Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 319

Full-Text Articles in Law

Not That Bad: Lessons Women Learn In A Rape Culture, Sydney J. Selman May 2021

Not That Bad: Lessons Women Learn In A Rape Culture, Sydney J. Selman

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

In 2018, Roxane Gay assembled an anthology that addresses the severity of rape culture, rejecting the common belief that some sexually violent acts, compared to others, are not that bad. This collection, titled Not That Bad: Dispatches from Rape Culture, compiles pieces from thirty different authors and sheds light on how the notion of not that bad contributes to a broader structural social problem involving sexual violence. This social problem, known as rape culture, is commonly defined as a culture that normalizes sexual violence and blames victims of sexual assault (“What is Rape Culture?”). In other words, rape culture trivializes ...


Perceptions Of Lgbtqi+ Diversity In The Legal Profession: "It's Happening Slow, But It's Certainly Happening", Aidan Ricciardo, Stephen Puttick, Shane Rogers, Natalie Skead, Stella Tarrant, Melville Thomas Apr 2021

Perceptions Of Lgbtqi+ Diversity In The Legal Profession: "It's Happening Slow, But It's Certainly Happening", Aidan Ricciardo, Stephen Puttick, Shane Rogers, Natalie Skead, Stella Tarrant, Melville Thomas

ECU Publications Post 2013

This article reports on a qualitative study aimed at understanding how LGBTQI+ law students and recent graduates perceive and experience the legal profession. While we found that several participants self-censor in interactions with the profession, others considered their LGBTQI+ identity as advantageous, enabling them to benefit from ‘diversity hiring’. Despite this, many participants regarded the legal profession as ‘conservative’ and influenced by the ‘old guard’, which remains unaccepting of LGBTQI+ identities. Participants also considered the profession to be more accepting of some LGBTQI+ identities than others. We conclude by suggesting strategies to improve perceptions and experiences of the profession.


The Covid Ceiling: Super-Moms Are Struggling, Verónica Gonzales-Zamora Apr 2021

The Covid Ceiling: Super-Moms Are Struggling, Verónica Gonzales-Zamora

Faculty Scholarship

COVID Ceiling is the unique combination of identity, discipline, and academic work requirements with care crisis and public health crisis that is contributing to the current and soon larger wave of mental health crises.


Oral Interview: Contextualizing The Women's Rights Movement In Tunisia Through Family History, Walid Zarrad Jan 2021

Oral Interview: Contextualizing The Women's Rights Movement In Tunisia Through Family History, Walid Zarrad

Papers, Posters, and Presentations

In their path towards emancipation and equal rights, Tunisian women have gone through a number of phases that seem to be directly linked to legal changes and cultural factors. In fact, the Code of Personal Status (CPS) of 1956 seems to be a milestone in the women’s movement, and its following amendments continued on this path. However, it is a lot more complex than that. A piece of legislation officially passing is not a simple determinant of the state of Women’s Rights in a country.

Through Dorra Mahfoudh Draoui’s “Report on Gender and Marriage in Tunisian Society ...


Lawyers For White People?, Jessie Allen Jan 2021

Lawyers For White People?, Jessie Allen

Articles

This article investigates an anomalous legal ethics rule, and in the process exposes how current equal protection doctrine distorts civil rights regulation. When in 2016 the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct finally adopted its first ever rule forbidding discrimination in the practice of law, the rule carried a strange exemption: it does not apply to lawyers’ acceptance or rejection of clients. The exemption for client selection seems wrong. It contradicts the common understanding that in the U.S. today businesses may not refuse service on discriminatory grounds. It sends a message that lawyers enjoy a professional prerogative to discriminate ...


