Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

Indigenous, Indian, and Aboriginal Law

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 9946

Full-Text Articles in Law

Brief For American Indian Law Scholars As Amicus Curiae, Stephen C., Et Al V. Bureau Of Indian Education, Et Al.,, Barbara L. Creel, Tierra N. Marks, Randolph H. Barnhouse Jul 2021

Brief For American Indian Law Scholars As Amicus Curiae, Stephen C., Et Al V. Bureau Of Indian Education, Et Al.,, Barbara L. Creel, Tierra N. Marks, Randolph H. Barnhouse

Faculty Scholarship

Indian Civil Rights/Education Lawsuit

View this and other court documents at Turtle Talk.

Congress’s declared federal policy is “to fulfill the Federal Government’s unique and continuing trust relationship with and responsibility to the Indian people for the education of Indian children.” 25 U.S.C. § 2000. This federal policy is the touchstone of the federal government’s trust obligation to Indian families and their children. When the BIA (through the BIE) fails to protect the rights of Indian children to “educational opportunities that equal or exceed those for all other students in the United States,” courts have ...


The Resilience Of Métis Title: Rejecting Assumptions Of Extinguishment, Karen Drake, Adam James Patrick Gaudry May 2021

The Resilience Of Métis Title: Rejecting Assumptions Of Extinguishment, Karen Drake, Adam James Patrick Gaudry

Articles & Book Chapters

For many years, the Crown disputed Métis title claims by contending that any previously existing Métis rights, including title, had been extinguished. We argue, however, that this is not the case in at least some areas of the Métis homeland. In this chapter, we review the three means by which Aboriginal rights can be extinguished in Canadian law: by surrender, by legislation prior to 17 April 1982, and by constitutional amendment. This chapter builds on our previous work, in which we argue that historical Métis land use patterns can satisfy the test for Aboriginal title. The relevant case law here ...


Cash Back: A Yellowhead Institute Red Paper, Shiri Pasternak, Naiomi Metallic, Yumi Numata, Anita Sekharan, Jasmyn Galley, Samuel Wong May 2021

Cash Back: A Yellowhead Institute Red Paper, Shiri Pasternak, Naiomi Metallic, Yumi Numata, Anita Sekharan, Jasmyn Galley, Samuel Wong

Reports & Public Policy Documents

Picking up from Land Back, the first Red Paper by Yellowhead about the project of land reclamation, Cash Back looks at how the dispossession of Indigenous lands created a dependency on the state due to the loss of economic livelihood. Cash Back is about restitution from the perspective of stolen wealth.

From Canada’s perspective, the value of Indigenous lands rests on what can be extracted and commodified. The economy has been built on the transformation of Indigenous lands and waterways into corporate profit and national power. In place of their riches in territory, Canada set up for First Nations ...


Who Are The Métis? The Role Of Free, Prior And Informed Consent In Identifying A Métis Rights-Holder, Karen Drake May 2021

Who Are The Métis? The Role Of Free, Prior And Informed Consent In Identifying A Métis Rights-Holder, Karen Drake

Articles & Book Chapters

The rise of the duty to consult and accommodate has generated an increase in Indigenous-industry agreements. For proponents tasked with carrying out the procedural aspects of the duty, Indigenous-industry agreements offer relative certainty compared to the ambiguity involved in determining whether the duty has been legally satisfied. For Indigenous peoples, although the drawbacks of Indigenous-industry agreements are well documented, these agreements can potentially instantiate the principle of free, prior and informed consent. Compared to First Nation and Inuit peoples, though, Métis rights-holders are entering into comparatively fewer Indigenous-industry agreements.One cause of this phenomenon is the supposed uncertainty surrounding the ...


Civil Procedure Update 2021 (Handout And Slide Deck), Verónica Gonzales-Zamora, Julio C. Romero Apr 2021

Civil Procedure Update 2021 (Handout And Slide Deck), Verónica Gonzales-Zamora, Julio C. Romero

Faculty Scholarship

This presentation aims to 1) review recent amendments to the state and federal rules of civil procedure; 2) help you understand the impact of recent federal and state published opinions interpreting and applying the rules of civil procedure; and 3) assess your understanding of the updates.


