanding Our Roots Report, Naiomi Metallic, Cheryl Simon Dec 2023

A Human Rights And Legal Analysis Of The Understanding Our Roots Report, Naiomi Metallic, Cheryl Simon

Reports & Public Policy Documents

In October 2023, the University released Understanding Our Roots - Nstikuk tan wtapeksikw Report written by the Task Force on Settler Misappropriation of Indigenous Identity. The Report recommends the creation of a Standing Committee who would verify claims to Indigenous identity by students, faculty and staff seeking to benefit from any opportunity at the University that prioritizes access for Indigenous peoples, as well as investigate and recommend sanction in cases of suspected academic fraud whereby an individual assumes an Indigenous identity. The Report does not address or respond to potential legal issues and rights violations arising from its recommendation. To …


Review Of The Book Denial Of Genocides In The Twenty-First Century, John A. Drobnicki Nov 2023

Review Of The Book Denial Of Genocides In The Twenty-First Century, John A. Drobnicki

Publications and Research

Review of the book Denial of Genocides in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Bedross Der Matossian.


Twenty Years After Krieger V Law Society Of Alberta: Law Society Discipline Of Crown Prosecutors And Government Lawyers, Andrew Flavelle Martin Oct 2023

Twenty Years After Krieger V Law Society Of Alberta: Law Society Discipline Of Crown Prosecutors And Government Lawyers, Andrew Flavelle Martin

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Krieger v. Law Society of Alberta held that provincial and territorial law societies have disciplinary jurisdiction over Crown prosecutors for conduct outside of prosecutorial discretion. The reasoning in Krieger would also apply to government lawyers. The apparent consensus is that law societies rarely exercise that jurisdiction. But in those rare instances, what conduct do Canadian law societies discipline Crown prosecutors and government lawyers for? In this article, I canvass reported disciplinary decisions to demonstrate that, while law societies sometimes discipline Crown prosecutors for violations unique to those lawyers, they often do so for violations applicable to all lawyers — particularly …


Writing And Resisting Colonial Genocide, Heidi Matthews, Luann Good Gingrich, Joel Ong Sep 2023

Writing And Resisting Colonial Genocide, Heidi Matthews, Luann Good Gingrich, Joel Ong

Articles & Book Chapters

Canada has pursued policies of Indigenous assimilation and annihilation, many of which continue today. Among others, these include ‘Indian residential schools’, the Indian Act, welfare-state child removals, the Sixties Scoop, the prohibition of cultural practices, forced sterilization and environmental destruction. We are scholars co-leading a large interdisciplinary programme of research studying ‘colonial genocide’. Our research seeks to understand how historic colonialism and its contemporary manifestations rely on genocidal logic for power and profit. While we begin in Turtle Island, our work has global application. The act of naming is a powerful analytical and political tool, and ‘genocide’ is one of …


Climate Change And The Courts: Balancing Stewardship And Restraint, Susan Glazebrook Sep 2023

Climate Change And The Courts: Balancing Stewardship And Restraint, Susan Glazebrook

Judicature International

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Canadian Justice, Indigenous Injustice: The Gerald Stanley And Colten Boushie Case, F. Tim Knight Jul 2023

Book Review: Canadian Justice, Indigenous Injustice: The Gerald Stanley And Colten Boushie Case, F. Tim Knight

Librarian Publications & Presentations

No abstract provided.


(Some) Land Back...Sort Of: The Transfer Of Federal Public Lands To Indian Tribes Since 1970, Audrey Glendenning, Martin Nie, Monte Mills Jun 2023

(Some) Land Back...Sort Of: The Transfer Of Federal Public Lands To Indian Tribes Since 1970, Audrey Glendenning, Martin Nie, Monte Mills

Articles

Federal public lands in the United States were carved from the territories of Native Nations and, in nearly every instance, required that the United States extinguish pre-existing aboriginal title. Following acquisition of these lands, the federal government pursued various strategies for them, including disposal to states and private parties, managing lands to allow for multiple uses, and conservation or protection. After over a century of such varied approaches, the modern public landscape is a complex milieu of public and private interests, laws and policies, and patchwork ownership patterns. This complexity depends on—and begins with—the history of Indigenous dispossession but subsequent …