I Am Not Your Felon: Decoding The Trauma, Resilience, And Recovering Mothering Of Formerly Incarcerated Black Women, Jason M. Williams, Zoe Spencer, Sean K. Wilson Nov 2020

I Am Not Your Felon: Decoding The Trauma, Resilience, And Recovering Mothering Of Formerly Incarcerated Black Women, Jason M. Williams, Zoe Spencer, Sean K. Wilson

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Black women are increasingly targets of mass incarceration and reentry. Black feminist writers call attention to scholars’ need to intersectionalize analyses around how Black women interface with state systems and social institutions. This study foregrounds narratives from Black women to understand their plight while navigating reentry through a phenomenological approach. Through semi-structured interviews, narratives are analyzed using critical frameworks that authentically unearths the lived realities of participants. Themes reveal that for Black mothers, reentry can be just as criminalizing as engaging crime itself. These women face dire consequences around their mothering that induce them into tremendous bouts of trauma. Existing ...


Law School News: Bright Anniversaries In Uncertain Times 10/06/2020, Nicole Dyszlewski, Louisa Fredey Oct 2020

Law School News: Bright Anniversaries In Uncertain Times 10/06/2020, Nicole Dyszlewski, Louisa Fredey

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


A Retrospective Analysis Of Sex Education Messages Received By Lgb Youth, Jacqueline Bible, Alejandra Kaplan, Lisa D. Lieberman, Eva Goldfarb Sep 2020

A Retrospective Analysis Of Sex Education Messages Received By Lgb Youth, Jacqueline Bible, Alejandra Kaplan, Lisa D. Lieberman, Eva Goldfarb

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Using focus groups, this qualitative study asked thirty-five gay, lesbian, and bisexual (LGB) young adults to reflect on messages they received about sex and sexuality around the time they first had sex. Focus groups were conducted, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Through thematic analysis, the authors identified two messaging sources identified by participants: (1) formal education sources (i.e., school and parents), and (2) informal education sources (e.g., internet, peers). Formal sources often included messages perpetuating heteronormative assumptions, emphasizing abstinence, pregnancy and HIV/STI prevention, or silence as a form of messaging. Informal sources consisted of LGB-specific information. These findings ...


Law School News: Judge Rogeriee Thompson, Legal Pioneer Dorothy Crockett Among Influential "Women Of The Century" 08/19/2020, Eryn Dion, Roger Williams University School Of Law Aug 2020

Law School News: Judge Rogeriee Thompson, Legal Pioneer Dorothy Crockett Among Influential "Women Of The Century" 08/19/2020, Eryn Dion, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Oppression Or Occupation: Conflicting Views On The Nature Of Sex Work In France And Under International Law, Carver Wolfe Jul 2020

Oppression Or Occupation: Conflicting Views On The Nature Of Sex Work In France And Under International Law, Carver Wolfe

Politics and International Relations Presentations

Although there is some debate over the exact number of victims of sex trafficking, it is agreed upon that it is an issue that affect primarily women and girls around the world. This paper will examine modern day slavery and the unresolved, century-old debate surrounding sex trafficking and sex work. While abolitionists advocate for total eradication of all sex work, whether it is consensual or not, libertarians support the right to voluntary sex work while condemning the coercion and exploitation that surrounds all forms of trafficking. I will use an analysis of international conventions and will begin a comparative analysis ...


Oppression Or Occupation: An International Analysis Of Sex Work And Sex Trafficking, Carver Wolfe Jul 2020

Oppression Or Occupation: An International Analysis Of Sex Work And Sex Trafficking, Carver Wolfe

International Relations Summer Fellows

Although there is some debate over the exact number of victims of sex trafficking, it is agreed that it is an issue that affects primarily women and girls around the world. This paper will examine modern-day slavery and the unresolved, century-old debate surrounding sex trafficking and sex work. While abolitionists advocate for the total eradication of all sex work, whether it is consensual or not, libertarians support the right to voluntary sex work while condemning the coercion and exploitation that surrounds all forms of trafficking. I will use an analysis of international conventions and will begin a comparative analysis by ...


Resetting Normal: Women, Decent Work And Canada's Fractured Care Economy, The Canadian Women's Foundation, Canadian Centre For Policy Alternatives, Ontario Nonprofit Network, Fay Faraday Jul 2020

Resetting Normal: Women, Decent Work And Canada's Fractured Care Economy, The Canadian Women's Foundation, Canadian Centre For Policy Alternatives, Ontario Nonprofit Network, Fay Faraday

Commissioned Reports, Studies and Public Policy Documents

Women in Canada have been disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic to an extent that threatens to roll back equality gains. Economic losses have fallen heavily on women and most dramatically on women living on low incomes who experience intersecting inequalities based on race, class, disability, education, and migration and immigration status. The pandemic crisis has highlighted the fragility of response systems and the urgent need for structural rethinking and systemic change.


