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Wealth Accumulation At Elite Colleges, Endowment Taxation, And The Unlikely Story Of How Donald Trump Got One Thing Right, Mae C. Quinn Jan 2019

Wealth Accumulation At Elite Colleges, Endowment Taxation, And The Unlikely Story Of How Donald Trump Got One Thing Right, Mae C. Quinn

Journal Articles

President Donald Trump has· declared war on immigrants, diversity, and those who dare to dissent. Rooted in resentments about who people are, where they were born, and what they believe, these executive-led assaults are dangerous developments in the modern era. However, in the course of Trump's many retrograde tirades, he has somehow managed to get one thing right-too many elite private colleges in the United States, considered nonprofit entities, have amassed way too much wealth. This Article recounts this unlikely story, including how the Trump Administration's 2017 endowment tax could work to advance diversity. The new endowment tax ...


Post-Accountability Accountability, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2018

Post-Accountability Accountability, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

Over the past few decades, parental choice has exploded in the United States. Yet, despite early proponents’ hopes that parental choice would eliminate the need to regulate school quality—since parents’ choices would serve an accountability function—demands to use the law to hold chosen schools accountable for their academic performance are central features of education-reform debates today. This is an opportune time to consider the issue of academic accountability and parental choice. Parental choice has gained a firm foothold in the American educational landscape. As it continues to expand, debates about accountability for chosen schools will only intensify. The ...


Student Protests And Academic Freedom In An Age Of #Blacklivesmatter, Philip Lee Jan 2018

Student Protests And Academic Freedom In An Age Of #Blacklivesmatter, Philip Lee

Journal Articles

Student activism for racial equity and inclusion is on a historic rise on college and university campuses across the country. Students are reminding us that Black lives matter. They are bringing attention to the ways in which the normal operation of the legal system creates racial and other inequalities. They are critiquing the ways in which their experiences and perspectives are pushed to the margins in classrooms, on campuses, and in society.

In urging for university policies that allow for such activism to be moments of teaching and learning for all involved, I argue in this Article that student academic ...


Sector Agnosticism And The Coming Transformation Of Education Law, Nicole Stelle Garnett Apr 2017

Sector Agnosticism And The Coming Transformation Of Education Law, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

Over the past two decades, the landscape of elementary and secondary education in the United States has shifted dramatically, due to the emergence and expansion of privately provided, but publicly funded, schooling options (including both charter schools and private-school choice devices like vouchers, tax credits and educational savings accounts). This transformation in the delivery of K12 education is the result of a confluence of factors—discussed in detail below—that increasingly lead education reformers to support efforts to increase the number of high quality schools serving disadvantaged students across all three educational sectors, instead of focusing exclusively on reforming urban ...


Due Process In Public University Discipline Cases, Marie T. Reilly Jan 2016

Due Process In Public University Discipline Cases, Marie T. Reilly

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Expanding The Schoolhouse Gate: Public Schools (K-12) And The Regulation Of Cyberbullying, Philip Lee Jan 2016

Expanding The Schoolhouse Gate: Public Schools (K-12) And The Regulation Of Cyberbullying, Philip Lee

Journal Articles

Cyberbullying has received increasing societal attention in the aftermath of the tragic suicides of some of its youngest and most vulnerable victims — 15-year-old Phoebe Prince from Massachusetts, 13-year-old Ryan Halligan from Vermont, 12-year-old Sarah Lynn Butler from Arkansas, 15-year-old Grace McComas from Maryland, and 12-year-old Rebecca Ann Sedwick from Florida.

In this Article, I hope to provide states and their schools better guidance on how to effectively regulate cyberbullying that originates off campus. Specifically, I aim to make four unique contributions to the conversation.

First and foremost, I argue that cyberbullying is so harmful in and of itself that it ...


