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Systemic Racism In The United States, Jonathan Short May 2021

Systemic Racism In The United States, Jonathan Short

Libraries

This bibliography contains an annotated selection of articles and studies related to systemic racism in the United States of America, covering 21st-century racial inequities in criminal justice, housing, employment, voting, education, and healthcare. Given the contentious nature of this topic - whether and to what extent systemic racism exists in the United States - sources were selected for relative neutrality, authority, and quality of methodologies used. This piece is intended to assist leaders, educators, activists, and any who wish to become better informed about this topic, develop empathy toward impacted groups, and prepare to address institutional concerns related to diversity, equity, and ...


Toward Racial Equality: The Most Important Things The Business Community Can Do, Leo E. Strine Jr. Oct 2020

Toward Racial Equality: The Most Important Things The Business Community Can Do, Leo E. Strine Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this address, former Chief Justice Strine kicked-off an important series, the Conference on Racial Equity in Corporate Governance, co-sponsored by the Millstein Center for Global Markets and Corporate Governance, Columbia Law School; the Institute for Law & Economics, University of Pennsylvania; the Rock Center for Corporate Governance, Stanford University; and the Stanford Center for Racial Justice, Stanford Law School.

The address explains the importance of institutional investors and corporations contributing to ending the persistent inequality suffered by black Americans. And it focuses on the reality that we would have made huge strides toward closing the race gap if our corporate governance and political systems ...


The Right To Housing In Spain: Community Action And Alternative Housing Models, Georgia Sparks Apr 2020

The Right To Housing In Spain: Community Action And Alternative Housing Models, Georgia Sparks

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The right to housing is guaranteed by Spain's constitution, the principles of the European Union, and U.N. human rights treaties to which Spain is signatory, yet Spain scarcely provides affordable housing and leaves its citizens struggling with poverty and unable to find a place to live. Unlike much of the rest of Europe, Spain’s social rented sector represents less than 1% of its total housing stock. Through policies that favor homeownership, promote the real estate market, and privatize social housing, Spain has left its citizens reliant on the private market for their fundamental need for housing. Social ...


The Rhode Island Earned Income Tax Credit: History And Analysis, Andrew Boardman May 2019

The Rhode Island Earned Income Tax Credit: History And Analysis, Andrew Boardman

Senior Honors Projects

This paper offers a comprehensive political history of the Rhode Island Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and an analysis of Rhode Island EITC recipients. It explores the history of the Rhode Island EITC, an income subsidy available to low-income workers, from its introduction in 1975 through 2018. It details the forces behind expansions and reforms and the effects of those changes. It also analyzes microdata to construct a profile of current EITC recipients. This paper concludes that the Rhode Island EITC has historically been viewed as both a poverty alleviation program and an incentive for labor market work. The Rhode ...


A Theory Of Poverty: Legal Immobility, Sara Sternberg Greene Jan 2019

A Theory Of Poverty: Legal Immobility, Sara Sternberg Greene

Faculty Scholarship

The puzzle of why the cycle of poverty persists and upward class mobility is so difficult for the poor has long captivated scholars and the public alike. Yet with all of the attention that has been paid to poverty, the crucial role of the law, particularly state and local law, in perpetuating poverty is largely ignored. This Article offers a new theory of poverty, one that introduces the concept of legal immobility. Legal immobility considers the cumulative effects of state and local laws as a mechanism through which poverty is perpetuated and upward mobility is stunted. The Article provides an ...


A Martin Luther King Jr. Amendment To The U.S. Constitution: Toward The Abolition Of Poverty, Theodore Walker May 2018

A Martin Luther King Jr. Amendment To The U.S. Constitution: Toward The Abolition Of Poverty, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. prescribed that we add an economic bill of rights to the U.S. Constitution. A King-Inspired bill of rights should include a constitutional amendment that enumerates a natural human right to be free from economic poverty, and appropriate enforcement legislation.

