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Full-Text Articles in Law

Meat, The Future: The Role Of Regulators In The Lab-Grown Revolution, Joseph B. Davault, Michael S. Sinha Apr 2025

Meat, The Future: The Role Of Regulators In The Lab-Grown Revolution, Joseph B. Davault, Michael S. Sinha

All Faculty Scholarship

The United States is one of the largest consumers of meat globally. The production of meat contributes substantially to climate change due to the levels of greenhouse gasses emitted and the amount of land, water, feed, and other natural resources required to raise animals used for meat. Traditional meat production is another major source for the emergence of zoonotic diseases and antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. Nevertheless, Americans consume more meat now than at any time in the nation’s history.

Advocates for policy change aimed at addressing the risks associated with meat production have typically focused on reducing meat consumption, alternatives to meat, …


Labeling Energy Drinks: Tackling A Monster Of A Problem, Meredith P. Mulhern, Michael S. Sinha Oct 2024

Labeling Energy Drinks: Tackling A Monster Of A Problem, Meredith P. Mulhern, Michael S. Sinha

All Faculty Scholarship

Energy drinks first rose to popularity in the 1980s. Red Bull energy drinks were the first of its kind, opening the door to a new consumer and regulatory landscape. Since Red Bull first launched, multiple companies have released countless new energy drink products. Some energy drinks, like Red Bull, contain less than 100 mg of caffeine per 8 oz can. However, other energy drinks contain much higher amounts of caffeine. A 12 oz can of Celsius contains 200 mg of caffeine, and up until recently, Celsius offered a product called Celsius Heat, a 12 oz can containing 300 mg of …


Decoding Dobbs: A Typology To Better Understand The Roberts Court's Jurisprudence, Katie Yoder May 2024

Decoding Dobbs: A Typology To Better Understand The Roberts Court's Jurisprudence, Katie Yoder

Honors Projects

The U.S. Supreme Court first recognized Substantive Due Process (“SDP”) in the early twentieth century. In Lochner v. New York, the Court established that there are certain unenumerated rights that are implied by the Fourteenth Amendment.Though SDP originated in a case about worker’s rights and liberties, it quickly became relevant to many cases surrounding personal intimate decisions involving health, safety, marriage, sexual activity, and reproduction.Over the past 60 years, the Court relied upon SDP to justify expanding a fundamental right to privacy, liberty, and the right to medical decision making. Specifically, the court applied these concepts to allow for freedoms …


My Patient Or Law Enforcement, Who Gets First Say?, Hollis T, Redden Apr 2024

My Patient Or Law Enforcement, Who Gets First Say?, Hollis T, Redden

Arkansas Law Notes

Law enforcement is often left struggling with determining how to appropriately respond to nurses who refuse their request to collect a suspect’s blood when that patient is suspected of intoxicated driving and the officer has a valid search warrant. These scenarios trigger compliance issues including a patient’s right to privacy and consent, “particularly when a medical entity’s compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) provisions directly conflicts with law enforcement needs and goals.” Once a suspect becomes a patient, whose interest prevails? Is it healthcare providers’ interest in abiding by the rights, health, and safety …


The World Health Organization Was Born As A Normative Agency: Seventy-Five Years Of Global Health Law Under Who Governance, Lawrence O. Gostin, Benjamin Mason Meier, Safura Abdool Karim, Judith Bueno De Mesquita, Gian Luca Burci, Danwood Chirwa, Alexandra Finch, Eric A. Friedman, Roojin Habibi, Sam F. Halabi, Tsung-Ling Lee, Brigit Toebes, Pedro Villarreal Apr 2024

The World Health Organization Was Born As A Normative Agency: Seventy-Five Years Of Global Health Law Under Who Governance, Lawrence O. Gostin, Benjamin Mason Meier, Safura Abdool Karim, Judith Bueno De Mesquita, Gian Luca Burci, Danwood Chirwa, Alexandra Finch, Eric A. Friedman, Roojin Habibi, Sam F. Halabi, Tsung-Ling Lee, Brigit Toebes, Pedro Villarreal