Textualism And The Indian Canons Of Statutory Construction, Alexander Tallchief Skibine Apr 2021

Textualism And The Indian Canons Of Statutory Construction, Alexander Tallchief Skibine

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

When interpreting statutes enacted for the benefit or regulation of Indians or construing treaties signed with Indian Nations, courts are supposed to apply any of five specific canons of construction relating to the field of Indian Affairs. Through an examination of the Supreme Court’s cases involving statutory or treaty interpretation relating to Indian nations since 1987, this Article demonstrates that the Court has generally been faithful in applying canons relating to treaty interpretation or abrogation. The Court has also respected the canon requiring unequivocal expression of congressional intent before finding an abrogation of tribal sovereign immunity. However, there are ...


When Imitation Is Not Flattery: Addressing Cultural Exploitation In Guatemala Through A Sui Generis Model, Paul Figueroa Apr 2021

When Imitation Is Not Flattery: Addressing Cultural Exploitation In Guatemala Through A Sui Generis Model, Paul Figueroa

Faculty Scholarship

Indigenous Guatemalan weavers are fighting for intellectual property laws that better protect their designs and other cultural expressions. The exploitation and appropriation by local and international companies has negatively affected the weavers’ livelihoods and resulted in culturally inappropriate uses of spiritual and traditional symbols. Adhering to Western ideals of individual creativity and utility, intellectual property laws in most of the world (including Guatemala) are not suited to protect indigenous creations. To address this legal gap, some countries have adopted sui generis legal regimes that align with communal notions of creation, ownership and stewardship found in indigenous knowledge systems. Based on ...


Beyond The Pandemic: Historical Infrastructure, Funding, And Data Access Challenges In Indian Country, Heather Tanana, Aila Hoss Apr 2021

Beyond The Pandemic: Historical Infrastructure, Funding, And Data Access Challenges In Indian Country, Heather Tanana, Aila Hoss

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted Tribal communities, in part, due to the historical inequities that Tribes have faced for centuries. As sovereign nations, Tribes have the authority to self-govern their people and land. However, the federal government has a special trust responsibility and treaty obligations to Tribes that it often has failed to fulfill. As a result, many Tribal communities live in inferior living conditions as compared to their non-Native counterparts. This Chapter builds on the prior report to explore the historical inequities Tribes experience and how they have been compounded by the pandemic. More specifically, it identifies persistent ...


The Factual Basis For Indigenous Land Rights, Kent Mcneil Apr 2021

The Factual Basis For Indigenous Land Rights, Kent Mcneil

Articles & Book Chapters

Groundbreaking judgments in Australia and Canada in the 1990s reveal that Indigenous land rights depend on evidence of Indigenous occupation and law when the British Crown asserted sovereignty. Looking back at earlier Indigenous rights decisions, it is apparent that they were not based on facts, but on prejudicial and erroneous assumptions about Indigenous peoples. In St. Catherine’s Milling (1888), Lord Watson said the rights of the Ojibwe Indians were based solely on the goodwill of the Crown, a conclusion that evidently stemmed from the trial judge’s racist assessment of Ojibwe society. In Cooper v Stuart (1889), Lord Watson ...


Without Doors: Native Nations And The Convention, Mary Sarah Bilder Apr 2021

Without Doors: Native Nations And The Convention, Mary Sarah Bilder

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The Constitution’s apparent textual near silence with respect to Native Nations is misleading. As this Article reveals, four representatives of Native Nations visited Philadelphia in the summer of 1787. Their visit ensured that the Constitution secured the general government’s treaty authority with Native Nations and decisively barred state claims of authority. But, the visits also threatened to disrupt Congress’s passage of the Northwest Ordinance and the vision of nationally sanctioned white settlement. In the process of successfully preventing the representatives from reaching Congress, Secretary at War Henry Knox developed the central tenets of what would become the ...