For the sake of abolishing slavery, the Thirteenth Amendment says:

(Section 1) Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

(Section 2) Congress shall have power to enforce this article ...


The Economics Of Immigration Reform, Howard F. Chang Jan 2018

The Economics Of Immigration Reform, Howard F. Chang

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this article, I draw upon economic theory and recent empirical work on the economic and fiscal effects of immigration to evaluate some recent proposals for immigration reform in terms of their effects on the economic welfare of natives in the United States. In particular, I consider the Reforming American Immigration for a Strong Economy (RAISE) Act, a bill that would cut immigration to half of its current level. President Donald Trump has endorsed the RAISE Act and has insisted that many of its provisions be part of any legislation legalizing the status of unauthorized immigrants granted relief under the ...


How Useful Is Gsv As An Environmental Observation Tool? An Analysis Of The Evidence So Far., Katherine Nesse, Leah Airt Oct 2017

How Useful Is Gsv As An Environmental Observation Tool? An Analysis Of The Evidence So Far., Katherine Nesse, Leah Airt

SPU Works

Researchers in many disciplines have turned to Google Street View to replace pedestrian- or carbased in-person observation of streetscapes. It is most prevalent within the research literature on the relationship between neighborhood environments and public health but has been used as diverse as disaster recovery, ecology and wildlife habitat, and urban design. Evaluations of the tool have found that the results of GSV-based observation are similar to the results from in-person observation although the similarity depends on the type of characteristic being observed. Larger, permanent and discrete features showed more consistency between the two methods and smaller, transient and judgmental ...


Feminism And Economic Inequality, Katharine T. Bartlett Jan 2017

Feminism And Economic Inequality, Katharine T. Bartlett

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Inequality Rediscovered, Jedediah Purdy, David Singh Grewal Jan 2017

Inequality Rediscovered, Jedediah Purdy, David Singh Grewal

Faculty Scholarship

Widespread recognition that economic inequality has been growing for forty years in most of the developed world, and in fact has tended to grow across most of the history of modern economies, shows that the period 1945-1973, when inequality of wealth and income shrank, was a marked anomaly in historical experience. At the time, however, the anomalous period of equality seemed to vindicate a long history of optimism about economic life: that growth would overcome meaningful scarcity and usher in an egalitarian and humanistic period that could almost qualify as post-economic. This has not been the experience of the last ...


The Federal Reserve And A Cascade Of Failures: Inequality, Cognitive Narrowness And Financial Network Theory, Emma Coleman Jordan May 2015

The Federal Reserve And A Cascade Of Failures: Inequality, Cognitive Narrowness And Financial Network Theory, Emma Coleman Jordan

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The recent financial crisis hollowed out the core of American middle-class financial stability. In the wake of the financial crisis, household net worth in the U.S. fell by 24%, for a loss of $16 trillion. Moreover, retirement accounts, the largest class of financial assets, took a steep drop in value, as did house prices, and these two classes of assets alone represent approximately 43% of all household wealth. The losses during the principal crisis years, 2007–2009, were devastating, “erasing almost two decades of accumulated prosperity,” in the words of a 2013 report. By the Federal Reserve. Beyond these ...


Wealth And Democracy, Jedediah Purdy Jan 2015

Wealth And Democracy, Jedediah Purdy

Faculty Scholarship

The renewed debate over inequality has highlighted a set of deficits in much of the last fifty-plus years of thinking on the topic. The late twentieth-century tradition of thinking about distributive justice largely assumed (1) that market dynamics would produce stable and tolerable levels of inequality; and (2) that a relatively powerful, competent, and legitimate state could effectively redistribute to mitigate what inequality did arise. What was largely overlooked in this thought and has since risen to central attention is the prospect that (1) accelerating levels of market-produced inequality will (2) undermine the legitimacy and efficacy of the state and ...


