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Economics

2005

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Heights Of Justice (Introduction And Front Matter), Lawrence A. Cunningham Dec 2005

Heights Of Justice (Introduction And Front Matter), Lawrence A. Cunningham

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

In this pioneering book, Boston College Law School’s Academic Dean, Lawrence Cunningham, arranges selected contributions of his faculty’s scholarship into a meditation upon justice. The book weaves a combination of theory and practice to articulate moral and ethical values that facilitate rational application of law. It envisions legal arrangements imbued with commitments of the Jesuit tradition, including the dignity of persons, the common good and compassion for the poor. This reflective collection of inquiry evokes a signature motif of the BC Law faculty in dozens of different legal subjects. Materials downloadable from this abstract consist of: Table of ...


Did Reform Of Prudent Trust Investment Laws Change Trust Portfolio Allocation?, Max M. Schanzenbach, Robert H. Sitkoff Dec 2005

Did Reform Of Prudent Trust Investment Laws Change Trust Portfolio Allocation?, Max M. Schanzenbach, Robert H. Sitkoff

Law and Economics Papers

This paper investigates the effect of changes in state prudent trust investment laws on asset allocation in noncommercial trusts. The old prudent man rule favored “safe” investments

such as government bonds and disfavored “speculation” in stock. The new prudent investor rule, now widely adopted, relies on modern portfolio theory, freeing the trustee to invest based on risk and return objectives reasonably suited to the trust and in light of the composition of the trust portfolio as a whole. Using state- and institution-level panel data from 1986-1997, we find that after a state’s adoption of the new prudent investor rule ...


Equity Analysis And Natural Hazards Policy, Matthew D. Adler Nov 2005

Equity Analysis And Natural Hazards Policy, Matthew D. Adler

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

What is an “equitable” policy for mitigating the impacts of hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, and other natural hazards? Economists tend to see “equity” or “distribution” as irreducibly political and subjective. But, in truth, equity analysis and cost-benefit analysis are on a par. Both require a normative justification. Moreover, normative argument can help us structure equity analysis, just as it can cost-benefit analysis. This chapter, written for a forthcoming book on natural hazards policy after Katrina, argues that equity is a normative consideration distinct from efficiency or overall well-being. It then argues that equity is individualistic, not group-based; ex post, not ex ...


Who Owns The Local Church? A Pressing Issue For Dioceses In Bankruptcy, Catharine P. Wells Nov 2005

Who Owns The Local Church? A Pressing Issue For Dioceses In Bankruptcy, Catharine P. Wells

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The recent bankruptcies of Catholic Dioceses are unprecedented. For the first time, Bankruptcy Courts must deal with the difficult question of who owns the parish church. In this paper, I will explore two possible sources of confusion about this question. The first is the non- commercial, charitable nature of the Church. The second is its organizational complexity. Resolving the confusion requires a familiarity with various different sources of law including charities law, bankruptcy law, trust law, and Canon Law. In this paper I address this issue by: 1. discussing why the equities and policies that govern charitable bankruptcies are different ...


The Corporate Form As A Solution To A Discursive Dilemma, Edward B. Rock Oct 2005

The Corporate Form As A Solution To A Discursive Dilemma, Edward B. Rock

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

I examine the connection between the discursive dilemma and corporate law. The discursive dilemma (or doctrinal paradox) is a distinctive social choice problem that was first identified by Kornhauser and Sager and later used as the basis for a theory of organizational personality by Pettit. I examine the ways in which the corporate form prevents the emergence of the discursive dilemma in the firm context and the extent to which the presence of the discursive dilemma can provide the foundation for a theory of corporate personality.


Law And Accounting: Cases And Materials (Front Matter), Lawrence A. Cunningham Sep 2005

Law And Accounting: Cases And Materials (Front Matter), Lawrence A. Cunningham

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Accounting textbooks for law or business schools invariably provide secondary narrative presentations of materials in the authors’ own words. A better approach to learning this subject is to present thematically arranged original accounting pronouncements. In so designing this innovative book, readers appreciate how accounting is a tool that provides conceptual organization to economic exchange. The tool facilitates analyzing legal, business and public policy aspects of the transactions that accounting addresses. The original accounting standards, as well as SEC enforcement actions, presented in this book illuminate why transactions are pursued and related decisions made, economic aspects of transactions, and the conceptual ...