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The World Health Organization (WHO) was born as a normative agency and has looked to global health law to structure collective action to realize global health with justice. Framed by its constitutional authority to act as the directing and coordinating authority on international health, WHO has long been seen as the central actor in the development and implementation of global health law. However, WHO has faced challenges in advancing law to prevent disease and promote health over the past 75 years, with global health law constrained by new health actors, shifting normative frameworks, and soft law diplomacy. These challenges were …


Clearing The Path: Improving Implementation Of Georgia’S Pathways To Coverage Program, Nicholas Smith Apr 2024

Clearing The Path: Improving Implementation Of Georgia’S Pathways To Coverage Program, Nicholas Smith

Emory Law Journal Online

Georgia’s Medicaid program is in flux. The State recently launched Pathways to Coverage, a partial Medicaid expansion program for non-disabled adults in households under 100% of the Federal Poverty Line, with eligibility contingent on reporting 80 hours of work per month. Pathways’ rollout coincides with Medicaid “unwinding,” an ongoing post-COVID redetermination process in which thousands of Georgians have already lost coverage. As such, Pathways could play an important role in offsetting the unwinding’s disenrollment effects. But Pathways may also serve as a test case for conservative lawmakers hoping to institute (or reinstitute) work requirements to restrict Medicaid coverage in their …


Brief For Amici Curiae Legal Scholars Supporting Respondent, Nicole Huberfeld, Timothy S. Jost, Linda C. Mcclain, Wendy E. Parmet, Erwin Chemerinsky, Elizabeth Mccuskey, Danielle Pelfrey Duryea, Gabriel Scheffler, George J. Annas Mar 2024

Brief For Amici Curiae Legal Scholars Supporting Respondent, Nicole Huberfeld, Timothy S. Jost, Linda C. Mcclain, Wendy E. Parmet, Erwin Chemerinsky, Elizabeth Mccuskey, Danielle Pelfrey Duryea, Gabriel Scheffler, George J. Annas

Faculty Scholarship

QUESTION PRESENTED: Whether the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1395dd, preempts Idaho law in the narrow but important circumstance where terminating a pregnancy is required to stabilize an emergency medical condition that would otherwise threaten serious harm to the pregnant woman’s health but the State prohibits an emergency-room physician from providing that care.


Financing Reforms To Meet A Pivotal Moment In Global Health, Kevin A. Klock, Alexandra Finch, Lawrence O. Gostin Mar 2024

Financing Reforms To Meet A Pivotal Moment In Global Health, Kevin A. Klock, Alexandra Finch, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

2024 will be the most important moment for global health since the World Health Organization’s founding in 1948, but only if states give major reforms their full political and financial backing. Bold new commitments in disease surveillance, capacity building, and more equitable access to health products cannot be achieved without ample and sustainable funding. In this essay, we discuss major reforms found in the emerging pandemic agreement and reformed International Health Regulations and then explore the significant challenges and opportunities for financing them.


Charging Abortion, Milan Markovic Mar 2024

Charging Abortion, Milan Markovic

Faculty Scholarship

As long as Roe v. Wade remained good law, prosecutors could largely avoid the question of abortion. The Supreme Court’s decision in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization has now placed prosecutors at the forefront of the abortion wars. Some chief prosecutors in antiabortion states have pledged to not enforce antiabortion laws, whereas others are targeting even out-of-state providers. This post-Dobbs reality, wherein the ability to obtain an abortion depends not only on the politics of one’s state but also the policies of one’s local district attorney, has received minimal scrutiny from legal scholars.

Prosecutors have broad charging discretion, …


What Can State Medical Boards Do To Effectively Address Serious Ethical Violations?, Tristan Mcintosh, Elizabeth Pendo, Heidi A. Walsh, Kari A. Baldwin, Patricia King, Emily E. Anderson, Catherine V. Caldicott, Jeffrey D. Carter, Sandra H. Johnson, Katherine Matthews, William A. Norcross, Dana C. Shaffer, James M. Dubois Mar 2024

What Can State Medical Boards Do To Effectively Address Serious Ethical Violations?, Tristan Mcintosh, Elizabeth Pendo, Heidi A. Walsh, Kari A. Baldwin, Patricia King, Emily E. Anderson, Catherine V. Caldicott, Jeffrey D. Carter, Sandra H. Johnson, Katherine Matthews, William A. Norcross, Dana C. Shaffer, James M. Dubois