Antitrust, Competition Policy, And Inequality, Jonathan B. Baker, Steven C. Salop Jan 2015

Antitrust, Competition Policy, And Inequality, Jonathan B. Baker, Steven C. Salop

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Economic inequality recently has entered the political discourse in a highly visible way. This political impact is not a surprise. As the U.S. economy has begun to recover from the Great Recession since mid-2009, economic growth has effectively been appropriated by those already well off, leaving the median household less well off. The serious economic, political and moral issues raised by inequality can be addressed through a panoply of public policies including competition policy, the focus of this article. The article describes the channels through which market power contributes to inequality, and sets forth a range of possible antitrust ...


Invisible No More: Domestic Workers Organizing In Massachusetts And Beyond, Natalicia Tracy, Tim Sieber, Susan Moir Scd Oct 2014

Invisible No More: Domestic Workers Organizing In Massachusetts And Beyond, Natalicia Tracy, Tim Sieber, Susan Moir Scd

Labor Studies Faculty Publication Series

Domestic workers across the country are making it clear that, even in a difficult political environment, it is possible to make gains for low-wage workers. For the first time in many, many decades, domestic workers are finding ways to win. They are creat
ing policy change that will improve the lives of hundreds of thousands of workers in tangible and substantial ways. The 2014 Massachusetts Domestic Workers’ Bill of Rights is the most expansive codification of rights for this long-overlooked part of the labor force ever to be enacted. In one sense, there is nothing new about domestic workers organizing ...


The End Of Cash, The Income Tax, And The Next 100 Years, Gregg D. Polsky, Jeffery H. Kahn Oct 2013

The End Of Cash, The Income Tax, And The Next 100 Years, Gregg D. Polsky, Jeffery H. Kahn

Scholarly Works

The income tax is technologically very similar to the way it was in its early years, and technological developments have been at the margins of the income tax and have not affected its core elements. Still, technological improvements have made third-party reporting and withholding more efficient, which has allowed these mechanisms to become more pervasively used. Technology has also made it easier for taxpayers to substantiate their activities. These changes have facilitated the evolution of the incometax from its original class tax to the mass tax it is today.

While further technological advances might improve the federal income tax, it ...


Recessions And The Social Safety Net: The Alternative Minimum Tax As A Counter-Cyclical Fiscal Stabilizer, Brian Galle, Jonathan Klick Dec 2010

Recessions And The Social Safety Net: The Alternative Minimum Tax As A Counter-Cyclical Fiscal Stabilizer, Brian Galle, Jonathan Klick

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

As recent events illustrate, state finances are procyclical: during recessions, state revenues crash, worsening the effects of economic downturns. This problem is well known, yet persistent. We argue here that, in light of predictable federalism and political economy dynamics, states will be unable to change this situation on their own. Additionally, we note that many possible federal remedies may result in worse problems, such as by creating moral hazard that would induce states to take on excessively risky policy, both fiscal and otherwise. Thus, we argue that policymakers should consider so-called “automatic” stabilizers, such as are found in the federal ...


China And Brazil: Potential Allies Or Just Brics In The Wall?, Anthony Petros Spanakos Jan 2010

China And Brazil: Potential Allies Or Just Brics In The Wall?, Anthony Petros Spanakos

Department of Political Science and Law Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Brazil is an increasingly important actor in global governance and for China specifically. Sino-Brazilian relations have deepened considerably but they remain concentrated in areas of trade and investment. There is also considerable overlap in interests between the two countries in other areas, such as diplomatic and political relations. At the same time, China must manage carefully important differences that exist over the enlargement of the UN and the potential challenge to the Brazilian industry.


Why Economic Performance Has Differed Between Brazil And China? A Comparative Analysis Of Brazilian And Chinese Macroeconomic Policy, Fernando Ferrari-Filho, Anthony Petros Spanakos Jun 2009

Why Economic Performance Has Differed Between Brazil And China? A Comparative Analysis Of Brazilian And Chinese Macroeconomic Policy, Fernando Ferrari-Filho, Anthony Petros Spanakos

Department of Political Science and Law Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

This paper addresses a specific question: why has China grown so rapidly and Brazil not? To answer this question, it (i) establishes the basis for comparison between China and Brazil by contextualizing these countries within the BRICs concept, and (ii) presents a comparative analysis of Brazilian and Chinese reforms focusing only on the issue of macroeconomic policy, especially the monetary and exchange rate regimes, and its effect on growth.


