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Professional Standards And The First Amendment In Higher Education: When Institutional Academic Freedom Collides With Student Speech Rights, Clay Calvert Jan 2017

Professional Standards And The First Amendment In Higher Education: When Institutional Academic Freedom Collides With Student Speech Rights, Clay Calvert

UF Law Faculty Publications

This Article examines rising tensions between institutional academic freedom and the First Amendment speech rights of college students. Specifically, the friction addressed here occurs when universities enforce external professional standards on students within their curricula. Initially, Part I provides a primer on institutional academic freedom. Part II then contrasts the vastly deferential Hazelwood approach to professional-standards disputes embraced by the Eighth Circuit in Keefe with the somewhat more rigorous ones adopted by the Ninth Circuit in Oyama and Minnesota’s Supreme Court in Tatro.


The American Bar Association Joint Task Force On Reversing The School-To-Prison Pipeline Preliminary Report, Sarah E. Redfield, Jason P. Nance Feb 2016

The American Bar Association Joint Task Force On Reversing The School-To-Prison Pipeline Preliminary Report, Sarah E. Redfield, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

In 2014, the American Bar Association (ABA) Coalition on Racial and Ethnic Justice (COREJ) turned its attention to the continuing failures in the education system where certain groups of students — for example, students of color, with disabilities, or LGBTQ — are disproportionately over- or incorrectly categorized in special education, are disciplined more harshly, including referral to law enforcement for minimal misbehavior, achieve at lower levels, and eventually drop or are pushed out of school, often into juvenile justice facilities and prisons — a pattern now commonly referred to as the School-to-Prison Pipeline. While this problem certainly is not new, it presented a ...


Rethinking Law Enforcement Officers In Schools, Jason P. Nance Jan 2016

Rethinking Law Enforcement Officers In Schools, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

A recent event that occurred in a South Carolina classroom illustrates why there should be concern about assigning law enforcement officers to work in public schools. In October of 2015, a teacher called a law enforcement officer into a classroom to handle a student behavior problem. A female student was using a cell phone in violation of school rules. Other students in the classroom captured what happened next by video. The videos show that when the student refused to exit the classroom, the officer grabbed her by the neck, flipped her and her desk to the floor, and then forcibly ...


Dismantling The School-To-Prison Pipeline: Tools For Change, Jason P. Nance Jan 2016

Dismantling The School-To-Prison Pipeline: Tools For Change, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

The school-to-prison pipeline is one of our nation’s most formidable challenges. It refers to the trend of directly referring students to law enforcement for committing certain offenses at school or creating conditions under which students are more likely to become involved in the criminal justice system, such as excluding them from school. This article analyzes the school-to-prison pipeline’s devastating consequences on students, its causes, and its disproportionate impact on students of color. But most importantly, this article comprehensively identifies and describes specific, evidence-based tools to dismantle the school-to-prison pipeline that lawmakers, school administrators, and teachers in all areas ...


Over-Disciplining Students, Racial Bias, And The School-To-Prison Pipeline, Jason P. Nance Jan 2016

Over-Disciplining Students, Racial Bias, And The School-To-Prison Pipeline, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

Over the last three decades, our nation has witnessed a dramatic change regarding how schools discipline children. Empirical evidence during this time period demonstrates that schools increasingly have relied on extreme forms of punishment such as suspensions, expulsions, referrals to law enforcement, and school-based arrests to discipline students for violations of school rules, including for low-level offenses. Many have referred to this disturbing trend of schools directly referring students to law enforcement or creating conditions under which students are more likely to become involved in the justice system—such as suspending or expelling them—as the “school-to-prison pipeline.” Perhaps the ...


School Surveillance And The Fourth Amendment, Jason P. Nance Jan 2014

School Surveillance And The Fourth Amendment, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

In the aftermath of several highly-publicized incidents of school violence, public school officials have increasingly turned to intense surveillance methods to promote school safety. The current jurisprudence interpreting the Fourth Amendment generally permits school officials to employ a variety of strict measures, separately or in conjunction, even when their use creates a prison-like environment for students. Yet, not all schools rely on such strict measures. Recent empirical evidence suggests that low-income and minority students are much more likely to experience intense security conditions in their school than other students, even after taking into account factors such as neighborhood crime, school ...


School Security Considerations After Newtown, Jason P. Nance Feb 2013

School Security Considerations After Newtown, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

On December 14, 2012, and in the weeks thereafter, our country mourned the deaths of twenty children and six educators who were brutally shot and killed at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut. Since the horrific massacre, parents, educators, and lawmakers have understandably turned their attention to implementing stronger security measures in schools. This essay provides important points for policymakers and school officials to consider before embarking on a new phase of school security upgrades.