Creating And Undoing Legacies Of Resilience: Black Women As Martyrs In The Black Community Under Oppressive Social Control, Leah Iman Aniefuna, M. Amari Aniefuna, Jason M. Williams May 2020

Creating And Undoing Legacies Of Resilience: Black Women As Martyrs In The Black Community Under Oppressive Social Control, Leah Iman Aniefuna, M. Amari Aniefuna, Jason M. Williams

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

This paper contextualizes the struggles and contributions of Black motherhood and reproductive justice under police surveillance in Baltimore, Maryland. We conducted semi-structured interviews with mothers regarding their experiences and perceptions of policing in their community during the aftermath of the police-involved death of Freddie Gray. While the literature disproportionately focuses on Black males, little knowledge is known about the struggles and contributions of Black mothers in matters concerning police brutality and the fight against institutional violence. There still remains the question regarding the role of and impact on Black mothers during matters of institutional violence against Black children. We fill ...


Exploring The Overlap: Women Now’S Feminist Humanitarian Support And The Community Of Practice, Judith Bruce, Aisha Dennis Apr 2020

Exploring The Overlap: Women Now’S Feminist Humanitarian Support And The Community Of Practice, Judith Bruce, Aisha Dennis

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This conversation took place between Judith Bruce, Senior Associate and Policy Analyst of the Population Council, and Aisha Dennis, former Program Director for Women Now for Development. Women Now for Development’s mission is to initiate programs led by Syrian women that protect Syrian women and children across socioeconomic backgrounds and empower women to find their political voice and participate in building a new, peaceful Syria that respects and safeguards equal rights for all its citizens. Aisha’s impressive breadth of expertise includes conflict resolution and the application of international law through strategic litigation, as well as practical experience in ...


Encuadrar El Aborto: Un Estudio De Caso De Dos Medios Impresos Porteños Durante El Debate En El Congreso Nacional De Argentina En 2018 / Framing Abortion: A Case Study Of Two Buenos Aires Print Media During The Debate In The Argentina National Congress In 2018, Emma Lohman Apr 2020

Encuadrar El Aborto: Un Estudio De Caso De Dos Medios Impresos Porteños Durante El Debate En El Congreso Nacional De Argentina En 2018 / Framing Abortion: A Case Study Of Two Buenos Aires Print Media During The Debate In The Argentina National Congress In 2018, Emma Lohman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

En 2018 el Proyecto de Ley de la Interrupción Voluntaria del Embarazo fue presentado al Congreso Nacional de Argentina por la Campaña Nacional por el Derecho al Aborto Legal, Seguro y Gratuito, desatando un debate en todo el país sobre el tema. Dado que los medios impresos desempeñaban un rol importante en la conversación, me interesa investigar cómo dos medios impresos de Buenos Aires, el diario La Nación y la publicación comunitaria mensual Revista Cítrica encuadraron el aborto en sus artículos publicados entre junio y agosto de 2018. Utilizando una metodología cualitativa y teniendo en cuenta que los marcos realizan ...


¿“La Familia Diversa”?: Una Investigación En Constructos De Familias En Ecuador En El Siglo Xxi, Julia Cornick Apr 2020

¿“La Familia Diversa”?: Una Investigación En Constructos De Familias En Ecuador En El Siglo Xxi, Julia Cornick

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

En este ensayo, exploro la constitución ecuatoriana de 2008, específicamente el artículo 67 que reconoce y protege “la familia diversa”. Este artículo supuestamente reconoce “la familia en sus diversos tipos”. Pero, otras partes de la constitución y las acciones del gobierno niegan el artículo en muchas maneras. A pesar de las promesas rotas y palabrerías de la constitución, individuos y grupos en comunidades LGBTI en Ecuador existen afuera de la constitución cuando construyen “familias alternativas”. A través de formas de familias alternativas, los ecuatorianos pueden hacer familias alternativas y significado afuera de la constitución, y voy a investigar las implicaciones ...