Bonds, Stocks Or Dollars? Do Voters Care About Capital Markets In Brazil And Mexico, Anthony Petros Spanakos, Lucio Remuzat Renno Junior Jan 2009

Bonds, Stocks Or Dollars? Do Voters Care About Capital Markets In Brazil And Mexico, Anthony Petros Spanakos, Lucio Remuzat Renno Junior

Department of Political Science and Law Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

How does vote intention in presidential elections vary according to the economic conditions of a country, especially indicators of the financial market? Does the state of the economy, both its fundamentals as well as capital market, affect variation in candidates’ percentage of vote intention in national polls? This paper tests how economic indicators influence vote intention in presidential elections in two emerging markets: Brazil and Mexico. The presidential elections of 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006 in Brazil and 2000 and 2006 in Mexico are analyzed using all poll returns for each electoral period and corresponding economic data. The paper finds ...


Passive Discrimination: When Does It Make Sense To Pay Too Little?, Jonah B. Gelbach, Jonathan Klick, Lesley Wexler Jan 2009

Passive Discrimination: When Does It Make Sense To Pay Too Little?, Jonah B. Gelbach, Jonathan Klick, Lesley Wexler

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Economists have long recognized employers’ ability to construct benefits packages to induce workers to sort themselves into and out of jobs. For instance, to encourage applications from individuals with a highly valued but largely unobservable characteristic, such as patience, employers might offer benefits that patient individuals are likely to value more than other individuals. By offering a compensation package with highly valued benefits but a relatively low wage, employers will attract workers with the favored characteristic and discourage other individuals from applying for or accepting the job. While economic theory generally views this kind of self-selection in value neutral terms ...


Why Brazil Has Not Grown: A Comparative Analysis Of Brazilian, Indian, And Chinese Economic Management, Fernando Ferrari, Anthony Petros Spanakos Mar 2008

Why Brazil Has Not Grown: A Comparative Analysis Of Brazilian, Indian, And Chinese Economic Management, Fernando Ferrari, Anthony Petros Spanakos

Department of Political Science and Law Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

This paper does not aim to dispute that Brazil would benefit from reforms in any or all of these areas. Rather, the paper offers a skeptical perspective on reform menus and proposes an alternative explanation for the faster growth of Brazil’s peers India and China2. The paper begins by introducing (section 1) the idea of the BRICs countries, to establish the basis for comparisons of most similar cases. It then surveys the results of a generation of Washington Consensus era growth (section 2). Although there is a considerable amount of divergence over what causes growth, it seems that something ...


"Bad For Business": Contextual Analysis, Race Discrimination, And Fast Food, Regina Austin Jan 2000

"Bad For Business": Contextual Analysis, Race Discrimination, And Fast Food, Regina Austin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Medicaid Managed Care And Disability Discrimination Issues, Mary Crossley Jan 1998

Medicaid Managed Care And Disability Discrimination Issues, Mary Crossley

Articles

This article examines issues potentially raised under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by states' decisions whether and how to include disabled Medicaid recipients in the massive shift towards Medicaid managed care. Part II briefly examines the special issues that disabled Medicaid recipients pose with respect to managed care enrollment. These include issues of cost, quality, access, and program design and implementation. Part III describes various approaches that state programs have taken or are proposing to take with respect to the enrollment of disabled Medicaid recipients in managed care. These approaches range from simply excluding the SSI population from managed ...


