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Full-Text Articles in Law

Vulnerable Populations And Vaccine Injury Compensation: The Need For Legal Reform, Katharine A. Van Tassel, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2022

Vulnerable Populations And Vaccine Injury Compensation: The Need For Legal Reform, Katharine A. Van Tassel, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

This chapter argues that the potential for vaccine-related harms raises acute concerns for vulnerable populations. These harms have a disparate impact on low-income people, who are disproportionately non-White, and who have limited financial resources to obtain medical care, weather job losses, and pursue injury compensation. When a vaccine is given as a countermeasure during a declared public health emergency (PHE), the problem is acute because of the limited availability of injury compensation.


Gendered Complications Of Covid-19: Towards A Feminist Recovery Plan, Linda C. Mcclain, Naomi Cahn Oct 2021

Gendered Complications Of Covid-19: Towards A Feminist Recovery Plan, Linda C. Mcclain, Naomi Cahn

Faculty Scholarship

COVID-19 exposed the limitations in the current economic system on public and private support for gender equity and the intersecting impact of gender, race, and class in that lack of support. Women of color, particularly those who are Black, Latina, or Native American, were at the intersection of the inequities in the pandemic economy. The catalogue of COVID-19’s impact covers all aspects of women’s lives: work, family, education, health, reproduction, mental and physical well-being, and leisure. This Article argues that COVID-19 has complex implications for gender equality and gender equity as state and local governments, the federal government ...


Law, Criminalisation And Hiv In The World: Have Countries That Criminalise Achieved More Or Less Successful Pandemic Response?, Matthew M. Kavanagh, Schadrac C. Agbla, Marissa Joy, Kashish Aneja, Mara Pillinger, Alaina Case, Ngozi A. Erondu, Taavi Erkkola, Ellie Graeden Aug 2021

Law, Criminalisation And Hiv In The World: Have Countries That Criminalise Achieved More Or Less Successful Pandemic Response?, Matthew M. Kavanagh, Schadrac C. Agbla, Marissa Joy, Kashish Aneja, Mara Pillinger, Alaina Case, Ngozi A. Erondu, Taavi Erkkola, Ellie Graeden

O'Neill Institute Papers

How do choices in criminal law and rights protections affect disease-fighting efforts? This long-standing question facing governments around the world is acute in the context of pandemics like HIV and COVID-19. The Global AIDS Strategy of the last 5 years sought to prevent mortality and HIV transmission in part through ensuring people living with HIV (PLHIV) knew their HIV status and could suppress the HIV virus through antiretroviral treatment. This article presents a cross-national ecological analysis of the relative success of national AIDS responses under this strategy, where laws were characterised by more or less criminalisation and with varying rights ...


Sharing Technology And Vaccine Doses To Address Global Vaccine Inequity And End The Covid-19 Pandemic, Matthew M. Kavanagh, Lawrence O. Gostin, Madhavi Sunder Jul 2021

Sharing Technology And Vaccine Doses To Address Global Vaccine Inequity And End The Covid-19 Pandemic, Matthew M. Kavanagh, Lawrence O. Gostin, Madhavi Sunder

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Although COVID-19 cases are declining rapidly in the US, they have reached record highs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The nucleus of the pandemic has shifted decidedly to the global south. The South-East Asia region and Latin America now represent 75% of global weekly deaths. On June 22, the Latin America region reported more than 1 million weekly new cases and 30 000 new deaths. Latin America has the highest deaths per capita, where deaths in countries such as Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and Peru have reached 177 to 564 per hundred thousand. The Africa region has had increasing numbers ...


National Focal Points And Implementation Of The International Health Regulations, Kumanan Wilson, Sam F. Halabi, Helge Hollmeyer, Lawrence O. Gostin, David P. Fidler, Corinne Packer, Lindsay Wilson, Ronald Labonté Jul 2021

National Focal Points And Implementation Of The International Health Regulations, Kumanan Wilson, Sam F. Halabi, Helge Hollmeyer, Lawrence O. Gostin, David P. Fidler, Corinne Packer, Lindsay Wilson, Ronald Labonté

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Health Regulations (IHR) and countries’ adherence to IHR guidance are coming under scrutiny and review. The IHR constitute a legal and governance framework that guides countries in responding to serious disease events while avoiding unnecessary interference with international trade and traffic. The IHR require States Parties to designate or establish national IHR focal points to facilitate information sharing about disease events with WHO, which makes these focal points critical in the effective implementation of the IHR within and between countries. On behalf of the State Party concerned, national ...