From The Ulama To The Legislature: Hermeneutics & Morocco’S Family Code, Rachel Olick-Gibson Apr 2020

From The Ulama To The Legislature: Hermeneutics & Morocco’S Family Code, Rachel Olick-Gibson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study examines the role that Islamic law has played thus far in reforming the Moroccan Family Code, also known as the Moudawana. When King Mohammed VI reformed this law in 2004, Morocco received immediate international praise for its liberal strides towards gender equality. Through this study I investigated the hermeneutical tools and methods of ijtihad employed both by the drafters of the Moudawana and by activists leading up to the 2004 reforms. I then investigate impediments to the implementation of this Code in providing substantive legal rights to Moroccan women and the role that interpretation of Islamic law plays ...


Understandings Of Sexual Consent Among Male And Female Zulu South Africans In Masxha, Kwazulu-Natal, Larkin Levine Apr 2020

Understandings Of Sexual Consent Among Male And Female Zulu South Africans In Masxha, Kwazulu-Natal, Larkin Levine

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Though South Africa has an astonishingly high rate of rape and sexual violence, little research has been conducted on understandings of sexual consent outside of the context of rape and sexual violence in different South African communities. Instead, research has focused on understandings and perceptions of rape and sexual violence alone, ignoring the importance of understanding how individuals approach consent in healthy sexual relationships.

Through conducting semi-structured interviews with sixteen Zulu males and females of different ages, all of whom are residents of Masxha, I hoped to learn how these individuals understand sexual consent and how consent is requested, given ...


¿Es Suficiente La Ley De Parto Respetado? Una Investigación Sobre El Parto Respetado Y La Intervención Médica, A Partir De Las Opiniones De Los Profesionales De La Salud Y Una Organizacion De La Sociedad Civil En La Ciudad Autónoma De Buenos Aires, Argentina / Is The Respected Birth Law Enough? An Investigation On The Respected Birth And Medical Interventions Through The Opinions Of Health Professionals And A Civil Society Organization In The Autonomous City Of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Jennifer Rufino Apr 2020

¿Es Suficiente La Ley De Parto Respetado? Una Investigación Sobre El Parto Respetado Y La Intervención Médica, A Partir De Las Opiniones De Los Profesionales De La Salud Y Una Organizacion De La Sociedad Civil En La Ciudad Autónoma De Buenos Aires, Argentina / Is The Respected Birth Law Enough? An Investigation On The Respected Birth And Medical Interventions Through The Opinions Of Health Professionals And A Civil Society Organization In The Autonomous City Of Buenos Aires, Argentina, Jennifer Rufino

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

A través de los años, la medicalización y los avances en el campo de medicina ha garantizado un nivel de seguridad para el proceso del embarazo y el parto. Sin embargo, la intervención médica también ha producido una discusión sobre el aumento de cesáreas, el significado del parto respetado, y los derechos de la mujer. Esta investigación exploró las opiniones de los profesionales de salud y una organización de la sociedad civil sobre la ejecución del parto respetado y el aumentado de la tasa de cesáreas en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Dada la situación de aislamiento social ...


Women In Law Leadership: Inaugural Lecture: A "Fireside Chat" With Gillian Lester 2-18-2020, Roger Williams University School Of Law, Michael M. Bowden, Andrea Hansen Feb 2020

Women In Law Leadership: Inaugural Lecture: A "Fireside Chat" With Gillian Lester 2-18-2020, Roger Williams University School Of Law, Michael M. Bowden, Andrea Hansen

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Empowered Women Empower Women, Anne S. Douds Jan 2020

Empowered Women Empower Women, Anne S. Douds

Public Policy Faculty Publications

Good afternoon and thank you for your determination to hold this important event today regardless of the weather. When Jenny said that we would go forward rain, sleet, or snow, I did not anticipate that we would have all three in the same day!