Articles

State Medical Boards (SMBs) can take severe disciplinary actions (e.g., license revocation or suspension) against physicians who commit egregious wrongdoing in order to protect the public. However, there is noteworthy variability in the extent to which SMBs impose severe disciplinary action. In this manuscript, we present and synthesize a subset of 11 recommendations based on findings from our team’s larger consensus-building project that identified a list of 56 policies and legal provisions SMBs can use to better protect patients from egregious wrongdoing by physicians.


Against Bankruptcy: Public Litigation Values Versus The Endless Quest For Global Peace In Mass Litigation, Abbe Gluck, Elizabeth Chamblee Burch, Adam Zimmerman Feb 2024

Against Bankruptcy: Public Litigation Values Versus The Endless Quest For Global Peace In Mass Litigation, Abbe Gluck, Elizabeth Chamblee Burch, Adam Zimmerman

Scholarly Works

Can bankruptcy court solve a public health crisis? Should the goal of “global peace” in complex lawsuits trump traditional litigation values in a system grounded in public participation and jurisdictional redundancy? How much leeway do courts have to innovate civil procedure?

These questions have finally reached the Supreme Court in Harrington v. Purdue Pharma L.P., the $6 billion bankruptcy that purports to achieve global resolution of all current and future opioids suits against the company and its former family owners, the Sacklers. The case provides a critical opportunity to reflect on what is lost when parties in mass torts find …


Porter Et Al. V. Mccormack Et Al. - Warren Circuit Court (Sc 3717), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Feb 2024

Porter Et Al. V. Mccormack Et Al. - Warren Circuit Court (Sc 3717), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid and scan (Click on "Additional Files" below) for Manuscripts Small Collection 3717. Case file for L.R. Porter and Lizzie Porter v J. N. McCormack, John H. Blackburn, Henry James and Tom Potter (Warren County, Kentucky Circuit Court) relating to a restraining order secured by Luther R. Porter of Bowling Green to block the removal of his smallpox-infected daughter and the rest of the family to the local pest house. Includes affidavits of physicians, public health officials and locals familiar with the pest house. The restraining order was subsequently lifted by a Louisville judge. Also includes a 1902 Courier-Journal …


Legal, Policy, And Environmental Scholars Discuss Global Food Systems At Indiana Law Symposium, James Owsley Boyd Jan 2024

Legal, Policy, And Environmental Scholars Discuss Global Food Systems At Indiana Law Symposium, James Owsley Boyd

Keep Up With the Latest News from the Law School (blog)

The Indiana University Maurer School of Law and its Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies are hosting scholars from around the country Friday and Saturday (Jan. 19-20) for an interdisciplinary discussion on one of the world’s most prevalent problems—food insecurity.

Data from the World Bank estimate more than 780 million people around the world suffered from chronic hunger in 2022. As climate change affects agricultural production and water accessibility, the problem could worsen in coming years.

“A Fragile Framework: How Global Food Systems Intersect with the International Legal Order, the Environment, and the World’s Populations” will bring together legal, policy, …


Refugee Health In Philadelphia, Marc Altshuler, Md Jan 2024

Refugee Health In Philadelphia, Marc Altshuler, Md

Academic Commons Workshops and Presentations

No abstract provided.


Video Endoscopy As Big Data: Balancing Privacy And Progress In Gastroenterology, Eugenia N. Uche-Anya, Sara Gerke, Tyler M. Berzin Jan 2024

Video Endoscopy As Big Data: Balancing Privacy And Progress In Gastroenterology, Eugenia N. Uche-Anya, Sara Gerke, Tyler M. Berzin

Faculty Scholarly Works

Tens of millions of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy videos and images are generated annually in the United States (1). A single 15-minute endoscopic procedure, recorded at 30 frames per second, generates approximately 27,000 high-definition images, representing a treasure trove of potential data. In the era of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML), this data stream will not only fuel innovative and clinically impactful research in gastroenterology for both academic and commercial purposes, but also introduce ethical and legal concerns that merit consideration. Gastroenterologists are now faced with navigating new questions around data privacy and data ownership that have …