Co-Creating A Legal Check-Up In A School-Based Health Center Serving Low-Income Adolescents, Lisa Kessler, Yael Cannon, Nicole Tuchinda, Ana Caskin, Christina Balz Ndjatou, Vicki W. Girard, Deborah F. Perry Jul 2021

Co-Creating A Legal Check-Up In A School-Based Health Center Serving Low-Income Adolescents, Lisa Kessler, Yael Cannon, Nicole Tuchinda, Ana Caskin, Christina Balz Ndjatou, Vicki W. Girard, Deborah F. Perry

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The Problem: Marginalized populations experience health-harming legal needs—barriers to good health that require legal advocacy to overcome. Medical–legal partnerships (MLPs) embed lawyers into the healthcare team to resolve these issues, but identifying patients with health-harming legal needs is complex, and screening practices vary across MLPs.

Purpose of Article: Academic and community partners who collaborate in an MLP at a school-based health center (SBHC) share their process of co-creating a two-stage legal check-up for adolescents.

Key Points: Screening adolescents for health-harming legal needs is challenging. It took ongoing collaboration to refine the process to fit the needs of adolescents ...


9 Steps To End Covid-19 And Prevent The Next Pandemic: Essential Outcomes From The World Health Assembly, Lawrence O. Gostin Jun 2021

9 Steps To End Covid-19 And Prevent The Next Pandemic: Essential Outcomes From The World Health Assembly, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

A year ago, the World Health Assembly (WHA) met virtually for the first time since the creation of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1948. Last year’s WHA adopted a resolution asking states to intensify action to fight COVID-19. Yet a year on, there have been 3.7 million deaths reported, with the real number estimated as more than 7 million. From May 24-31, 2021, the 74th WHA (WHA74) was again held virtually amidst this historic pandemic. The WHA created a member states working group on strengthening WHO preparedness for and response to health emergencies to make recommendations to ...


Mandatory Sars-Cov-2 Vaccinations In K-12 Schools, Colleges/Universities, And Businesses, Lawrence O. Gostin, Jana Shaw, Daniel A. Salmon Jun 2021

Mandatory Sars-Cov-2 Vaccinations In K-12 Schools, Colleges/Universities, And Businesses, Lawrence O. Gostin, Jana Shaw, Daniel A. Salmon

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently issued guidance that fully vaccinated individuals can safely remove masks and end social distancing in most indoor settings. Educational facilities and businesses are faced with whether and how to differentiate between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, including requiring proof of vaccination. Mandatory vaccination has historically served as a tool to reach and sustain high immunization coverage and to prevent transmission in K-12 schools, colleges/universities, and health care facilities. Vaccine mandates could extend to workers and customers in businesses to ensure safer environments. This Viewpoint examines the epidemiologic, public health, and legal ...


Trump Expelled Refugees Against Cdc Advice. As Covid Subsides, Why Won't Biden Admit Them?, Lindsay M. Harris, Sarah Sherman-Stokes Jun 2021

Trump Expelled Refugees Against Cdc Advice. As Covid Subsides, Why Won't Biden Admit Them?, Lindsay M. Harris, Sarah Sherman-Stokes

UDC Law Faculty in the News

No abstract provided.


Environmental Law Disrupted By Covid-19, Katrina Fischer Kuh, Lissa Griffin, Rebecca Bratspies, Vanessa Casado Perez, Robin Kundis Craig, Keith Hirokawa, Sarah Krakoff, Jessica Owley, Melissa Powers, Shannon Roesler, Jonathan Rosenbloom, J.B. Ruhl, Erin Ryan, David Takacs Jun 2021

Environmental Law Disrupted By Covid-19, Katrina Fischer Kuh, Lissa Griffin, Rebecca Bratspies, Vanessa Casado Perez, Robin Kundis Craig, Keith Hirokawa, Sarah Krakoff, Jessica Owley, Melissa Powers, Shannon Roesler, Jonathan Rosenbloom, J.B. Ruhl, Erin Ryan, David Takacs

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

For over a year, the COVID-19 pandemic and concerns about systemic racial injustice have highlighted the conflicts and opportunities currently faced by environmental law. Scientists uniformly predict that environmental degradation, notably climate change, will cause a rise in diseases, disproportionate suffering among communities already facing discrimination, and significant economic losses. In this Article, members of the Environmental Law Collaborative examine the legal system’s responses to these crises, with the goal of framing opportunities to reimagine environmental law. The Article is excerpted from their book Environmental Law, Disrupted, to be published by ELI Press later this year.


