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Redesigning Education Finance: How Student Loans Outgrew The “Debt” Paradigm, John R. Brooks, Adam J. Levitin Oct 2020

Redesigning Education Finance: How Student Loans Outgrew The “Debt” Paradigm, John R. Brooks, Adam J. Levitin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This Article argues that the student loan crisis is due not to the scale of student loan debt, but to the federal education finance system’s failure to utilize its existing mechanisms for progressive, income-based payments and debt cancellation. These mechanisms can make investment in higher education affordable to both individuals and the government, but they have not been fully utilized because of the mismatch between the current system’s economic reality and its legal, financial, and institutional apparatus.

The current economic structure of federal student loans does not resemble a true credit product, but a government grant program coupled ...


"Seg Academies," Taxes, And Judge Ginsburg, Stephen B. Cohen Jan 2015

"Seg Academies," Taxes, And Judge Ginsburg, Stephen B. Cohen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This essay recounts the historical, political, and legal context in which Judge Ginsburg’s ruling in the Wright case arose. This context explains the importance of her decision to the battle against segregated education and highlights as well the repeated efforts of powerful political forces, including the Reagan administration and congressional conservatives, to cripple efforts to prohibit racially discriminatory private schools from receiving federal subsidies through the tax system. This essay also aims to highlight Wright’s place in the modern doctrine of educational discrimination.


The Social Value Of Academic Freedom Defended, J. Peter Byrne Jan 2015

The Social Value Of Academic Freedom Defended, J. Peter Byrne

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This essay argues for the social value of academic freedom in law schools and in the university generally. It takes explicit issue with the arguments of Stanley Fish in Versions of Academic Freedom: From Professionalism to Revolution. The essay maintains that academic freedom is essential to a liberal society and deserving of constitutional protection because scholarship and teaching governed by disciplinary norms represents modernity's best secular effort at separating truth from falsehood.


Equality, Centralization, Community, And Governance In Contemporary Education Law, Eloise Pasachoff Jan 2015

Equality, Centralization, Community, And Governance In Contemporary Education Law, Eloise Pasachoff

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

A response to Robert Garda, Searching for Equity Amid a System of Schools: The View from New Orleans, 42 FORDHAM URB. L.J. 613 (2015).


Agency Enforcement Of Spending Clause Statutes: A Defense Of The Funding Cut-Off, Eloise Pasachoff Jan 2014

Agency Enforcement Of Spending Clause Statutes: A Defense Of The Funding Cut-Off, Eloise Pasachoff

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article contends that federal agencies ought more frequently to use the threat of cutting off funds to state and local grantees that are not adequately complying with the terms of a grant statute. Scholars tend to offer four arguments to explain—and often to justify—agencies’ longstanding reluctance to engage in funding cut-offs: first, that funding cut-offs will hurt the grant program’s beneficiaries and so will undermine the agency’s ultimate goals; second, that federalism concerns counsel against federal agencies’ taking funds away from state and local grantees; third, that agencies are neither designed nor motivated to pursue ...


Advocates, Federal Agencies, And The Education Of Children With Disabilities, Eloise Pasachoff Jan 2014

Advocates, Federal Agencies, And The Education Of Children With Disabilities, Eloise Pasachoff

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The aim of this essay, prepared for a symposium on dispute resolution in special education held at The Ohio State University Moritz College of Law in February 2014, is to highlight ways that advocates for children with disabilities can use federal agencies to improve the implementation and enforcement of federal laws protecting children with disabilities in schools—that is, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act as it relates to schools.

One can spend a lot of time engaging with the contemporary public conversation about the law ...


Conditional Spending After Nfib V. Sebelius: The Example Of Federal Education Law, Eloise Pasachoff Jan 2013

Conditional Spending After Nfib V. Sebelius: The Example Of Federal Education Law, Eloise Pasachoff

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In NFIB v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court’s recent case addressing the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act, the Court concluded that the expansion of Medicaid in that Act was unconstitutionally coercive and therefore exceeded the scope of Congress’s authority under the Spending Clause. This was the first time that the Court treated coercion as an issue of more than mere theoretical possibility under the Spending Clause. In the wake of the Court’s decision, commentators have expressed either the concern or the hope that NFIB’s coercion analysis may lead to the undoing of much of the federal ...