Drug Dealing And The Internal Morality Of Medicine, Matt Lamkin Jan 2024

Drug Dealing And The Internal Morality Of Medicine, Matt Lamkin

Articles, Chapters in Books and Other Contributions to Scholarly Works

Which practices qualify as “medical” in nature? This question has important legal implications. Every state has laws prohibiting the “unauthorized practice of medicine.” Health insurance policies generally limit coverage to procedures that are “medically necessary.” And physicians can be prosecuted as drug traffickers if they prescribe controlled substances without a “legitimate medical purpose.” Each of these questions—and many others—hinge on how medicine is defined.

As with many common terms, we all have a general understanding of what medicine is and this heuristic suffices to carry us through our daily lives without complication. Yet when called on to produce a precise …


Reproductive Rights And Medico-Legal Education Post-Dobbs: A Fireside Chat, Michael S. Sinha, Anna Krotinger, Maya A. Phan, Louise P. King Jan 2024

Reproductive Rights And Medico-Legal Education Post-Dobbs: A Fireside Chat, Michael S. Sinha, Anna Krotinger, Maya A. Phan, Louise P. King

All Faculty Scholarship

The Supreme Court’s 2022 decision in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization was a pivotal moment that reshaped the landscape of abortion policy and delivery of abortion care in the United States. To create a space for critical reflection on the implications of Dobbs for the teaching and learning of abortion care in both medical and legal education, the authors engage in a dialogue highlighting the varied perspectives of professionals and professionals-in-training in both the medical and legal professions. As new attacks on reproductive autonomy continue at both state and federal levels, we foreshadow a tumultuous landscape for abortion policy …


Challenging The Criminalization Of Undocumented Drivers Through A Health-Justice Framework, Jason A. Cade Jan 2024

Challenging The Criminalization Of Undocumented Drivers Through A Health-Justice Framework, Jason A. Cade

Scholarly Works

States increasingly use driver’s license laws to further policy objectives unrelated to road safety. This symposium contribution employs a health justice lens to focus on one manifestation of this trend—state schemes that prohibit noncitizen residents from accessing driver’s licenses and then impose criminal sanctions for driving without authorization. Status-based no-license laws not only facilitate legally questionable enforcement of local immigration priorities but also impose structural inequities with long-term health consequences for immigrants and their family members, including US citizen children. Safe, reliable transportation is a significant social determinant of health for individuals, families, and communities. Applying a health justice lens …


The Mature Minor Doctrine And Covid Vaccination In Connecticut, Brianna Cyr Jan 2024

The Mature Minor Doctrine And Covid Vaccination In Connecticut, Brianna Cyr

Connecticut Law Review

The mature minor doctrine is an exception to the common law rule of parental informed consent for a child’s medical decisions. The mature minor doctrine is applicable as either doctrine or statute in some states, but not all. Connecticut currently upholds the common law view for a minor child’s medical decision-making authority. Consequently, one prominent topic of discussion in recent years deals with the Covid-19 pandemic and the public policy discussions over nation-wide vaccination efforts. Many minors, children legally under the age of eighteen, are looking to make their own medical decisions when dealing with vaccination for the Coronavirus. By …


Employers And The Privatization Of Public Health, Sharona Hoffman Jan 2024

Employers And The Privatization Of Public Health, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

This Article focuses on the role of employers in public health and argues that they constitute increasingly important actors in the U.S. public health arena. In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, a series of judicial decisions and newly enacted statutes enfeebled the public health powers of the federal and state governments. In a 2023 statement, Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch clearly articulated his antagonism towards government-initiated COVID-19 interventions, describing them as “the greatest intrusions on civil liberties in the peacetime history of this country.” All too many share his views.