The Dynamic Effects Of Permanent And Transitory Labor Income On Consumption, Barry Falk, Bong-Soo Lee Feb 1991

The Dynamic Effects Of Permanent And Transitory Labor Income On Consumption, Barry Falk, Bong-Soo Lee

Economic Staff Paper Series

This paper develops a version of the Permanent Income Hypothesis in which permanent and transitory components of consumption and labor income are explicitly accounted for. The model is used to derive a restricted vector autoregressive representation of adjusted measures of consumption and saving, which is used to test the theory and to study the dynamic effects of the two • components of labor income on consumption. We find that the restrictions on the VAR are not easily rejected for quarterly post-war U.S. data. An analysis of the restricted VAR leads us to conclude that consumption can be almost entirely explained ...


A Review Of State Programs: Adjustment Options For Declining Enrollments And Economies Of Size, Dr. Mark A. Edelman, James J. Knudsen Jun 1988

A Review Of State Programs: Adjustment Options For Declining Enrollments And Economies Of Size, Dr. Mark A. Edelman, James J. Knudsen

Economic Staff Paper Series

Companion reports (Edelman and Knudsen)^ review the effects of .declining . enrollments ; and economies of size on per pupil expenditures and various state aid formulas. This report reviews the alternative ways- that states have adjusted to . declining enrollments and, i size- economies by adjusting their state aid formulas to meet their respective politically (determined goals,


Production, Consumption, And Labor Supply Decisions Of Farm Households: A Review Of The Evidence For North America, Wallace E. Huffman Jan 1988

Production, Consumption, And Labor Supply Decisions Of Farm Households: A Review Of The Evidence For North America, Wallace E. Huffman

Economic Staff Paper Series

Agriculture in North America is. highly integrated with the other sectors of the economy through markets for farm inputs,' farm products, consumer goods, and labor; During the early 1950s, and to a-iesser-extent during the early 1980s, farm households incomes were depressed-relative to nonfarm household incomes. The reasons"were primarily that the-'supply curve for agricultural products had been shifting faster due to rapid technical change than the demand curve-arid real wage rates-had been rising"in the nonfarm sector, especially during the 1940s and 1950s. For labor to be fully enqjloyed and farm labor; to earn its opportunity return compared to ...


A Summary Of State Laws Of Intestate Property Distribution And Succession, Brian Peters, Michael Boehlje Jan 1981

A Summary Of State Laws Of Intestate Property Distribution And Succession, Brian Peters, Michael Boehlje

Economic Staff Paper Series

Property ownership patterns have a significant impact on the distribution of income, resource returns and wealth. Although ownership patterns are commonly altered by sales and purchases of property in the resource markets, the acquisition of property through gifts and inheritances also has an important influence on property ownership and transfer.


Intergenerational Transfers And Estate Planning: The Iowa Experience, Michael Boehlje, William Good, Neil Harl, John Achterhof Jan 1979

Intergenerational Transfers And Estate Planning: The Iowa Experience, Michael Boehlje, William Good, Neil Harl, John Achterhof

Economic Staff Paper Series

Both state and federal governmental agencies impose taxes upon the transfer of property or wealth at death or as gifts during lifetime. Transfer taxation is justified on at least four grounds: to restrict a person's right to dispose of property at death or during life, to restrict the acquisition of wealth by way of bequests, to achieve a more equal distribution of wealth, and to tax property accumulations that have escaped taxation as income.


Integration And Economic Development, Robert L. Birmingham Jan 1965

Integration And Economic Development, Robert L. Birmingham

Articles by Maurer Faculty

In this paper I shall attempt to evaluate the potential impact of economic association among underdeveloped countries. Attention is centered on gain achievable by participating states as a group: world welfare alteration appears devoid of normative implication to the national decision maker, while questions of internal distribution of union benefit are too complex for summary treatment. Conclusions of amalgamation efficacy rest jointly on abstract analysis and deduction from empirical economic parameters; discussion of trade and development theory is extended beyond that logically necessary for argument coherence to provide a brief introduction to relevant recent thought.


Our Economic Problem: The Concentration Of Wealth, Hugh Evander Willis Jan 1932

Our Economic Problem: The Concentration Of Wealth, Hugh Evander Willis

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.