Book Review Of The Future Of School Integration: Socioeconomic Diversity As An Education Reform Strategy, Eloise Pasachoff Jan 2012

Book Review Of The Future Of School Integration: Socioeconomic Diversity As An Education Reform Strategy, Eloise Pasachoff

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The last decade has seen a quiet but steady expansion of interest in using socioeconomic diversity in schools to improve educational outcomes. Ten years ago, only a few school districts around the country used formal strategies to integrate their schools along class lines. Today, over eighty school districts around the United States, together educating around four million students, ensure that poor children are taught alongside middle-class and wealthier children through a variety of voluntary integration programs. The message of The Future of School Integration: Socioeconomic Diversity as an Education Reform Strategy, the important new book edited by Richard Kahlenberg, is ...


Coordinating Loan Repayment Assistance Programs With New Federal Legislation, Philip G. Schrag, Charles Pruett May 2011

Coordinating Loan Repayment Assistance Programs With New Federal Legislation, Philip G. Schrag, Charles Pruett

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

For decades, law school administrators, faculty members, students and graduates have worried about the problem of the ever-increasing cost of attendance at the nation’s law schools, and the rapidly rising average debt of graduating law students. The problem was particularly acute for students who desired careers in public service, because starting salaries in the government and non-profit sectors failed to keep pace with the increase in educational debt of law school graduates. In response, many law schools created loan repayment assistance programs (LRAPs), through which they subsidized loan repayment for some or all of their graduates who undertook public ...


Burying Our Heads In The Sand: Lack Of Knowledge, Knowledge Avoidance And The Persistent Problem Of Campus Peer Sexual Violence, Nancy Chi Cantalupo Apr 2011

Burying Our Heads In The Sand: Lack Of Knowledge, Knowledge Avoidance And The Persistent Problem Of Campus Peer Sexual Violence, Nancy Chi Cantalupo

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article discusses why two laws that seek to prevent and end sexual violence between students on college campuses, Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 ("Title IX") and the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act ("Clery Act"), are failing to fulfill that goal and how these legal regimes can be improved to reach this goal. It explicates how Title IX and the Clery Act ignore or exacerbate a series of "information problems" that create incentives for schools to "bury their heads in the sand" with regard to campus peer sexual violence. These ...


Accreditation Reconsidered, Judith C. Areen Jan 2011

Accreditation Reconsidered, Judith C. Areen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Higher education is one of the most successful sectors in the nation at a time when much of the economy is struggling. Its quality has been buoyed by a long tradition of investment, both public and private, and by a healthy degree of autonomy from governmental control. America’s three governance innovations, citizen governing boards, shared governance, and accreditation, also have encouraged both quality and institutional autonomy in higher education.

Accreditation has been a particularly important contributor to the institutional diversity and vitality of American colleges and universities. Most nations have a ministry of education that oversees institutions of higher ...


Special Education, Poverty, And The Limits Of Private Enforcement, Eloise Pasachoff Jan 2011

Special Education, Poverty, And The Limits Of Private Enforcement, Eloise Pasachoff

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This Article examines the appropriate balance between public and private enforcement of statutes seeking to distribute resources or social services to a socioeconomically diverse set of beneficiaries through a case study of the federal special education law, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It focuses particularly on the extent to which the Act’s enforcement regime sufficiently enforces the law for the poor. The Article responds to the frequent contention that private enforcement of statutory regimes is necessary to compensate for the shortcomings of public enforcement. Public enforcement, the story goes, is inefficient and relies on underfunded, captured, or ...