Employers may be highly motivated to safeguard their workers’ …


Ai Renaissance: Pharmaceuticals And Diagnostic Medicine, Ty J. Feeney, Michael S. Sinha Jan 2024

Ai Renaissance: Pharmaceuticals And Diagnostic Medicine, Ty J. Feeney, Michael S. Sinha

All Faculty Scholarship

The explosive growth of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the modern era has led to significant advancements in the world of medicine. In drug discovery, AI technology is used to classify proteins as drug targets or non-targets for specific diseases, more accurately interpret and describe pharmacology in a quantitative fashion, and predict protein structures based on only a protein sequence for input. AI methods are used in drug development to generate predictive models for drug screening purposes, refine and modify candidate structures of drugs to optimize compounds, and predict a drug’s physiochemical properties, bioactivity, and toxicity. For medical devices, the advancement …


Brief Of Amici Curiae In Support Of The United States: Moyle & Idaho V. United States, David S. Cohen, Greer Donley, Rachel Rebouché Jan 2024

Brief Of Amici Curiae In Support Of The United States: Moyle & Idaho V. United States, David S. Cohen, Greer Donley, Rachel Rebouché

Amici Briefs

This amicus brief, submitted to the Supreme Court in Moyle v. United States, argues that Moyle, and the impending circuit split surrounding it, is a symptom of a larger workability problem with the Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization framework. Dobbs is already proving, in its brief existence, to be unworkable, and must be overturned. In short order, the Dobbs ruling has ushered in an era of unprecedented legal and doctrinal chaos, precipitating a fury of disorienting legal battles across the country. The Dobbs framework has created destabilizing conflicts between federal and state authorities, as in the current …


Covid-19 Pediatric Vaccine Authorization, Fda Authority, And Individual Misperception Of Risk, Joanna K. Sax, Neal Doran Jan 2024

Covid-19 Pediatric Vaccine Authorization, Fda Authority, And Individual Misperception Of Risk, Joanna K. Sax, Neal Doran

Faculty Scholarship

Vaccines are one component to the public health strategies to alleviate the COVID-19 pandemic. Hesitancy regarding COVID-19 vaccines in the United States has been problematic, which is not surprising given increasing overall vaccine hesitancy in recent decades. Most vaccines are administered during childhood years. Consequently, understanding hesitancy toward administration of vaccines in this age group may provide insight into possible interventions to reduce vaccine hesitancy. The present study analyzed a subset of over 130,000 public comments posted in response to a notice of meeting of the vaccine advisory group to the Food and Drug Administration. The meeting addressed whether to …


Patient Autonomy, Public Safety, And Drivers With Cognitive Decline, Sharona Hoffman, Cassandra Burke Robertson Jan 2024

Patient Autonomy, Public Safety, And Drivers With Cognitive Decline, Sharona Hoffman, Cassandra Burke Robertson

Faculty Publications

With a growing elderly population, cognitive decline in drivers has become a significant public safety concern. Currently, over thirty-two million individuals who are seventy or older have driver’s licenses, and that number is growing quickly. In addition, almost ten percent of U.S. seniors (those sixty-five and older) have dementia, and an additional twenty-two percent have mild cognitive impairment. Between a quarter and a half of individuals with mild to moderate dementia still drive. As cognitive abilities such as memory, attention, and decision-making skills deteriorate, a driver's ability to operate a vehicle safely can be compromised. This not only puts the …


Locating Liability For Medical Ai, W. Nicholson Price Ii, I. Glenn Cohen Jan 2024

Locating Liability For Medical Ai, W. Nicholson Price Ii, I. Glenn Cohen

Articles

When medical AI systems fail, who should be responsible, and how? We argue that various features of medical AI complicate the application of existing tort doctrines and render them ineffective at creating incentives for the safe and effective use of medical AI. In addition to complexity and opacity, the problem of contextual bias, where medical AI systems vary substantially in performance from place to place, hampers traditional doctrines. We suggest instead the application of enterprise liability to hospitals—making them broadly liable for negligent injuries occurring within the hospital system—with an important caveat: hospitals must have access to the information needed …


Structural Sex Discrimination: Why Gynecology Patients Suffer Avoidable Injuries And What The Law Can Do About It, Christopher Robertson, Annabel Kupke, Louise P. King Jan 2024

Structural Sex Discrimination: Why Gynecology Patients Suffer Avoidable Injuries And What The Law Can Do About It, Christopher Robertson, Annabel Kupke, Louise P. King

Faculty Scholarship

The nearly four million Americans who undergo gynecological surgeries each year suffer avoidable lifelong, painful, and disabling injuries. This Article diagnoses the root cause in our legal framework for healthcare finance and identifies legal solutions.