Natural Law, Assumptions, And Humility, Ezra Rosser May 2023

Natural Law, Assumptions, And Humility, Ezra Rosser

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

This review of Natural Property Rights celebrates Eric Claeys’s efforts to resuscitate natural law as a viable approach to property law. Although readers unlikely to be convinced that natural law is the way to best understand property rights, Claeys succeeds in breathing new life into natural law. Natural Property Rights’ emphasis on use as property law’s fundamental value creates space to reconceptualize the rights of property owners and the place of non-owners within a just theory of property rights. The main critiques of Natural Property Rights offered in this review center around the choice to prioritize rights over duties and …


Fishing And Fisheries Under International Water Law: A Dialogue Between Professor Gabriel Eckstein And Professor Paul Stanton Kibel, Gabriel Eckstein, Paul Stanton Kibel May 2023

Fishing And Fisheries Under International Water Law: A Dialogue Between Professor Gabriel Eckstein And Professor Paul Stanton Kibel, Gabriel Eckstein, Paul Stanton Kibel

Faculty Scholarship

On April 10 and 11, 2023, the Center on Urban Environmental Law (CUEL) at Golden Gate University School of Law hosted a two-day webinar on International Law Aspects of Fisheries and Hydropower in Europe. To open the webinar, Professor Gabriel Eckstein (of Texas A&M University School of Law) and Professor Paul Stanton Kibel (of Golden Gate University School of Law) participated in a keynote dialogue titled Fishing and Fisheries under International Water Law. What follows is a transcription of this dialogue between Professor Eckstein and Professor Kibel.


Critical Concerns In Indian Country: Arizona V. Navajo Nation, Monte Mills Apr 2023

Critical Concerns In Indian Country: Arizona V. Navajo Nation, Monte Mills

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Combating Climate Change And Increasing Tribal Co-Management, Monte Mills Apr 2023

Combating Climate Change And Increasing Tribal Co-Management, Monte Mills

Presentations

This concurrent session provided an overview of how Tribes are working to combat the ever present threat of climate change and the move toward increasing Tribal-co management of lands and waters throughout the country. The session included a discussion of the Department of the Interior’s work to implement Secretarial Order 3403 on Fulfilling the Trust Responsibility to Indian Tribes in the Stewardship of Federal Lands and Waters.


Surviving Castro-Huerta: The Historical Perseverance Of The Basic Policy Of Worcester V. Georgia Protecting Tribal Autonomy, Notwithstanding One Supreme Court Opinion's Errant Narrative To The Contrary, John P. Lavelle Apr 2023

Surviving Castro-Huerta: The Historical Perseverance Of The Basic Policy Of Worcester V. Georgia Protecting Tribal Autonomy, Notwithstanding One Supreme Court Opinion's Errant Narrative To The Contrary, John P. Lavelle

Faculty Scholarship

Oklahoma v. Castro‑Huerta is an unprecedented attack on the autonomy of Native American nations in the United States. The Supreme Court held that Oklahoma had jurisdiction over a crime committed by a non‑Indian perpetrator against an Indian victim within the Cherokee Reservation’s boundaries. The decision posits that states presumptively have jurisdiction, concurrent with the federal government, over crimes by non‑Indians against Indians in Indian country. But this proposition is at war with a bedrock principle of Indian law, namely, that reservations are essentially “free from state jurisdiction and control,” a policy that “is deeply rooted in the Nation’s history.” That …


Brief Of Amici Curiae Law Professors & Indian Law Experts In Support Of Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari, Smith V. United States, Barbara L. Creel, Verónica Gonzales-Zamora, Marc-Tizoc Gonzaléz Mar 2023

Brief Of Amici Curiae Law Professors & Indian Law Experts In Support Of Petition For A Writ Of Certiorari, Smith V. United States, Barbara L. Creel, Verónica Gonzales-Zamora, Marc-Tizoc Gonzaléz