Governing Board Accountability: Competition, Regulation And Accreditation, Judith C. Areen Jan 2010

Governing Board Accountability: Competition, Regulation And Accreditation, Judith C. Areen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article examines the three primary ways in which the governing boards of American colleges and universities are held to account: (1) competition; (2) regulation, including state nonprofit corporation laws, tax laws, and licensing laws; and (3) accreditation. It begins by tracing how lay (meaning nonfaculty) governing boards became the dominant form of governance in American higher education. It argues that governing boards provide American institutions of higher education with an exceptional degree of autonomy from state control and that, together with the shared governance approach that gives faculties primary responsibility for academic matters, they have been a vital factor ...


The Parent As (Mere) Educational Trustee: Whose Education Is It, Anyway?, Jeffrey Shulman Jan 2010

The Parent As (Mere) Educational Trustee: Whose Education Is It, Anyway?, Jeffrey Shulman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The purpose of this Article is two-fold. First, the Article argues that the parent’s right to educate his or her children is strictly circumscribed by the parent’s duty to ensure that children learn habits of critical reasoning and reflection. The law has long recognized that the state’s duty to educate children is superior to any parental right. Indeed, the “parentalist” position to the contrary rests on an inflation of rights that is, in fact, a radical departure from longstanding legal norms. Indeed, at common law the parent had “a sacred right” to the custody of his child ...


How Should Colleges And Universities Respond To Peer Sexual Violence On Campus? What The Current Legal Environment Tells Us, Nancy Chi Cantalupo Jan 2010

How Should Colleges And Universities Respond To Peer Sexual Violence On Campus? What The Current Legal Environment Tells Us, Nancy Chi Cantalupo

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Over the last decade or so, various legal schemes such as the statutes and court or agency enforcement of Title IX and the Clery Act have increasingly recognized that certain institutional responses perpetuate a cycle of nonreporting and violence. This paper draws upon comprehensive legal research conducted on how the law now regulates school responses to campus peer sexual violence to show that schools face much greater liability from failing to protect the rights of campus peer sexual violence survivors than of any other group of students, including alleged assailants. By encouraging their institutions to develop more victim-centered responses to ...


Using Law And Education To Make Human Rights Real In Women’S Real Lives, Nancy Chi Cantalupo Jan 2010

Using Law And Education To Make Human Rights Real In Women’S Real Lives, Nancy Chi Cantalupo

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Three courses involving gender, human rights and global laws that the author teaches to two different groups (women’s/gender studies and international affairs undergraduates; and law students) demonstrate methods of making international human rights law and principles real to women’s real lives, as both an educational and activist project. By focusing on the linkages between “thinking globally” and “acting locally” in the area of gender and human rights, these courses suggest some ways of to educate and encourage students to actualize human rights laws and principles in their own communities and lives. The topics, methods and materials used ...


Neo-Orthodoxy In Academic Freedom, J. Peter Byrne Dec 2009

Neo-Orthodoxy In Academic Freedom, J. Peter Byrne

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This review essay analyzes two recent books that advance neo-orthodox theories of academic freedom: Matthew Finkin and Robert Post, For the Common Good: Principles of American Academic Freedom, and Stanley Fish, Save the World on Your Own Time. Both books develop principles articulated in the American Association of University Professors 1915 Declaration, which emphasize the role of faculty in advancing knowledge and the need to insulate professional evaluation of academic work from lay, political interference. This review essay defends the return to protection of the scholarly search for truth as the touchstone of academic freedom, offers critiques of the authors ...


Campus Violence: Understanding The Extraordinary Through The Ordinary, Nancy Chi Cantalupo Jan 2009

Campus Violence: Understanding The Extraordinary Through The Ordinary, Nancy Chi Cantalupo

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Recent mass shootings on college campuses have focused many on the responsibilities of colleges and universities to prevent and respond to such violence. However, in statistical terms, this type of campus violence can thankfully be considered relatively extraordinary. In contrast, the only type of campus violence that is unfortunately common enough to be characterized as “ordinary” is peer sexual assault and similar forms of campus gender-based violence. Accordingly, this essay explores the scope and dynamics of both “ordinary” and “extraordinary” campus violence, discusses the law and “best practices” dealing with peer sexual violence victims’ rights and the due process rights ...