Disparate Impact, School Closures, And Parental Choice, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jul 2014

Disparate Impact, School Closures, And Parental Choice, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

We live in an era of parental choice. Today, forty-two states and the District of Columbia authorize charter schools, and twenty states and the District of Columbia permit students to use public funds to attend a private school. During the 2012-2013 school year, nearly 2 million children attended charter schools, and nearly 250,000 children received publicly funded scholarship to attend a private school. The expanding menu of publicly funded educational options is one (but by no means the only) factor contributing to the current, intensely controversial, waves of urban public school closures. In school-closure debates, proponents of traditional public ...


Where Schools Close In Chicago, Randall K. Johnson Jan 2014

Where Schools Close In Chicago, Randall K. Johnson

Journal Articles

This article tests the assumption that schools close disproportionately in disadvantaged parts of the city in order to explain where schools close in Chicago. It does so by introducing a new CPS closings data set.This data set sheds some light on the phenomenon by identifying 130 schools that closed over time, twenty-seven ZIP codes that experienced CPS closings, and three demographic characteristics of each ZIP code. As a result, the dataset helps to explain how CPS closings relate to race, income, and location.


The Case Of Dixon V. Alabama: From Civil Rights To Students' Rights And Back Again, Philip Lee Jan 2014

The Case Of Dixon V. Alabama: From Civil Rights To Students' Rights And Back Again, Philip Lee

Journal Articles

On February 25, 1960, African American students from Alabama State College participated in a sit-in at a segregated lunch grill at the Montgomery County Courthouse. The lunch grill refused to serve the students and ordered them to leave. The students left and went to the courthouse corridor, where they remained for an hour before going back to campus.

When Alabama State College learned of the students’ actions, it summarily expelled them without notice or hearing. In expelling the students, the college relied on Alabama State Board of Education regulations that allowed it to expel students for “conduct unbecoming a student ...


Are Charters Enough Choice? School Choice And The Future Of Catholic Schools, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2012

Are Charters Enough Choice? School Choice And The Future Of Catholic Schools, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

An essay is presented on Catholic and charter schools and the closing of such schools in the U.S. The academic performance, parental involvement and the after-school religious education targeted for charter school students is discussed. The connections between the Catholic and charter schools and the legal issues governing conversion to charter schools is also discussed along with the concerns in the urban community due the closure of Catholic schools.


Catholic Schools, Charter Schools, And Urban Neighborhoods, Margaret F. Brinig, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2012

Catholic Schools, Charter Schools, And Urban Neighborhoods, Margaret F. Brinig, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

This paper addresses implications for urban neighborhoods of two dramatic shifts in the American educational landscape: (1) the rapid disappearance of Catholic schools from urban neighborhoods, and (2) the rise of charter schools. In previous studies, we linked Catholic school closures to increased disorder and crime, and decreased social cohesion, in Chicago neighborhoods. This paper turns to two questions unanswered in our previous investigations. First, because we focused exclusively on school closures in our previous studies, we were uncertain whether our results reflected the work that open Catholic schools do as neighborhood institutions or whether we were finding a “loss ...


The Fallout From Our Blackboard Battlegrounds: A Call For Withdrawal And A New Way Forward, Mae C. Quinn Jan 2012

The Fallout From Our Blackboard Battlegrounds: A Call For Withdrawal And A New Way Forward, Mae C. Quinn

Journal Articles

In 1973, Time magazine described a national school system under siege.2 In its article "Blackboard Battlegrounds: A Question of Survival," Time reported that troubled urban youth were rejecting education, terrorizing teachers, and turning the country's schoolyards into battlefields. 3 Claiming that simple survival in the face of such insurgency had become the top priority of school administrators, the article quoted one educator as stating, "'You can't teach anything unless you have an atmosphere without violence."' Despite concerns about a culture of aggression and hostility within the education setting, the article went on to laud new national experiments ...


A Winn For Educational Pluralism, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2011

A Winn For Educational Pluralism, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

This short essay takes as its starting point on the Supreme Court’s recent decision in Winn v. Arizona Christian Tuition Organization, which involved an Establishment Clause challenge to Arizona’s scholarship tax program — a school-choice device that provides tax credits from state income taxes for donations to organizations granting scholarship to private K-12 schools. In Winn, a divided court ruled that taxpayers lack standing to challenge this and other tax credit programs — thereby dramatically limiting the Flast v. Cohen exception to the no-taxpayer-standing rule. The essay makes the case that the Winn will promote authentic educational pluralism by clearing ...