What Is Cultural Misappropriation And Why Does It Matter? 03-31-2021, Roger Williams University School Of Law Mar 2021

What Is Cultural Misappropriation And Why Does It Matter? 03-31-2021, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Changing Consultation, Elizabeth Kronk Warner, Kathy Lynn, Kyle Whyte Mar 2021

Changing Consultation, Elizabeth Kronk Warner, Kathy Lynn, Kyle Whyte

Tribal Consultation Database

Examples abound of both historic and modern situations where the federal government and tribes failed to engage in effective consultation. Yet, numerous reasons exist—such as effective management of natural resources and the negative impacts of climate change—for tribes and the federal government to engage in effective consultation. Effective consultation can be met through strong government-to-government relationships between Indian tribes and federal agencies and should be based on respect, mutual understanding, and common goals. This can be accomplished through interactions that will enhance consultation and provide other pathways to achieving a strong government-to-government relationship. To date, however, many within ...


Changing Consultation, Elizabeth Kronk Warner, Kathy Lynn, Kyle Whyte Mar 2021

Changing Consultation, Elizabeth Kronk Warner, Kathy Lynn, Kyle Whyte

Tribal Consultation Project Work

Examples abound of both historic and modern situations where the federal government and tribes failed to engage in effective consultation. Yet, numerous reasons exist—such as effective management of natural resources and the negative impacts of climate change—for tribes and the federal government to engage in effective consultation. Effective consultation can be met through strong government-to-government relationships between Indian tribes and federal agencies and should be based on respect, mutual understanding, and common goals. This can be accomplished through interactions that will enhance consultation and provide other pathways to achieving a strong government-to-government relationship. To date, however, many within ...


Law Library Blog (March 2021): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Mar 2021

Law Library Blog (March 2021): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Indigenous Law And The Common Law, Kent Mcneil Mar 2021

Indigenous Law And The Common Law, Kent Mcneil

Articles & Book Chapters

Indigenous law does not need to be incorporated into Canadian law by treaty, statute, or judicial pronouncement to be part of the domestic law of Canada. Indigenous law exists and is followed in Indigenous communities. It is living law that predated European colonization and has continued up to the present. However, Canadian judges generally are not familiar with it in the way they are with the common law and civil law. Consequently, when relied upon in court evidence of it has to be presented by the testimony of experts, such as Elders and Indigenous knowledge keepers. This is simply a ...


Grassroots And Litigation-Based Approaches To Advancing Indigenous Rights: Lessons From Extractive Industry Resistance In Mesoamerica, Justin Wiebe Feb 2021

Grassroots And Litigation-Based Approaches To Advancing Indigenous Rights: Lessons From Extractive Industry Resistance In Mesoamerica, Justin Wiebe

Centre for Law and the Environment

Indigenous peoples are frequently recognized as excellent stewards of their traditional territories. These territories, which often exhibit extraordinary levels of biodiversity, face disproportionate and growing threats from extractive industry. In opposing these threats, Indigenous peoples increasingly rely on internationally-defined Indigenous rights, including those set out in UNDRIP and ILO Convention 169. It is uncertain, however, how these rights are most effectively advanced. In this paper, I tease out strategies — both grassroots-based and litigation-based — that show promise in this regard. Drawing on Waorani resistance to an oil auction in Ecuador and Indigenous resistance to a large-scale mining project in Guatemala, I ...


Living In Two Worlds, Elizabeth Kronk Warner Feb 2021

Living In Two Worlds, Elizabeth Kronk Warner

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

Anti-racism calls us to work toward ending racial hatred, bias, systemic racism, and the oppression of marginalized groups. For many of us working in higher education leadership, this means that we are actively creating space for marginalized voices both in classrooms and through research. But who should be included is not always a question with a clear answer. Additionally, because of the complexity of identity, not all members of a marginalized community may express themselves in a monothetic way. This essay examines such a group possessing a complex identity – Indigenous people, from my personal lived experience. The essay explores how ...


Icwa’S Irony, Marcia A. Yablon-Zug Jan 2021

Icwa’S Irony, Marcia A. Yablon-Zug

Faculty Publications

The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) is a federal statute that protects Indian children by keeping them connected to their families and culture. The Act’s provisions include support for family reunification, kinship care preferences, cultural competency considerations and community involvement. These provisions parallel national child welfare policies. Nevertheless, the Act is relentlessly attacked as a law that singles out Indian children for unique and harmful treatment. This is untrue but, ironically, it will be if challenges to the ICWA are successful. To prevent this from occurring, the defense of the Act needs to change. For too long, this defense ...