Faculty Scholarship

The decision reached by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, permitting the application of state criminal law to punish a tribal member whose alleged criminal conduct occurred on an Indian reservation and caused no harm to another person—solely based on the Assimilative Crimes Act (ACA), 18 U.S.C. § 13 is contrary to numerous treaties, acts of Congress, and foundational principles
of tribal sovereignty as construed and upheld by this Court’s federal Indian law jurisprudence. Allowing the Ninth Circuit decision to stand renders express
congressional authorizations and limitations on federal and state criminal jurisdiction over Indians in …


Brief Of Tribal Nations And Indian Organizations As Amici Curiae In Support Of The Navajo Nation, U.S. Supreme Court Docket No. 21-1484, Monte Mills, Heather D. Whiteman Runs Him, Dylan R. Hedden-Nicely, John E. Echohawk, Steven C. Moore, David L. Gover, Joe M. Tenorio, Ada Montague Stepleton, Morgan E. Saunders, Wesley James Furlong, Sydney Tarzwell Feb 2023

Brief Of Tribal Nations And Indian Organizations As Amici Curiae In Support Of The Navajo Nation, U.S. Supreme Court Docket No. 21-1484, Monte Mills, Heather D. Whiteman Runs Him, Dylan R. Hedden-Nicely, John E. Echohawk, Steven C. Moore, David L. Gover, Joe M. Tenorio, Ada Montague Stepleton, Morgan E. Saunders, Wesley James Furlong, Sydney Tarzwell

Court Briefs

SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT: The Winters Doctrine recognizes and gives effect to the promises made by the United States in treaties, congressionally ratified agreements, and executive orders that Tribal Nations would retain permanent and viable homelands. These promises, made in exchange for the Tribal Nations’ cession of billions of acres of land, paved the way for the non-Indian settlement of the West. Although every tribal homeland is unique, invariably, each requires water to be livable. Applying the canons of construction this Court has developed as part of its federal Indian law jurisprudence, as well as the history and circumstances surrounding the …


Brief For Amici Curiae Prof. Daniel Mccool, Prof. Ezra Rosser And Prof. David E. Wilkins, In Support Of Respondents, Ezra Rosser, David E. Wilkins Feb 2023

Brief For Amici Curiae Prof. Daniel Mccool, Prof. Ezra Rosser And Prof. David E. Wilkins, In Support Of Respondents, Ezra Rosser, David E. Wilkins

Amicus Briefs

No abstract provided.


An Expedition To Public Lands, Matthew B. Olsen Feb 2023

An Expedition To Public Lands, Matthew B. Olsen

CAFE Symposium 2023

A look into common ideas appearing in the US public land system. These ideas include "nature as commodity," "nature as unpeopled," and "nature as pristine." The specific areas looked into are Havasu National Wildlife Refuge, Prescott National Forest, Grand Canyon National Park, Gold Butte National Monument, and Death Valley National Park.


Due Process And Equal Protection In Michigan Anishinaabe Courts, Matthew Fletcher Jan 2023

Due Process And Equal Protection In Michigan Anishinaabe Courts, Matthew Fletcher

Articles

In 1968, largely because the United States Constitution does not apply to tribal government activity, Congress enacted the Indian Civil Rights Act–a federal law that requires tribal governments to guarantee due process and equal protection to persons under tribal jurisdiction. In 1978, the Supreme Court held that persons seeking to enforce those federal rights may do so in tribal forums only; federal and state courts are unavailable. Moreover, the Court held that tribes may choose to interpret the meanings of “due process” and “equal protection” in line with tribal laws, including customary laws. Since the advent of the self-determination era …


Colorado River Indian Tribes Water Resiliency Act Of 2022, United States 117th Congress Jan 2023

Colorado River Indian Tribes Water Resiliency Act Of 2022, United States 117th Congress

Native American Water Rights Settlement Project

This Act authorizes the Colorado River Indian Tribes to enter into lease or exchange agreements and storage agreements relating to water of the Colorado River allocated to the Colorado River Indian Tribes, and for other purposes.