Parallel Research, Multiple Intellectual Property Right Protection Instruments, And The Correlation Among R&D Projects, Harun Bulut, Giancarlo Moschini Sep 2005

Parallel Research, Multiple Intellectual Property Right Protection Instruments, And The Correlation Among R&D Projects, Harun Bulut, Giancarlo Moschini

CARD Working Papers

The choice of a research path in attacking scientific and technological problems is a significant component of firms' R&D strategy. One of the findings of the patent races literature is that, in a competitive market setting, firms' noncooperative choices of research projects display an excessive degree of correlation, as compared to the socially optimal level. The paper revisits this question in a context in which firms have access to trade secrets, in addition to patents, to assert intellectual property rights (IPR) over their discoveries. We find that the availability of multiple IPR protection instruments can move the paths chosen ...


Development Theory And Foundations Of Universal Access Policies, Caio M. Pereira Neto Aug 2005

Development Theory And Foundations Of Universal Access Policies, Caio M. Pereira Neto

Student Scholarship Papers

This article discusses the justifications to implement public policies towards widespread access to information and communications technologies (ICTs) in the context of developing countries. It argues that the so-called universal access policies can be seen as important pieces of broader development strategies. In this sense, there is a strong case for governments of developing countries to foster access to ICTs. The work is structured in three parts. Part I examines the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence supporting the positive impact of access to ICTs on economic growth. Part II discusses the impact of access to ICTs on the improvement of ...


Sustainable Development And Private Global Governance, Douglas A. Kysar Jun 2005

Sustainable Development And Private Global Governance, Douglas A. Kysar

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

This Article utilizes recent controversy over Coca-Cola's alleged depletion of groundwater resources in India as a vehicle for exploring competing conceptions of global environmental governance and the role of private actors within them. Initially, it uses the Coca-Cola groundwater situation to identify core substantive and procedural meanings that lurk within the otherwise ingeniously ambiguous concept of sustainable development. Through this exercise, it is shown that - when properly understood - the sustainable development paradigm stands in considerable tension with the premises of market liberalism that drive such political and economic trends as global market integration; privatization and commodification of water and ...


Theories Of The Employment Relationship: Choosing Between Norms And Contracts, Michael L. Wachter Jun 2005

Theories Of The Employment Relationship: Choosing Between Norms And Contracts, Michael L. Wachter

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this paper, I analyze three types of labor market relationships that are prevalent in the economy - the external labor market that exists outside of firms, and the union and nonunion employment relationships that exist inside firms. The parties' relationships in each of these markets are markedly different from one another with respect to their use of contracts versus norms, their enforcement mechanisms, and their reliance on external competitive market pressures. Why do these very distinct forms exist? This paper provides an answer to this question. To be successful, each of the structures has to resolve problems of match-specific assets ...


A Bridle, A Prod And A Big Stick: An Evaluation Of Class Actions, Shareholder Proposals And The Ultra Vires Doctrine As Methods For Controlling Corporate Behavior, Adam Sulkowski, Kent Greenfield Jun 2005

A Bridle, A Prod And A Big Stick: An Evaluation Of Class Actions, Shareholder Proposals And The Ultra Vires Doctrine As Methods For Controlling Corporate Behavior, Adam Sulkowski, Kent Greenfield

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Written for the recent conference at St. John’s University Law School on “People of Color, Women, and the Public Corporation,” this paper evaluates recently applied methods of influencing corporate behavior on employment practices and recommends that a dormant legal doctrine be revitalized and added to the “tool box” of activists and concerned shareholders. The methods of influencing corporate behavior that are evaluated include class action lawsuits and shareholder proposals to amend corporate policy. In both contexts, there are procedural hurdles to achieving success. Even when success is achieved, there are limits to the actual changes in organizational behavior that ...


The Effects Of Price Regulation On Pharmaceutical R&D And Innovation, Heather M. O'Neill, Lena Clarissa Crain Jun 2005

The Effects Of Price Regulation On Pharmaceutical R&D And Innovation, Heather M. O'Neill, Lena Clarissa Crain

Business and Economics Faculty Publications

As rising health care expenditures focus government attention on slowing the growth, the pharmaceutical industry comes under increasing pressure to curb prices of ethical drugs. Pharmaceutical price regulations have been implemented in many countries to control pharmaceutical expenditures. Yet, creating innovative drugs requires enormous R&D costs, which in turn require adequate expected economic returns. Since price controls reduce profits and expected returns, as countries invoke stricter price regulations, firms will either move their R&D process into less regulated markets or move out of innovative R&D. This paper assesses the impact of drug price regulations in Japan compared ...