Maybe your determination derives from the residual spirit of a group of women who gathered here 100 years ago, also determined, but that time they were determined to ensure that their community acknowledged their right to vote. They were empowered, excited, and ready to act because, five years prior, in 1915, Katherine Wentworth of the Pennsylvania ...


Marielle Franco, Rhaissa Sanches Jan 2020

Marielle Franco, Rhaissa Sanches

Faculty Curated Undergraduate Works

Marielle Franco was a Black, Brazilian activist (1979-2018) who rose from the favelas (poor areas) of Rio de Janeiro to be elected as a councilwoman in Rio's election of 2016. Franco was known for exposing the violence waged in the favelas by Brazil's military and police under the "pretense of maintaining law and order," as well as how the militia wields power over those who live in the favelas. In addition to detailing Franco's life, activism and death, this paper also explains the history and development of the favelas in Rio de Janeiro, as well as the ...


Healthcare Avoidance Due To Anticipated Discrimination Among Transgender People: A Call To Create Trans-Affirmative Environments, Luisa Kcomt, Kevin M. Gorey, Betty Jo Barrett, Sean Esteban Mccabe Jan 2020

Healthcare Avoidance Due To Anticipated Discrimination Among Transgender People: A Call To Create Trans-Affirmative Environments, Luisa Kcomt, Kevin M. Gorey, Betty Jo Barrett, Sean Esteban Mccabe

Social Work Publications

Transgender people encounter interpersonal and structural barriers to healthcare access that contribute to their postponement or avoidance of healthcare, which can lead to poor physical and mental health outcomes. Using the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey, this study examined avoidance of healthcare due to anticipated discrimination among transgender adults aged 25 to 64 (N ¼ 19,157). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether gender identity/expression, socio-demographic, and transgender-specific factors were associated with healthcare avoidance. Almost one-quarter of the sample (22.8%) avoided healthcare due to anticipated discrimination. Transgender men had increased odds of healthcare avoidance (AOR ...


Dealing With “Dilemmas Of Difference” In The Workplace, Rangita De Silva De Alwis, Sarah Heberlig, Lindsay Holcomb Jan 2020

Dealing With “Dilemmas Of Difference” In The Workplace, Rangita De Silva De Alwis, Sarah Heberlig, Lindsay Holcomb

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Over the course of six months, the University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School’s class “Women, Law, and Leadership” interviewed 55 women between the ages of 25 and 85, all leaders in their respective fields. Nearly half of the women interviewed were women of color, and 10 of the women lived and worked in countries other than the U.S., spanning across Europe, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Threading together the common themes touched upon in these conversations, we gleaned a number of novel insights, distinguishing the leadership trajectories pursued by women who have risen to the heights of their professions ...


Tramitación Social Después Del Trauma Colectivo: Un Análisis De Las Respuestas Colectivas En Torno El Trabajo De Las Abuelas De Plaza De Mayo De Argentina Después De La Última Dictadura Cívico-Militar / Social Processing After Collective Trauma: An Analysis Of The Collective Responses Around The Work Of Argentina’S Abuelas De Plaza De Mayo After The Most Recent Civic-Military Dictatorship, Sarah Horwitz Jan 2020

Tramitación Social Después Del Trauma Colectivo: Un Análisis De Las Respuestas Colectivas En Torno El Trabajo De Las Abuelas De Plaza De Mayo De Argentina Después De La Última Dictadura Cívico-Militar / Social Processing After Collective Trauma: An Analysis Of The Collective Responses Around The Work Of Argentina’S Abuelas De Plaza De Mayo After The Most Recent Civic-Military Dictatorship, Sarah Horwitz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Este ensayo investiga las respuestas colectivas al trabajo de las Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo en la Argentina. Las Abuelas son un grupo de mujeres con hijos y nietos que fueron desaparecidos sistemáticamente junto con 30.000 personas durante la última dictadura cívicomilitar de 1976 a 1983. En 1977, las Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo se juntaron para encontrar a sus nietos y nietas, muchos de los cuales habían sido entregados a familias cercanas a la dictadura. Aunque al día de hoy han recuperado más de 100 nietos y nietas, todavía falta más de 300. Esta investigación utiliza entrevistas personales ...