White Mountain Apache Tribe Water Rights Quantification Act, United States 117th Congress Jan 2023

White Mountain Apache Tribe Water Rights Quantification Act, United States 117th Congress

Native American Water Rights Settlement Project

The purpose of this amendment to the White Mountain Apache Tribe Water Rights Quantification Act of 2010 is to extend the enforceability date for the deadline for publication of the statement of findings to December 30, 2027 with a repeal date of December 31, 2027 of Title III of the Act for failure to meet the revised deadline. Certain provisions include clarifying funding, cost indexing, cost overrun subaccount (increase in authorized appropriations and prohibition), use of funds (expenditures), oversight and accounting, and other purposes.


Hualapai Tribe Water Rights Settlement Act Of 2022, United States 117th Congress Jan 2023

Hualapai Tribe Water Rights Settlement Act Of 2022, United States 117th Congress

Native American Water Rights Settlement Project

The purposes of this Act are—(1) to resolve, fully and finally, all claims to rights to water in the State, including the Verde River, the Bill Williams River, and the Colorado River, of— (A) the Hualapai Tribe, on behalf of the Hualapai Tribe and the members of the Hualapai Tribe; and (B) the United States, acting as trustee for the Hualapai Tribe, the members of the Hualapai Tribe, and the allottees; (2) to authorize, ratify, and confirm the Hualapai Tribe water rights settlement agreement, to the extent that agreement is consistent with this Act; (3) to authorize and direct the …


(Re)Building The Master's House: Dismantling America's Colonial Politics Of Extraction And Exclusion, Marissa Jackson Sow Jan 2023

(Re)Building The Master's House: Dismantling America's Colonial Politics Of Extraction And Exclusion, Marissa Jackson Sow

Law Faculty Publications

On February 10, 2021, and in the days thereafter, liberal American commentators showered Congresswoman Stacey Plaskett with superlatives and praise due to her masterful takedown of former President Donald Trump during his impeachment trial for incitement of the January 6, 2021 Capitol Riot. Referring to a picture of Plaskett wearing a knee-length blue dress with draped sleeves, the political strategist (and daughter of House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi) Christine Pelosi took to Twitter to note that “[n]ot all superheroes wear capes. This one does!”

Plaskett is one of many Black Americans who has done the hard work of cleaning up …


The Role Of Traditional Environmental Knowledge In Planetary Well-Being, Deborah Mcgregor, Danika Billie Littlechild, Mahisha Sritharan Jan 2023

The Role Of Traditional Environmental Knowledge In Planetary Well-Being, Deborah Mcgregor, Danika Billie Littlechild, Mahisha Sritharan

Articles & Book Chapters

No abstract provided.


Navajo Statehood: From Domestic Dependent Nation To 51st State, Ezra Rosser Jan 2023

Navajo Statehood: From Domestic Dependent Nation To 51st State, Ezra Rosser

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

The Supreme Court’s recent holding in Oklahoma v. Castro-Huerta that “Indian country is part of the State, not separate from the State” is a reminder of tribal sovereignty’s precarious foundation under U.S. law. The Court’s holding not only broke with longstanding precedent regarding the relationship between tribes and states, but it is also incompatible with the lived experience of those living in the Navajo Nation. The Navajo Nation, not the states and not the federal government, has primary responsibility for governing an area roughly the size of West Virginia. Yet most maps of the United States demarcate only state boundaries, …


Impact Assessment In The Ring Of Fire: Contested Authorities, Competing Visions And A Clash Of Legal Orders, Dayna Nadine Scott Jan 2023

Impact Assessment In The Ring Of Fire: Contested Authorities, Competing Visions And A Clash Of Legal Orders, Dayna Nadine Scott

Commissioned Reports, Studies and Public Policy Documents

In 2007, a significant mineral deposit dubbed the “Ring of Fire” was discovered in the boreal peatlands in Treaty No.9 territory in the far north of Ontario. The original project proposal submitted to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency was for a chromite mine and an associated infrastructure corridor to connect the remote location to the provincial high-way system. As years went by without progress on the regulatory approvals, the proponent sold its claims at a loss. In the period that followed, Ontario negotiated with the Matawa First Nations (the nine most proximate First Nations) who were, as a united block, …