Immigrant Education And The Promise Of Integrative Egalitarianism, Victor C. Romero Jan 2011

Immigrant Education And The Promise Of Integrative Egalitarianism, Victor C. Romero

Journal Articles

Although not an equal protection case, Martinez v. Regents of the University of California challenges us to grapple with the Supreme Court’s post-Brown commitment to equal opportunity within the context of immigrant higher education. Sadly, Brown’s progeny from Bakke to Parents Involved reveals the cost of embracing a color-blind constitutionalism unmoored from a fundamental commitment to vigilantly combat subordination and dismantle unearned privilege. More optimistically, the Supreme Court’s gay rights jurisprudence developed in Romer v. Evans and Lawrence v. Texas provides insights into how a conservative court can accurately distinguish irrational discrimination from democratic deliberation, a lesson ...


The "Asian" Category In Mcas Achievement Gap Tracking: Time For A Change, Philip Lee Jan 2011

The "Asian" Category In Mcas Achievement Gap Tracking: Time For A Change, Philip Lee

Journal Articles

Data gathered on Asian American students in public school by the Massachusetts Department of Education are aggregated into one general “Asian” category, which may skew the results, both perpetuating an enduring myth and masking any true gaps that may exist for certain Asian American subgroups. As explored in this article, achievement gap tracking for the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System is an apt example.

In this article, I posit that this aggregation of many subgroups into one general “Asian” category perpetuates the myth of Asian Americans as a model minority, while downplaying any achievement gap that exists for certain Asian American ...


Affordable Private Education And The Middle Class City, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2010

Affordable Private Education And The Middle Class City, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

This Essay, which was prepared for a University of Chicago Law School’s symposium on “Rethinking the Local Government Toolkit,” argues that affordable private schools serve an important urban-development function: They partially unbundle the residential and educational decisions of families with children. Thus, state and local officials hoping to make our make central city neighborhoods attractive places to raise children should consider employing a familiar urban development tool - tax incentives - to make quality private schools more financially accessible to middle-income families. The Essay proceeds in three parts. Part I builds the case for a middle class city. Part II demonstrates ...


Catholic Schools, Urban Neighborhoods, And Education Reform, Margaret F. Brinig, Nicole Stelle Garnett Jan 2010

Catholic Schools, Urban Neighborhoods, And Education Reform, Margaret F. Brinig, Nicole Stelle Garnett

Journal Articles

More than 1,600 Catholic elementary and secondary schools have closed or been consolidated during the last two decades. The Archdiocese of Chicago alone (the subject of our study) has closed 148 schools since 1984. Primarily because urban Catholic schools have a strong track record of educating disadvantaged children who do not, generally, fare well in public schools, these school closures have prompted concern in education policy circles. While we are inclined to agree that Catholic school closures contribute to a broader educational crisis, this paper shies away from debates about educational outcomes. Rather than focusing on the work done ...


Simply Put: How Diversity Benefits Whites And How Whites Can Simply Benefit Diversity, Angela Mae Kupenda Jan 2008

Simply Put: How Diversity Benefits Whites And How Whites Can Simply Benefit Diversity, Angela Mae Kupenda

Journal Articles

Although there are surmountable legal barriers to racial integration in education, fuller integration is possible. But first, whites must see how they benefit from diversity, and, second, whites must take simple steps toward integration that may, in turn, reveal to whites their desire to become more fully integrated. These two steps may help remove the limiting point to true integration.


Can There Really Be "Free Speech" In Public Schools?, Richard W. Garnett Jan 2008

Can There Really Be "Free Speech" In Public Schools?, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

The Supreme Court's decision in Morse v. Frederick leaves unresolved many interesting and difficult problems about the authority of public-school officials to regulate public-school students' speech. Perhaps the most intriguing question posed by the litigation, decision, and opinions in More is one that the various Justices who wrote in the case never squarely addressed: What is the "basic education mission" of public schools, and what are the implications of this "mission" for officials' authority and students' free-speech rights. Given what we have come to think the Free Speech clause means, and considering the values it is thought to enshrine ...