America’s public-private system for reimbursing healthcare pays for procedures rather than outcomes, and it pays substantially more for work on male rather than female anatomies. This disparity is due to the federal government’s reliance on a secretive industry committee to set those rates, and the committee’s reliance on junk science surveys, allowing self-interested and gender-biased responses, contrary to objective measures.

As payors disvalue the bodies …


Human Rights In Hospitals: An End To Routine Shackling, Neil Singh Bedi, Nisha Mathur, Judy D. Wang, Avital Rech, Nancy Gaden, George J. Annas, Sondra S. Crosby Jan 2024

Human Rights In Hospitals: An End To Routine Shackling, Neil Singh Bedi, Nisha Mathur, Judy D. Wang, Avital Rech, Nancy Gaden, George J. Annas, Sondra S. Crosby

Faculty Scholarship

Medical students (NSB, NM, JDW) spearheaded revision of the policy and clinical practice for shackling incarcerated patients at Boston Medical Center (BMC), the largest safety net hospital in New England. In American hospitals, routine shackling of incarcerated patients with metal restraints is widespread—except for perinatal patients—regardless of consciousness, mobility, illness severity, or age. The modified policy includes individualized assessments and allows incarcerated patients to be unshackled if they meet defined criteria. The students also formed the Stop Shackling Patients Coalition (SSP Coalition) of clinicians, public health practitioners, human rights advocates, and community members determined to humanize the inpatient treatment of …


Abortion Disorientation, Greer Donley, Caroline M. Kelly Jan 2024

Abortion Disorientation, Greer Donley, Caroline M. Kelly

Articles

The word “abortion” pervades public discourse in the wake of Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization. But do we know what it means? Not only do law and medicine define it differently; state legislatures have codified wildly different definitions of abortion across jurisdictions. Our analysis exposes inherent ambiguities at the boundaries of the term, particularly as abortion intersects with other categories that we often think of as distinct: pregnancy loss, ectopic pregnancy, and other forms of medically necessary care. By juxtaposing statutory text next to real people’s experiences of being denied care in states with abortion bans, we reveal …


A Critical Juncture For Human Rights In Global Health: Strengthening Human Rights Through Global Health Law Reforms, Benjamin Mason Meier, Luciano Bottini Filho, Judith Bueno De Mesquita, Roojin Habibi, Sharifah Sekalala, Lawrence O. Gostin Dec 2023

A Critical Juncture For Human Rights In Global Health: Strengthening Human Rights Through Global Health Law Reforms, Benjamin Mason Meier, Luciano Bottini Filho, Judith Bueno De Mesquita, Roojin Habibi, Sharifah Sekalala, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), establishing a human rights foundation under the United Nations (UN), has become a cornerstone of global health, central to public health policies throughout the world. As the world commemorates the 75th anniversary of the UDHR on 10 December, this “Human Rights Day” celebration arrives at a critical juncture for human rights in global health, raising an imperative for World Health Organization (WHO) reforms to strengthen the right to health and health-related human rights.


The Devil Made Me Do It: An Argument For Expanding The Anti-Kickback Statute To Cover Private Payers, Chinelo Diké-Minor Dec 2023

The Devil Made Me Do It: An Argument For Expanding The Anti-Kickback Statute To Cover Private Payers, Chinelo Diké-Minor

Connecticut Law Review

Private health insurance is the predominant source of health insurance coverage in the United States. Yet, the primary criminal anti-kickback law in the United States, the Anti-Kickback Statute, applies only to certain government-funded health insurance payers. This Article argues that the Anti-Kickback Statute should be expanded to protect all health insurance payers, including private ones. First, the harms that kickbacks cause— overutilization and fraud, patient harm, and an undermining of a competitive health care market—extend to private payers and their beneficiaries and any harms unique to government payers can be addressed through sentencing enhancements. Second, Congress has previously justified excluding …