No Ordinary Success: The Boundaries Of School Reform, James Forman Jr. Jan 2009

No Ordinary Success: The Boundaries Of School Reform, James Forman Jr.

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

How much can schools improve the life prospects of children growing up in poor neighborhoods? This question has divided the education community since at least the 1960s, when a group of researchers led by James Coleman attempted to quantify the extent to which segregation hurt black children. Coleman concluded that differences in family background had a greater impact on student achievement than did differences in school quality. Almost 40 years later, former New York Times education columnist Richard Rothstein revisited the question. In a series of lectures at Columbia University’s Teachers College that became the book Class and Schools ...


Doctrinal Dilemma, Girardeau A. Spann Jan 2009

Doctrinal Dilemma, Girardeau A. Spann

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In response to Kimberly West-Faulcon, The River Runs Dry: When Title VI Trumps State Anti–Affirmative Action Laws, 157 U. PA. L. REV. 1075 (2009).

Professor Kimberly West-Faulcon has identified a tension between state anti-affirmative action laws and the continued enrollment of minority students in public universities, and the author argues the tension is not surprising, because the voter initiatives that led to those state anti-affirmative action laws were transparently motivated by white majoritarian desires to reduce minority student enrollment in public universities. He feels what is surprising, however, is Professor West-Faulcon’s suggestion that state anti-affirmative action laws can ...


Government As Educator: A New Understanding Of First Amendment Protection Of Academic Freedom And Governance, Judith C. Areen Jan 2008

Government As Educator: A New Understanding Of First Amendment Protection Of Academic Freedom And Governance, Judith C. Areen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In Garcetti v. Ceballos, 547 U.S. 410 (2006), the Supreme Court held that statements made pursuant to the official duties of public employees are not shielded by the First Amendment from employer discipline, despite a warning from three dissenting justices that the holding could "imperil First Amendment protection of academic freedom in public college and universities." This article responds to the invitation in Garcetti to identify constitutional interests that support academic freedom and that are not fully accounted for by public-employee speech jurisprudence. It also argues that, contrary to common understanding, academic freedom is about more than faculty research ...


Disintegration, Girardeau A. Spann Jan 2008

Disintegration, Girardeau A. Spann

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The silver lining behind the Supreme Court's decision to disintegrate the Seattle and Louisville public schools is that the decision also runs the risk of disintegrating judicial review. Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 holds that the Constitution bars voluntary, race-conscious efforts by two local school boards to retain the racial integration that they worked so hard to achieve after Brown. In so holding, the Court curiously reads the Equal Protection Clause as preventing the use of race to pursue actual equality, and instead insists on a type of formal "equality" that has historically ...


Do Charter Schools Threaten Public Education? Emerging Evidence From Fifteen Years Of A Quasi-Market For Schooling, James Forman Jr. Jan 2007

Do Charter Schools Threaten Public Education? Emerging Evidence From Fifteen Years Of A Quasi-Market For Schooling, James Forman Jr.

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Supporters of public education have long feared that charter schools will threaten the public system, both by 1) creaming off the most advantaged students and 2) undermining political support for the public system. These fears have not been borne out. Blacks are disproportionately in charters, whites are disproportionately in traditional public schools, and Hispanics are fairly evenly distributed between the two. Looking at class measures, poor students are distributed fairly equally between the two types of schools. And turning to other measures of privilege, the evidence does not point strongly in either direction. My conclusions are not without qualification. The ...


The Rise And Fall Of School Vouchers: A Story Of Religion, Race, And Politics, James Forman Jr. Jan 2007

The Rise And Fall Of School Vouchers: A Story Of Religion, Race, And Politics, James Forman Jr.

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This Article examines why school vouchers have failed to garner the support that so many assumed would follow the Court's decision in Zelman. The explanation, I suggest, concerns religion, race, and politics. The original rationale for vouchers was what I call the "values claim"-vouchers protected the right of parents to send their child to a school that reinforced their values. Originally promoted by Catholics, the values claim was adopted by evangelical Christians concerned about the secularization of public schools after the 1960s. Although the values claim was central for most of the history of the voucher movement, in ...