Connecting The Dots To Reveal A New Picture: A Report On Indian Act By-Law Enforcement Issues Faced By First Nations In Nova Scotia And Beyond, Naiomi Metallic, Roy Stewart, Ashley Hamp-Gonsalves Jan 2023

Connecting The Dots To Reveal A New Picture: A Report On Indian Act By-Law Enforcement Issues Faced By First Nations In Nova Scotia And Beyond, Naiomi Metallic, Roy Stewart, Ashley Hamp-Gonsalves

Reports & Public Policy Documents

This report originated as a request by the Mi’kmaq-Nova Scotia-Canada Tripartite Forum to research the challenges facing First Nations in Nova Scotia in assuming jurisdictional control through Indian Act by-laws. In undertaking this research, we identified significant uncertainty, misconceptions and confusion around Indian Act by-laws from all parties with a stake in this issue, including federal and provincial government representatives (Indigenous Services, Department of Justice, Public Safety), the police, the public and First Nations representatives. Consequently, we felt it necessary to comprehensively unpack the various issues relating to Indian Act by-laws, from their nature and legal effect, to their development, …


“Aspirations”: The United States And Indigenous Peoples’ Human Rights, Kristen A. Carpenter Jan 2023

“Aspirations”: The United States And Indigenous Peoples’ Human Rights, Kristen A. Carpenter

Publications

The United States has long positioned itself as a leader in global human rights. Yet, the United States lags curiously behind when it comes to the human rights of Indigenous Peoples. This recalcitrance is particularly apparent in diplomacy regarding the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2007, the Declaration affirms the rights of Indigenous Peoples to self-determination and equality, as well as religion, culture, land, health, family, and other aspects of human dignity necessary for individual life and collective survival. This instrument was advanced over several decades by Indigenous …


Burning Questions: Changing Legal Narratives On Cannabis In Indian Country, Robin M. Rotman, Sam J. Carter Jan 2023

Burning Questions: Changing Legal Narratives On Cannabis In Indian Country, Robin M. Rotman, Sam J. Carter

Faculty Publications

In the not-so-distant past, thoughts of Cannabis legalization in the United States were radical. In the present day, the narratives around Cannabis are changing. The term “present day” affixes this Article to early 2023, a snapshot in time. To understand the current legal narratives surrounding Cannabis, and what they might become in the future, it is important to examine the history of Cannabis law and policy in United States. This Article begins by discussing Cannabis regulation in the United States, from the rise of federal regulation to the gradual deregulation by states with tacit federal consent. The Article then examines …


Changemakers: Elevating Conversations Around Indigenous Peoples' Rights, Roger Williams University School Of Law Jan 2023

Changemakers: Elevating Conversations Around Indigenous Peoples' Rights, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


The Continuing Application Of Gladue Principles In The Professional Discipline Of Indigenous Lawyers: A Comment On Law Society Of Ontario V Mccullough, Andrew Martin Jan 2023

The Continuing Application Of Gladue Principles In The Professional Discipline Of Indigenous Lawyers: A Comment On Law Society Of Ontario V Mccullough, Andrew Martin

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

While Gladue principles have previously been applied in the professional discipline of Indigenous lawyers, the recent decision of the Law Society Tribunal in Law Society of Ontario v McCullough affirms and applies those precedents in new and powerful ways. In this case comment, I explain the ways in which McCullough is important in its application of Gladue principles and consider what questions remain to be settled in future decisions.


Visions For The International Decade Of Indigenous Languages 2022-2032, Kristen A. Carpenter, Andrew Cowell, Alexis Palmer Jan 2023

Visions For The International Decade Of Indigenous Languages 2022-2032, Kristen A. Carpenter, Andrew Cowell, Alexis Palmer

Publications

The United Nations General Assembly recently proclaimed the International Decade of Indigenous Languages ( "IDIL") from 2022-2032 to "to draw attention to the critical loss of indigenous languages and the urgent need to preserve, revitalize and promote indigenous languages and to take urgent steps at the national and international levels." The Decade is an opportunity to expose and address the severe loss of Indigenous Peoples' languages locally, regionally, and globally. It is a chance for the entire world community to gather together and commit to bringing Indigenous languages back from the brink of dormancy or extinction.