Students, Security, And Race, Jason P. Nance Jan 2013

Students, Security, And Race, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

In the wake of the terrible shootings in Newtown, Connecticut, our nation has turned its attention to school security. For example, several states have passed or are considering passing legislation that will provide new funding to schools for security equipment and law enforcement officers. Strict security measures in schools are certainly not new. In response to prior acts of school violence, many public schools for years have relied on metal detectors, random sweeps, locked gates, surveillance cameras, and law enforcement officers to promote school safety. Before policymakers and school officials invest more money in strict security measures, this Article provides ...


How Not To Criminalize Cyberbullying, Lyrissa Barnett Lidsky, Andrea Garcia Jul 2012

How Not To Criminalize Cyberbullying, Lyrissa Barnett Lidsky, Andrea Garcia

UF Law Faculty Publications

This essay provides a sustained constitutional critique of the growing body of laws criminalizing cyberbullying. These laws typically proceed by either modernizing existing harassment and stalking laws or crafting new criminal offenses. Both paths are beset with First Amendment perils, which this essay illustrates through 'case studies' of selected legislative efforts. Though sympathetic to the aims of these new laws, this essay contends that reflexive criminalization in response to tragic cyberbullying incidents has led law-makers to conflate cyberbullying as a social problem with cyberbullying as a criminal problem, creating pernicious consequences. The legislative zeal to eradicate cyberbullying potentially produces disproportionate ...


Death Or Transformation? Educational Autonomy In The Roberts Court, Elizabeth Dale Jan 2008

Death Or Transformation? Educational Autonomy In The Roberts Court, Elizabeth Dale

UF Law Faculty Publications

In the aftermath of the Supreme Court's decisions in Grutter and Gratz a number of commentators argued that the Court had begun to embrace a new constitutional doctrine that required deference to the decisions of some institutions. Most notably they asserted that the Court would defer within the field of education. But even as they suggested that the Court was more willing to explore the doctrine, those two opinions left several large questions unanswered: Did the Court's embrace of institutional autonomy extend beyond higher education, into the K-12 realm? If so, what were its bounds? Was the doctrine ...


Institutional Academic Freedom Or Autonomy Grounded Upon The First Amendment: A Jurisprudential Mirage, Richard H. Hiers Jan 2007

Institutional Academic Freedom Or Autonomy Grounded Upon The First Amendment: A Jurisprudential Mirage, Richard H. Hiers

UF Law Faculty Publications

In recent decades, several federal judges and Supreme Court Justices have stated that, at some time or another in the past, the Court determined that public universities or their professional schools are entitled to institutional academic freedom (or institutional autonomy) under the First Amendment. Notwithstanding the views of many learned commentators, the Court has never so held. Concurring opinions and dicta do not constitute Constitutional law. This article traces the series of misattributions, misreadings and other errors that have contributed to the present peculiar state of confusion in regard to these matters.


School Discipline 101: Students' Due Process Rights In Expulsion Hearings, Melissa Frydman, Shani M. King Oct 2006

School Discipline 101: Students' Due Process Rights In Expulsion Hearings, Melissa Frydman, Shani M. King

UF Law Faculty Publications

Upholding the principle that school districts, as state actors, shall not deprive a student of liberty or property without due process of law, courts have expanded for more than four decades the Fourteenth Amendment's due process protection of public school students. Understanding this principle is essential to representing children in school discipline proceedings. Before presenting a practical guide to representing students in these proceedings, we offer a brief history of due process protection for children.


The Experimental Use Exception To Patent Infringement: Do Universities Deserve Special Treatment?, Elizabeth A. Rowe Jan 2006

The Experimental Use Exception To Patent Infringement: Do Universities Deserve Special Treatment?, Elizabeth A. Rowe

UF Law Faculty Publications

The experimental use exception is a common law exception to the patent-holder's exclusive right of use. It permits the use of another's patented device when such use is for philosophical inquiry, curiosity, or amusement. It has recently come under attack by many who consider it too narrow. They fear that the courts' "narrowing" of the experimental use exception will stifle research and innovation. Much of the discontent with the doctrine has been spurred by a relatively recent Federal Circuit opinion, Madey v. Duke University, which makes clear that a research university does not receive immunity under the experimental ...


Lessons From And For "Disabled" Students, Sharon E. Rush Apr 2004

Lessons From And For "Disabled" Students, Sharon E. Rush

UF Law Faculty Publications

The traditional understanding of "disabled" means to have a physical, mental, or emotional limitation. It is unfortunate that the word has negative connotations because we all have the ability to do some things and not others. An individual's disabilities, traditional or otherwise, do not diminish the person or detract from the universal tenet that all people are inherently equal and entitled to be treated with dignity. Generally, it is unproductive to compare the circumstances of one group with another for the purpose of discerning which group has it better or worse. Struggles by different groups to achieve equality have ...