A Response To Goodwin Liu, Robin West Jan 2006

A Response To Goodwin Liu, Robin West

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Professor Liu's article convincingly shows that the Fourteenth Amendment can be read, and has been read in the past, to confer a positive right on all citizens to a high-quality public education and to place a correlative duty on the legislative branches of both state and federal government to provide for that education. Specifically, the United States Congress has an obligation under the Fourteenth Amendment's Citizenship Clause, Liu argues, to ensure that the public education provided by states meets minimal standards so that citizens possess the competencies requisite to meaningful participation in civic life. Liu's argument is ...


Who Is The Child Left Behind? The Racial Meaning Of The New School Reform, Charles R. Lawrence Iii Jan 2006

Who Is The Child Left Behind? The Racial Meaning Of The New School Reform, Charles R. Lawrence Iii

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Segregated schools achieve their racist purpose by building a wall between poor black and brown children and those of us with privilege, influence, and power. It does not matter that this wall is not built pursuant to the mandate of law or that it is created by the cumulative effect of our private choices. It is segregation nonetheless and it encourages us to hoard our wealth on one side of the wall while children on the other side are left with little. The genius of segregation as a tool of oppression is in the signal it sends to the oppressor ...


Constitutional Academic Freedom After Grutter: Getting Real About The "Four Freedoms" Of A University, J. Peter Byrne Jan 2006

Constitutional Academic Freedom After Grutter: Getting Real About The "Four Freedoms" Of A University, J. Peter Byrne

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The Supreme Court's decision in Grutter v. Bollinger represents a high-water mark for the recognition and influence of constitutional academic freedom. The Court there relied, gingerly perhaps, on constitutional academic freedom, understood as some autonomy for university decision making on matters of core academic concern, to provide a compelling interest adequate to uphold flexible racial preferences in university admissions. Now that the dust has settled from direct import of the decision for affirmative action in admissions, it is important to consider what role constitutional academic freedom, as a working constitutional doctrine, should or may play within current disputes about ...


Neutralizing Grutter, Girardeau A. Spann Jan 2005

Neutralizing Grutter, Girardeau A. Spann

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Part I of this article argues that the Supreme Court lacks the institutional competence to formulate racial policy for the nation, and highlights the tension that exists between the Court's abstract preference for race neutrality and the concrete reality of contemporary race relations, in which dedicated efforts to promote racial balance offer the only meaningful hope of eliminating systemic discrimination. Part II discusses moderate strategies that can be used to deflect the impact of Grutter’s prohibition on racial balance, suggesting that racial balancing can be restructured in ways that the Supreme Court may view as constitutional. Part III ...


American Public Schools Fifty Years After Brown: A Separate And Unequal Reality, Sheryll Cashin Jan 2004

American Public Schools Fifty Years After Brown: A Separate And Unequal Reality, Sheryll Cashin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Public schools became more segregated in the 1990s. More so than our neighborhoods, our schools are bastions of race and class privilege on the one hand, and race and class disadvantage on the other. Black and Latino schoolchildren are bearing the heaviest costs of this separation. They tend to be relegated to high-poverty; overwhelmingly minority schools that are characterized by poorer test scores, less experienced teachers, and fewer resources than the type of public schools most white children attend. This Essay argues that public schooling has become the "great equalizer" in America because it tends to place white children in ...


The Threat To Constitutional Academic Freedom, J. Peter Byrne Jan 2004

The Threat To Constitutional Academic Freedom, J. Peter Byrne

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Since the late 1980s, the academic authority of colleges and universities has been subjected to continuing blasts of criticism. Culture warriors portray decayed institutions where sixties radicals have seized control and terrorize students and the few remaining honest faculty with demands for political conformity or bewilder them with incomprehensible theorizing. Some valid criticisms by these writers can be gleaned among their towering hyperbole and tendentious accusations. But the overall effect has been to paint for the broader public an alarming, misleading picture of intolerance and cant. The prevalence of this picture, however false it may be, imperils the constitutional autonomy ...