Bush V. Holmes: School Vouchers, Religious Freedom, And State Constitutions, Richard W. Garnett, Christopher S. Pearsall Jan 2005

Bush V. Holmes: School Vouchers, Religious Freedom, And State Constitutions, Richard W. Garnett, Christopher S. Pearsall

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


The Theology Of The Blaine Amendments, Richard W. Garnett Jan 2004

The Theology Of The Blaine Amendments, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

The Supreme Court affirmed, in Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, that the Constitution permits us to experiment with school-choice programs and, in particular, with programs that include religious schools. However, the constitutions of nearly forty States contain provisions - generically called Blaine Amendments - that speak more directly and, in many cases, more restrictively, than does the First Amendment to the flow of once-public funds to religious schools. This Article is a series of reflections, prompted by the Blaine Amendments, on education, citizenship, political liberalism, and religious freedom.

First, the Article considers what might be called the federalism defense of the provisions. It concludes ...


Noncitizen Students And Immigration Policy Post-9/11, Victor C. Romero Jan 2003

Noncitizen Students And Immigration Policy Post-9/11, Victor C. Romero

Journal Articles

The purpose of this article is to describe the post-9/11 world for noncitizen students and scholars in light of recent federal legislation, specifically focusing on three laws: the USA-PATRIOT Act of 2001, the Border Commuter Student Act of 2002, and the proposed Capital Student Adjustment Act, currently pending in Congress. In all three, Congress is seen trying to walk the fine line between providing fair access to postsecondary education to noncitizen students and guarding against the possibility that such institutions are being used as a springboard for terrorist activity.


An Unconstitutional Stereotype: Catholic Schools As Pervasively Sectarian, Gerry Bradley Jan 2002

An Unconstitutional Stereotype: Catholic Schools As Pervasively Sectarian, Gerry Bradley

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Postsecondary School Education Benefits For Undocumented Immigrants: Promises And Pitfalls, Victor C. Romero Jan 2002

Postsecondary School Education Benefits For Undocumented Immigrants: Promises And Pitfalls, Victor C. Romero

Journal Articles

Should longtime undocumented immigrants have the same opportunity as lawful permanent residents and U.S. citizens to attend state colleges and universities? There are two typical justifications for denying them such opportunities. First, treating undocumented immigrants as in-state residents discriminates against U.S. citizen nonresidents of the state. Second, and more broadly, undocumented immigration should be discouraged as a policy matter, and therefore allowing undocumented immigrant children equal opportunities as legal residents condones and perhaps encourages "illegal" immigration. This essay responds to these two concerns by surveying state and federal solutions to this issue.


The Right Questions About School Choice: Education, Religious Freedom, And The Common Good, Richard W. Garnett Jan 2002

The Right Questions About School Choice: Education, Religious Freedom, And The Common Good, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Common Schools And The Common Good: Reflections On The School-Choice Debate, Richard W. Garnett Jan 2001

Common Schools And The Common Good: Reflections On The School-Choice Debate, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Students And Due Process In Higher Education: Of Interests And Procedures, Fernand N. Dutile Jan 2001

Students And Due Process In Higher Education: Of Interests And Procedures, Fernand N. Dutile

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Religion At A Public University, Gerard V. Bradley Jan 2001

Religion At A Public University, Gerard V. Bradley

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


School Choice, The First Amendment, And Social Justice, Nicole Stelle Garnett, Richard W. Garnett Jan 2000

School Choice, The First Amendment, And Social Justice, Nicole Stelle Garnett, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Education Reform At The Crossroads: Politics, The Constitution, And The Battle Over School Choice, Richard W. Garnett Jan 1999

Education Reform At The Crossroads: Politics, The Constitution, And The Battle Over School Choice, Richard W. Garnett

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.