Institutional Academic Freedom - A Constitutional Misconception: Did Grutter V. Bollinger Perpetuate The Confusion?, Richard H. Hiers Jan 2004

Institutional Academic Freedom - A Constitutional Misconception: Did Grutter V. Bollinger Perpetuate The Confusion?, Richard H. Hiers

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article begins with a review of language that eventually gave rise to the concept of institutional academic freedom, and includes a summary of lower court decisions embracing that concept or notion. The second part identifies certain constitutional problems in connection with the idea that institutional academic freedom can somehow be derived from or based upon the First Amendment. The third part describes and analyzes language in the Court's Grutter decision, language that may or may not have the effect of validating the concept of institutional academic freedom under the First Amendment.


Emotional Segregation: Huckleberry Finn In The Modern Classroom, Sharon E. Rush Jan 2003

Emotional Segregation: Huckleberry Finn In The Modern Classroom, Sharon E. Rush

UF Law Faculty Publications

This paper explores the harm of teaching The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in public school classrooms. Such harm can be broadly described as emotional segregation, which occurs when society sanctions disrespect. To illustrate the effects of emotional segregation, this article explores the reaction Black students and parents have to the novel to that of White students and parents. White students eagerly imagine being Huck and going on his adventures. Black students, however, cannot and should not even be asked to try to imagine being Huck and betraying their racial identity. But then who are the Black students supposed to identify ...


The Role Of The Administrator In Instructional Technology Policy, Philip T.K. Daniel, Jason P. Nance Jan 2002

The Role Of The Administrator In Instructional Technology Policy, Philip T.K. Daniel, Jason P. Nance

UF Law Faculty Publications

In response to national and state reform movements, and in an attempt to strengthen preparation standards for teachers and students, accreditation boards have prepared performance indicators in the area of technology. Such standards call for the full integration of technology in school curricula, formal coursework and professional development workshops for teachers, and an understanding on the part of teachers and students alike as to the legal and ethical issues surrounding the use of technology. The thesis of this research is that it is essential that school administrators be involved in all levels of planning and integrating technology into school curricula ...


Setting A New Standard For Public Education: Revision 6 Increases The Duty Of The State To Make ‘Adequate Provision’ For Florida Schools, Jon L. Mills, Timothy Mclendon Apr 2000

Setting A New Standard For Public Education: Revision 6 Increases The Duty Of The State To Make ‘Adequate Provision’ For Florida Schools, Jon L. Mills, Timothy Mclendon

UF Law Faculty Publications

Among the nine revisions proposed to Florida voters by the Constitution Revision Commission in 1998, Revision 6 fundamentally enhanced Florida's responsibility for public education. Revision 6 amended Article IX, Section 1, of the Florida Constitution, which sets forth the State's duty to provide for public education. Entitled “PUBLIC EDUCATION OF CHILDREN,” Revision 6 makes a declaration of the relative importance of education to the people of Florida, and describes as “paramount” the duty of the state to adequately provide for education. Revision 6 goes on to detail and raise the constitutional standard for what constitutes “adequate provision” for ...


The Heart Of Equal Protection: Education And Race, Sharon E. Rush Jan 1997

The Heart Of Equal Protection: Education And Race, Sharon E. Rush

UF Law Faculty Publications

Brown vs. Board of Education established more than the unconstitutionality of the separate but equal doctrine in public education. Brown also gave the importance of education a constitutional dimension. Involuntary racial segregation creates a stigma wherever it exists which indisputably affects all children's self-esteem by possibly undermining that of children of color and by artificially inflating that of White children. Unfortunately, more recent cases that raise questions about the right to a public education seem less willing to acknowledge the importance of education and the importance of integration in public education. Since Brown, the Court has held repeatedly that ...


New Restrictions On Academic Free Speech: Jeffries V. Harleston Ii, Richard H. Hiers Oct 1995

New Restrictions On Academic Free Speech: Jeffries V. Harleston Ii, Richard H. Hiers

UF Law Faculty Publications

Notwithstanding academic freedom's venerable and near-sacrosanct place among academicians in the United States today, the Supreme Court first accorded it constitutional status only in the 1950s. The Court did not recognize First Amendment speech rights of public employees generally until 1968. In subsequent years, the Court evolved two separate lines of cases: the one relating to, and generally protective of, academic freedom in public colleges and universities; the other, relating to the speech rights of public school teachers and public employees in other work contexts. The Supreme Court has yet to address the question whether the severely restrictive standards ...