Project Labor Agreements And Construction In Maine, Bureau Of Labor Education. University Of Maine Jun 2005

Project Labor Agreements And Construction In Maine, Bureau Of Labor Education. University Of Maine

Bureau of Labor Education

A Project Labor Agreement (PLA) is a comprehensive negotiated pre-hire contract for public or private-sector construction projects. A PLA generally includes mutually agreed-to work and wage rules for the duration of the project, including deadlines, wages, costs, production incentives, and hiring. Usually PLAs are between a developer or general contractor, labor unions, subcontractors, workers, and the employer or customer, who may be in the public or private sector.


Credit Where It Counts: Maintaining A Strong Community Reinvestment Act, Michael S. Barr May 2005

Credit Where It Counts: Maintaining A Strong Community Reinvestment Act, Michael S. Barr

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) has helped to revitalize low- and moderate-income communities and provided expanded opportunities for low- and moderate-income households. Recent regulatory steps aimed at alleviating burdens on banks and thrifts are unwarranted, and may diminish small business lending as well as community development investments and services. This policy brief explains the rationale for CRA, demonstrates its effectiveness, and argues that the recent regulatory proposals should be withdrawn or significantly modified.


Institutions And Inclusion In Saving Policy, Michael S. Barr, Michael Sherraden May 2005

Institutions And Inclusion In Saving Policy, Michael S. Barr, Michael Sherraden

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

No abstract provided.


Modes Of Credit Market Regulation, Michael S. Barr May 2005

Modes Of Credit Market Regulation, Michael S. Barr

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

No abstract provided.


Credit Where It Counts: The Community Reinvestment Act And Its Critics, Michael S. Barr Apr 2005

Credit Where It Counts: The Community Reinvestment Act And Its Critics, Michael S. Barr

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

Despite the depth and breadth of U.S. credit markets, low- and moderate-income communities and minority borrowers have not historically enjoyed full access to credit. The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) was enacted in 1977 to help overcome barriers to credit that these groups faced. Scholars have long leveled numerous critiques against CRA as unnecessary, ineffectual, costly, and lawless. Many have argued that CRA should be eliminated. By contrast, I contend that market failures and discrimination justify governmental intervention and that CRA is a reasonable policy response to these problems. Using recent empirical evidence, I demonstrate that over the last decade ...


The Deregulation Of International Trucking In The European Union: Form And Effect, Francine Lafontaine, Laura M. Valeri Apr 2005

The Deregulation Of International Trucking In The European Union: Form And Effect, Francine Lafontaine, Laura M. Valeri

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

This paper examines how the deregulation of the international road transport industry in Western Europe has affected 1- the total quantity of cross-border road transport in the region; 2- the degree to which shippers outsource rather than integrate vertically their cross-border transport needs; and 3- the extent to which different countries participate in international road freight transport in Western Europe. Not surprisingly, we find that deregulation has had a large positive effect on the amount of international road transport net of the effect of the trade ties that grew over time among European Union countries. Moreover, consistent with the fact ...


Globalization, Law & Development: Introduction And Overview, Michael S. Barr, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Apr 2005

Globalization, Law & Development: Introduction And Overview, Michael S. Barr, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

No abstract provided.


Interview With Timothy J. Carson, David Spiegel, Timothy J. Carson, Legal Oral History Project, University Of Pennsylvania Carey Law School Apr 2005

Interview With Timothy J. Carson, David Spiegel, Timothy J. Carson, Legal Oral History Project, University Of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Legal Oral History Project

For transcript, click the Download button above. For video index, click the link below.

TImothy J. Carson (W '70) has practiced in Philadelphia for forty years in the field of public sector law, especially public finance. He is currently a partner at Dilworth Paxson LLP. He is an elected Fellow of the American College of Bond Counsel.


Microfinance And Financial Development, Michael S. Barr Apr 2005

Microfinance And Financial Development, Michael S. Barr

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

No abstract provided.


From St. Ives To Cyberspace: The Modern Distortion Of The Medieval 'Law Merchant', Stephen E. Sachs Mar 2005

From St. Ives To Cyberspace: The Modern Distortion Of The Medieval 'Law Merchant', Stephen E. Sachs

Student Scholarship Papers

Modern advocates of corporate self-regulation have drawn unlikely inspiration from the Middle Ages. On the traditional view of history, medieval merchants who wandered from fair to fair were not governed by domestic laws, but by their own lex mercatoria, or "law merchant." This law, which uniformly regulated commerce across Europe, was supposedly produced by an autonomous merchant class, interpreted in private courts, and enforced through private sanctions rather than state coercion. Contemporary writers have treated global corporations as descendants of these itinerant traders, urging them to replace conflicting national laws with a law of their own creation. The standard history ...