Rules, Tricks And Emancipation, Jessie Allen Jan 2020

Rules, Tricks And Emancipation, Jessie Allen

Book Chapters

Rules and tricks are generally seen as different things. Rules produce order and control; tricks produce chaos. Rules help us predict how things will work out. Tricks are deceptive and transgressive, built to surprise us and confound our expectations in ways that can be entertaining or devastating. But rules can be tricky. General prohibitions and prescriptions generate surprising results in particular contexts. In some situations, a rule produces results that seem far from what the rule makers expected and antagonistic to the interests the rule is understood to promote. This contradictory aspect of rules is usually framed as a downside ...


It's Complicated: The Impact Of Marriage Legalization Among Sexual Minority Women And Gender Diverse Individuals In The United States, Laurie Drabble, Angie Wootton, Cindy Veldhuis, Ellen Perry, Ellen Riggle, Karen Trocki, Tonda Hughes Jan 2020

It's Complicated: The Impact Of Marriage Legalization Among Sexual Minority Women And Gender Diverse Individuals In The United States, Laurie Drabble, Angie Wootton, Cindy Veldhuis, Ellen Perry, Ellen Riggle, Karen Trocki, Tonda Hughes

Faculty Publications

This mixed-methods study explored perceptions of the impact of marriage legalization in all U.S.states among sexual minority women and gender diverse individuals. Survey data were collectedfrom a nonprobability sample of individuals 18 years or older who identified as lesbian, bisexual,queer, same-sex attracted or something other than exclusively heterosexual—as well asindividuals who identified as transgender or gender nonbinary (for example, genderqueer, transwoman, trans man, nonbinary, or gender non-conforming). The analytic sample included 418participants in an online survey who responded to open-ended questions about the perceivedimpact of marriage legalization. Qualitative analyses revealed perceptions of marriagelegalization that situated individual ...


Reproducing Inequality Under Title Ix, Deborah L. Brake, Joanna L. Grossman Jan 2020

Reproducing Inequality Under Title Ix, Deborah L. Brake, Joanna L. Grossman

Articles

This article elaborates on and critiques the law’s separation of pregnancy, with rights grounded in sex equality under Title IX, from reproductive control, which the law treats as a matter of privacy, a species of liberty under the due process clause. While pregnancy is the subject of Title IX protection, reproductive control is parceled off into a separate legal framework grounded in privacy, rather than recognized as a matter that directly implicates educational equality. The law’s division between educational equality and liberty in two non-intersecting sets of legal rights has done no favors to the reproductive rights movement ...


Gender-Based Experiences Of Migrant Smuggling At The Us-Mexico Border, Sarah E. Rinehart Oct 2019

Gender-Based Experiences Of Migrant Smuggling At The Us-Mexico Border, Sarah E. Rinehart

Student Publications

The US-Mexico border has been increasing its security measures, which has corresponded with increases in migration. Due to increasing restrictions on who is able to legally migrate, many turn to irregular migration, and the more effective way of achieving irregular migration is through use of a migrant facilitator. Migrant smugglers are individuals who receive compensated for assisting others in crossing a national border through illegal means. In discourses about irregular migration from the media and political, migrant smugglers are typically portrayed as criminalized men who take advantage of vulnerable, victimized women migrants. While the experiences of men and women migrants ...


Law Versus Action: How Five Cape Town Organizations Are Combating High Rates Of Sexual Assault And The Failure Of Progressive Sexual Offences Legislation, Anna Tinker Oct 2019

Law Versus Action: How Five Cape Town Organizations Are Combating High Rates Of Sexual Assault And The Failure Of Progressive Sexual Offences Legislation, Anna Tinker

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This Independent Study Project (ISP) seeks to understand the work various Cape Town organizations are doing to help survivors of sexual assault gain access to justice. Previous research finds that social norms defining masculinity as well as rape myths and stereotypes lead to the high levels of gender-based violence (GBV) in South Africa. This research led to my hypothesis that organizations fighting GBV would target these norms to help survivors access the justice system that so frequently ignores them. Eight organizations were contacted requesting an interview to discuss their work and two agreed to participate. Participants were asked to discuss ...