Regulatory Agency Capture: How The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Approved The Mountain Valley Pipeline, Aakshi Agarwal May 2021

Regulatory Agency Capture: How The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Approved The Mountain Valley Pipeline, Aakshi Agarwal

Harvey M. Applebaum ’59 Award

The FERC’s history of approving nearly 100% of pipelines and divisive pipeline cases like the Atlantic Coast Pipeline and Mountain Valley Pipeline have driven landowners’ long-standing claims of regulatory agency capture of the FERC. The present research substantiates the claim of capture with a case study of the Mountain Valley Pipeline and uncovers that the FERC is both culturally and corrosively captured. This research also suggests that the capture of the FERC began at its conception during the natural gas crisis and subsequent natural gas bubble, which caused the FERC to follow the industry’s lead. These findings indicate ...


Reimagining Criminal Justice: How We Traded Out Asylums For Prisons, Zaynah Zaman May 2021

Reimagining Criminal Justice: How We Traded Out Asylums For Prisons, Zaynah Zaman

Reimagining Criminal Justice

The criminal justice system fails to adopt alternative mental health reforms better equipped to handle mental health crises rather than placing the mentally ill in institutions that have proven to worsen their illness. The criminalization of mental illness must end, says Zaynah Zaman, a student at Golden Gate University School of Law.


Law School News: Professor Of The Year 2021: Brittany Raposa 05/20/2021, Michael M. Bowden May 2021

Law School News: Professor Of The Year 2021: Brittany Raposa 05/20/2021, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Motorcycle Fatality Rates Due To Head Injuries Are Lower In States With Helmet Laws, Mary E. Helander May 2021

Motorcycle Fatality Rates Due To Head Injuries Are Lower In States With Helmet Laws, Mary E. Helander

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

There are over 4,500 motorcycle crash fatalities per year in the U.S., on average. Roughly 37% of those deaths involve head injuries. Motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities, serious cognitive disabilities, and social costs. Yet many states have no helmet laws. This data slice shows that from 1999 to 2019, states with helmet laws had a 33% lower head-related fatality rate compared to states without helmet laws. Motorcycle helmet laws clearly save lives.


Marijuana Legalization And The Role Of The Massachusetts Legislature, Sean J. Kealy May 2021

Marijuana Legalization And The Role Of The Massachusetts Legislature, Sean J. Kealy

Faculty Scholarship

The public is often frustrated when Congress or their state legislature is not responsive to their policy priorities. This was especially true during the effort to legalize marijuana in Massachusetts. The legislature consistently refused to take up the issue despite public support. Legalization advocates ultimately bypassed the legislature by turning to the ballot-initiative process on three occasions: first to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana, then to legalize medical marijuana, and most recently to legalize recreational marijuana. After the electorate legalized recreational marijuana, the legislature further frustrated advocates, first by delaying implementation of key parts of the law and ...


Medical Cannabis And The Age Of Majority, Katharine Silbaugh May 2021

Medical Cannabis And The Age Of Majority, Katharine Silbaugh

Faculty Scholarship

This Essay considers whether commercial cannabis retailers are adequately constrained in the sale of cannabis to 18- to 21-year-olds. It examines the intersection of the medical cannabis market, recreational cannabis market, and underlying status law regulating late adolescents aged 18 to 21. Because the age of majority licenses full medical decision-making, an 18-year-old can access medical cannabis but not recreational cannabis or alcohol. This Essay proceeds on the assumption that medical cannabis is a construct that has eased the process of achieving a legalized commercial cannabis market. The ambiguity around medical claims is comfortable in the libertarian soil of cannabis ...


Potential For Unseaworthiness Claims Based On Covid-19 Transmission, Blaine Payer, Read Porter May 2021

Potential For Unseaworthiness Claims Based On Covid-19 Transmission, Blaine Payer, Read Porter

Sea Grant Law Fellow Publications

No abstract provided.