Decolonizing Indigenous Migration, Angela R. Riley, Kristen A. Carpenter Jan 2021

Decolonizing Indigenous Migration, Angela R. Riley, Kristen A. Carpenter

Articles

As global attention turns increasingly to issues of migration, the Indigenous identity of migrants often remains invisible. At the U.S.-Mexico border, for example, a significant number of the individuals now being detained are people of indigenous origin, whether Kekchi, Mam, Achi, Ixil, Awakatek, Jakaltek or Qanjobal, coming from communities in Venezuela, Honduras, Guatemala and other countries. They may be leaving their homelands precisely because their rights as Indigenous Peoples, for example the right to occupy land collectively and without forcible removal, have been violated. But once they reach the United States, they are treated as any other migrants ...


Introduction To The Symposium On The Impact Of Indigenous Peoples On International Law, S. James Anaya, Antony Anghie Jan 2021

Introduction To The Symposium On The Impact Of Indigenous Peoples On International Law, S. James Anaya, Antony Anghie

Articles

No abstract provided.


Indigenous Peoples And Diplomacy On The World Stage, Kristen Carpenter, Alexey Tsykarev Jan 2021

Indigenous Peoples And Diplomacy On The World Stage, Kristen Carpenter, Alexey Tsykarev

Articles

No abstract provided.


R V. Turtle: Substantive Equality Touches Down In Treaty 5 Territory, Sonia Lawrence, Debra Parkes Jan 2021

R V. Turtle: Substantive Equality Touches Down In Treaty 5 Territory, Sonia Lawrence, Debra Parkes

All Faculty Publications

Court comes to Pikangikum First Nation through the air. Judges, Crown attorneys, and defence lawyers fly into this Anishinaabe community, located 229 kilometres north of Kenora, Ontario, to hear bail, trial, and sentencing matters involving members of the community. And then they fly out. Many of those provincial court proceedings involve sentencing members of the community to jail in Kenora or to a penitentiary even further away. We suspect that s. 15 of the Charter is rarely discussed in the Pikangikum courtroom (which is sometimes a room in the business development centre and sometimes the Chinese restaurant), a reality that ...


With Great(Er) Power Comes Great(Er) Responsibility: Indigenous Rights And Municipal Autonomy, Alexandra Flynn Jan 2021

With Great(Er) Power Comes Great(Er) Responsibility: Indigenous Rights And Municipal Autonomy, Alexandra Flynn

All Faculty Publications

This article asks how the dialogue surrounding greater municipal autonomy intersects with Aboriginal rights and title, recognized under section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 (Constitution), with a particular focus on Toronto. The first part of this article sets out the ways in which Toronto sought empowerment following the Better Local Government Act or Bill 5, including judicial consideration of the constitutional role of Canadian municipalities, the legislative advances made by provincial governments, and the yet-implemented possibilities of protection through a little-used mechanism within the Constitution. Part II analyzes the obligations of municipalities in respect of Indigenous Peoples and communities ...


Johnson V. M'Intosh, Alexandra Flynn Jan 2021

Johnson V. M'Intosh, Alexandra Flynn

All Faculty Publications

A title to lands, under grants to private Individuals, made by Indian tribes or Nations northwest of the river Ohio, in 1773 and 1775. The decision of the United States District Court is deemed to be in error. ERROR to the District Court of Illinois. This was an action of ejectment for lands in the State and District of Illinois, claimed by the plaintiffs under a purchase and conveyance from the Piankeshaw Indians, and by the defendant, under a grant from the United States.