Social Security, Generational Justice, And Long-Term Deficits, Neil H. Buchanan Mar 2005

Social Security, Generational Justice, And Long-Term Deficits, Neil H. Buchanan

Rutgers Law School (Newark) Faculty Papers

This paper assesses current methods for evaluating the long-term viability and desirability of government activities, especially Social Security and other big-ticket budget items. I reach four conclusions: (1) There are several simple ways to improve the current debate about fiscal policy by adjusting our crude deficit measures, improvements which ought not to be controversial, (2) Separately measuring Social Security’s long-term balance is inappropriate and misleading, (3) The methods available to measure very long-term government financing (Fiscal Gaps and their cousins, Generational Accounts) are of very limited value in setting public policy today, principally because there is no reliable baseline ...


Taxing Utility, Terrence Chorvat Feb 2005

Taxing Utility, Terrence Chorvat

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

In order to assess the efficiency of a tax, we should examine its effect on the behavior of individuals. In general, the less a tax affects behavior, the more efficient it is thought to be. The standard example of a non-distorting tax is a lump-sum tax, which does not change with the behavior of the taxpayer. However, this article demonstrates that behavioral distortions can and do arise from a change in even a lump-sum tax. The only truly non-distortionary tax would be one based on utility itself. Utility, which has been used as a norm for distributional analysis, is also ...


Law And Behavioral Biology, Owen D. Jones, Timothy H. Goldsmith Jan 2005

Law And Behavioral Biology, Owen D. Jones, Timothy H. Goldsmith

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

Society uses law to encourage people to behave differently than they would behave in the absence of law. This fundamental purpose makes law highly dependent on sound understandings of the multiple causes of human behavior. The better those understandings, the better law can achieve social goals with legal tools. In this Article, Professors Jones and Goldsmith argue that many long held understandings about where behavior comes from are rapidly obsolescing as a consequence of developments in the various fields constituting behavioral biology. By helping to refine law's understandings of behavior's causes, they argue, behavioral biology can help to ...


The Effects Of Malpractice Tort Reform On Defensive Medicine, Heather M. O'Neill, Katherine D. Hennesy Jan 2005

The Effects Of Malpractice Tort Reform On Defensive Medicine, Heather M. O'Neill, Katherine D. Hennesy

Business and Economics Faculty Publications

Medical malpractice crises occur across states to differing degrees, thus the proposed changes in state tort reforms differ accordingly. The primary overt goals of tort reform aim to address: rising medical malpractice insurance rates, increased frequency and severity of awards, and the increased incidence of doctors shuttering offices or fleeing states due to untoward malpractice environments. A secondary goal of tort reform is to reduce health care costs attributed to malpractice costs. Clearly, as malpractice tort reforms are debated in state capitols and reforms take place, the effects of the reforms on the goals above can be examined. However, there ...


Memo On Binary Economics To Attorneys For Women And People Of Color Re: What Else Can Public Corporations Do For Your Clients?, Robert Ashford Jan 2005

Memo On Binary Economics To Attorneys For Women And People Of Color Re: What Else Can Public Corporations Do For Your Clients?, Robert Ashford

College of Law - Faculty Scholarship

One important duty of lawyers is to assist clients in identifying and securing their essential rights, responsibilities, and opportunities. One important purpose of legal education is to enable lawyers to assist clients and society in identifying and securing essential rights, responsibilities, and opportunities. This Article describes one opportunity (based on an approach to economics called "binary economics" first proposed by Louis Kelso), rarely advanced by counsel, that may offer women and people of color, public corporations, and their shareholders benefits far greater than expectations based on the mainstream economic theories (classical, neoclassical, and Keynesian) usually employed to evaluate economic policy ...


The Microfoundations Of Standard Form Contracts: Price Discrimination Vs. Behavioral Bias, Jonathan Klick Jan 2005

The Microfoundations Of Standard Form Contracts: Price Discrimination Vs. Behavioral Bias, Jonathan Klick

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Environmental Trade Measures, The Shrimp-Turtle Rulings, And The Ordinary Meaning Of The Text Of The Gatt, Howard F. Chang Jan 2005

Environmental Trade Measures, The Shrimp-Turtle Rulings, And The Ordinary Meaning Of The Text Of The Gatt, Howard F. Chang

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Like Crabs In A Barrel: Economy, History And Redevelopment In Buffalo, John Henry Schlegel Jan 2005

Like Crabs In A Barrel: Economy, History And Redevelopment In Buffalo, John Henry Schlegel

Other Scholarship

No abstract provided.