Digital Health Passes In The Age Of Covid-19: Are “Vaccine Passports” Lawful And Ethical?, Lawrence O. Gostin, I. Glenn Cohen, Jana Shaw Apr 2021

Digital Health Passes In The Age Of Covid-19: Are “Vaccine Passports” Lawful And Ethical?, Lawrence O. Gostin, I. Glenn Cohen, Jana Shaw

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

As COVID-19 vaccination rates in high-income countries increase, governments are proposing or implementing digital health passes (DHPs) (vaccine “passports” or “certificates”). Israel uses a “green pass” smartphone application permitting vaccinated individuals’ access to public venues (eg, gyms, hotels, entertainment). The European Union plans a “Digital Green Certificate” enabling free travel within the bloc (see eTable in the Supplement). New York is piloting an IBM “Excelsior Pass,” confirming vaccination or negative SARS-CoV-2 test status through confidential data transfers to fast-track business reopenings. This paper examines the benefits of DHPs, scientific challenges, and whether they are lawful and ethical.


The Role Of Medicaid For Children With Special Health Care Needs And Disabilities, 2020-2021 Cohort Of New Hampshire-Maine Leadership Education In Neurodevelopmental And Related Disabilities Program Trainees Apr 2021

The Role Of Medicaid For Children With Special Health Care Needs And Disabilities, 2020-2021 Cohort Of New Hampshire-Maine Leadership Education In Neurodevelopmental And Related Disabilities Program Trainees

Policy Analysis

Medicaid plays a critical role in protecting the health and well-being of US children, covering half of infants and toddlers as well as two-thirds of children with special health care needs and disabilities. Since its inception in 1965, Medicaid has provided health coverage for low-income children. For some time, while many children with special health care needs and disabilities were covered under the income eligibility criteria, a large share were not. A major shift occurred in 1982 during the Reagan administration with the creation of the Katie Beckett program, which allowed Medicaid eligibility for medical services in the home (rather ...


Public Health And History: Vaccination Regulation In The Northeastern States, Kate Campbell Apr 2021

Public Health And History: Vaccination Regulation In The Northeastern States, Kate Campbell

Student Research

In 1905 Henning Jacobson went before the United States Supreme Court in Jacobson v. Massachusetts and argued that his constitutional right to liberty was infringed upon when compulsory vaccination laws were introduced. When mandatory vaccination laws were introduced in Cambridge, Massachusetts there was another deadly smallpox epidemic racing through the northeastern states. Government officials believed that the best way to control the disease and ultimately stop the spread was through government intervention. The Supreme Court ultimately ruled that as a citizen of the United States it is often times necessary to give up some forms of liberty in order to ...


Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Spring 2021 Apr 2021

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Spring 2021

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Covid-19 As An Example Of Why Genomic Sequence Data Should Remain Patent Ineligible, Jorge L. Contreras Apr 2021

Covid-19 As An Example Of Why Genomic Sequence Data Should Remain Patent Ineligible, Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

The researchers who determined the genomic sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus did not seek to patent it, but instead released it in the publicly-accessible GenBank data repository. Their release of this critical data enabled the scientific community to mobilize rapidly and conduct research on a range of diagnostic, vaccine, and therapeutic applications based on the viral RNA sequence. Had the researchers sought patent protection for their discovery, as earlier research teams had during the SARS, H1N1 and H5N1 outbreaks, global research relating to COVID-19 would have been less efficient and more costly. One of the reasons that patents are no ...


Beyond The Pandemic: Historical Infrastructure, Funding, And Data Access Challenges In Indian Country, Heather Tanana, Aila Hoss Apr 2021

Beyond The Pandemic: Historical Infrastructure, Funding, And Data Access Challenges In Indian Country, Heather Tanana, Aila Hoss

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted Tribal communities, in part, due to the historical inequities that Tribes have faced for centuries. As sovereign nations, Tribes have the authority to self-govern their people and land. However, the federal government has a special trust responsibility and treaty obligations to Tribes that it often has failed to fulfill. As a result, many Tribal communities live in inferior living conditions as compared to their non-Native counterparts. This Chapter builds on the prior report to explore the historical inequities Tribes experience and how they have been compounded by the pandemic. More specifically, it identifies persistent ...


The Private Option, Brendan S. Maher Apr 2021

The Private Option, Brendan S. Maher

Faculty Scholarship

Health care reform is once again in the air. Virtually all Democrats favor some meaningful expansion of public insurance, whether through single payer or the creation of a “public option” that would allow consumers dissatisfied with the private market to buy into a public program. Republicans, not surprisingly, have pushed back, not only against single payer, but also against the public option, saying it will drive private payors to extinction. All the political jousting implicates a larger and serious policy question; namely, what should be the role of private payors in the nation’s health care system?

Arguments to date ...