Indigenous-Municipal Legal Relationships: Moving Beyond The Duty To Consult And Accommodate, Alexandra Flynn Jan 2021

Indigenous-Municipal Legal Relationships: Moving Beyond The Duty To Consult And Accommodate, Alexandra Flynn

All Faculty Publications

This paper examines the path forward for Indigenous-municipal relationships in regard to the land use planning process. While the arguments in the paper apply broadly, I focus on the unique legalities of planning approaches in Ontario. The aim is to argue that municipal planning – using the example of the Ontario planning model more specifically – should not frame its responsibilities with First Nations and Indigenous peoples based on the requirements of the duty to consult, which is a problematic singular framework in grounding a nation-to-nation relationship. The duty to consult as the basis of Indigenous-settler relationships has not led to sufficient ...


A Human Face To Instream Flow: Indigenous Right To Water For Salmon And Fisheries, Paul Stanton Kibel Jan 2021

A Human Face To Instream Flow: Indigenous Right To Water For Salmon And Fisheries, Paul Stanton Kibel

Publications

In the United States and throughout the world, there are many indigenous peoples whose culture and identity are closely connected to salmon and fisheries. Such salmon and fisheries are often dependent on maintaining adequate instream flows of water in rivers. Indigenous groups in the United States and in other countries have increasingly relied on indigenous human rights laws as a basis to keep water instream to maintain salmon and fisheries. This includes reliance on sources of international law such as the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the International ...


Mcgirt Policy Briefs: Cultural Resources, Monte Mills Jan 2021

Mcgirt Policy Briefs: Cultural Resources, Monte Mills

Faculty Journal Articles & Other Writings

On July 9, 2020, the United States Supreme Court issued its decision in McGirt v. Oklahoma. Although the only actual effect of that decision was on Mr. McGirt’s state court criminal conviction, rendering it invalid in light of the continuing existence of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation’s reservation, the implications of McGirt reverberated throughout Oklahoma and the nation. By rejecting Oklahoma’s arguments that the march to statehood had resulted in the implicit disestablishment of the Creek’s reservation (and, by analogy, those of the neighboring and similarly situated Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole Nations), Justice Gorsuch’s opinion ...


R V Sparrow, Kent Mcneil Jan 2021

R V Sparrow, Kent Mcneil

Articles & Book Chapters

On appeal from the Supreme Court of Canada.

In 1984, Ronald Sparrow was charged under the federal Fisheries Act with fishing in the Fraser River in British Columbia with a drift net longer than permitted by the Musqueam First Nation’s food fishing licence. He admitted to fishing with such a net, but raised s 35(1) of the Constitution Act, 1982, as a defence. As a member of the Musqueam Nation, he claimed that he has an Aboriginal right, protected by that subsection, to fish for food, and that the restriction on net length interferes with this right and ...


Incorporation By Any Other Name? Comparing Congress' Federalization Of Tribal Court Criminal Procedure With The Supreme Court's Regulation Of State Courts, Jordan Gross Jan 2021

Incorporation By Any Other Name? Comparing Congress' Federalization Of Tribal Court Criminal Procedure With The Supreme Court's Regulation Of State Courts, Jordan Gross

Faculty Law Review Articles

This Article examines the different experience of states and tribes with uniform national standards of criminal procedure imposed by the federal government. Part I describes the federal government’s displacement of indigenous justice in service of colonialist political goals, a policy that has contributed to the public safety crisis in Indian country today. Part II explains the constitutional criminal procedure jurisprudence the Court developed for states on which Congress has modeled ICRA’s criminal procedure provisions. In TLOA and VAWA 2013, Congress recognized that restoring tribal autonomy over wrongdoing in Indian country must be part of the federal policy response ...


Rethinking Protections For Indigenous Sacred Sites, Stephanie H. Barclay, Michalyn Steele Jan 2021

Rethinking Protections For Indigenous Sacred Sites, Stephanie H. Barclay, Michalyn Steele

Journal Articles

Meaningful access to sacred sites is among the most important principles to the religious exercise of Indigenous peoples, yet tribes have been repeatedly thwarted by the federal government in their efforts to vindicate this practice of their religion. The colonial, state, and federal governments of this Nation have been desecrating and destroying Native American sacred sites since before the Republic was formed. Unfortunately, the callous destruction of Indigenous sacred sites is not just a troubling relic of the past. Rather, the threat to sacred sites and cultural resources continues today in the form of spoliation from development, as well as ...