The Impact Of Covid-19 On Immigration Detention, Fatma Marouf Apr 2021

The Impact Of Covid-19 On Immigration Detention, Fatma Marouf

Faculty Scholarship

COVID-19 has spread quickly through immigration detention facilities in the United States. As of December 2, 2020, there have been over 7,500 confirmed COVID-19 cases among detained noncitizens. This Article examines why COVID-19 spread rapidly in immigration detention facilities, how it has transformed detention and deportation proceedings, and what can be done to improve the situation for detained noncitizens. Part I identifies key factors that contributed to the rapid spread of COVID-19 in immigration detention. While these factors are not an exhaustive list, they highlight important weaknesses in the immigration detention system. Part II then examines how the pandemic ...


Lockdowns, Quarantines, And Travel Restrictions, During Covid And Beyond: What’S The Law, And How Should We Decide?, Lawrence O. Gostin, Meryl Chertoff Mar 2021

Lockdowns, Quarantines, And Travel Restrictions, During Covid And Beyond: What’S The Law, And How Should We Decide?, Lawrence O. Gostin, Meryl Chertoff

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Following increased calls for racial justice, many organizations have pledged to play their part in dismantling systemic racism. One common step leaders take is to invest in diversity and inclusion programs. Yet, despite organizations’ bold claims to value diversity and the investment of billions of dollars on related efforts, workplace discrimination continues to be a major factor in the lives of people of color. Additionally, existing research highlights a principle-policy gap, wherein people--particularly White Americans--espouse support for the principles of diversity, yet their support wanes for policies that address inequalities. In this survey study, we explore attitudes about organizational diversity ...


When Justice Should Precede Generosity: The Case Against Charitable Immunity In Arkansas, Courtney Jane Baltz Mar 2021

When Justice Should Precede Generosity: The Case Against Charitable Immunity In Arkansas, Courtney Jane Baltz

Arkansas Law Notes

This Comment discusses various aspects of the modern hospital and examines charitable immunity’s incompatibility with modern law.

First, Part II explains the historical justifications for immunity and presents the doctrine’s landscape in the United States. Part III examines the role precedent plays in continuing to adhere to the rule of immunity. Part IV takes an in-depth approach of the big business of hospitals by evaluating various financial aspects of charitable hospitals. Part V explores the reality of charitable immunity falling out of touch with concepts of modern law. Part VI takes a more specific look at the application ...


The Coronavirus Pandemic 1 Year On—What Went Wrong?, Lawrence O. Gostin Mar 2021

The Coronavirus Pandemic 1 Year On—What Went Wrong?, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

January 30, 2021, marked the first anniversary of the declaration by the World Health Organization (WHO) of COVID-19 as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). Thus far, the world has been no match for SARS-CoV-2, with more than 100 million cases and 2.5 million deaths. The US has been among the world’s poorest performers in addressing the pandemic, with more than 500 000 deaths.

Vaccines offer the best chance of returning to normal, but circulating variants pose a major obstacle, particularly the emergence of variants that are more transmissible and are developing partial resistance to vaccines ...


Water Contamination Ruining The Nation: How The Lead Water Crisis Disproportionately Affects Children Of Color, Annissa Allen-Gore Mar 2021

Water Contamination Ruining The Nation: How The Lead Water Crisis Disproportionately Affects Children Of Color, Annissa Allen-Gore

Environmental Law Journal blog

Lead contamination of drinking water continues to impact children in communities of color. This article provides an overview of the key laws and regulations designed to prevent toxic lead exposure, identifies important factors that have limited the effectiveness of these laws, and makes recommendations concerning possible solutions. Additionally, this article explores the progress being made by efforts to protect children in hot spots like Flint, Michigan and Newark, New Jersey, and identifies resources for people in other communities that may be facing similar issues due to aging infrastructure.


Covid-19: Enough About Humans, What About The Animals?, Kristen Tabone Mar 2021

Covid-19: Enough About Humans, What About The Animals?, Kristen Tabone

Environmental Law Journal blog

This article will provide examples of how zoo animals and domestic animals around the world have both benefited and suffered during this pandemic, and the actions taken by their caregivers to protect them from the adverse impacts of COVID-19. It will then examine how the provisions of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and the PREPARED Act, have both failed to protect zoo animals. This article will also examine how the PETS Act and other legislation enacted during COVID-19 have better protected domestic animals during this time, and how the PREPARED Act would be a beneficial addition to the PETS Act ...