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Disability Law

2012

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Articles 1 - 29 of 29

Full-Text Articles in Law

Indicators For Improving Educational, Employment, And Economic Outcomes For Youth And Young Adults With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities: A National Report On Existing Data Sources, Jennifer Sullivan Sulewski, Agnieszka Zalewska, John Butterworth Oct 2012

Indicators For Improving Educational, Employment, And Economic Outcomes For Youth And Young Adults With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities: A National Report On Existing Data Sources, Jennifer Sullivan Sulewski, Agnieszka Zalewska, John Butterworth

All Institute for Community Inclusion Publications

The following report summarizes available national data on educational, employment and economic outcomes for youth and young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) over the years 2000-2010. These data can be used to benchmark progress in improving these outcomes for young adult population across the country and within individual states. Data is reported separately for two age groups of young adults (16-21 and 22-30) in order to capture possible differences between youth likely to still be receiving school services (through age 21) and those who have moved on from the education system.


Bullying Victimization As A Disability In Public Elementary And Secondary Education, Douglas E. Abrams Jul 2012

Bullying Victimization As A Disability In Public Elementary And Secondary Education, Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

This article discusses two reasons why likening bullying victimization to an educational disability makes sense. First, face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying impose on student victims the sort of educational deprivation that the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) addresses in the disabilities arena. Second, today’s belated public sensitivity to school bullying victims resembles the belated public sensitivity to students with disabilities that led to passage of the IDEA in 1975.


Description Of Supported Employment Practices, Cross-System Partnerships, And Funding Models Of Four Types Of State Agencies And Community Rehabilitation Providers, Kelly Haines, Joseph Marrone, John Halliday, Michael Tashjian, Martha Klemm, Susan Stoddard, Susan M. Foley Jul 2012

Description Of Supported Employment Practices, Cross-System Partnerships, And Funding Models Of Four Types Of State Agencies And Community Rehabilitation Providers, Kelly Haines, Joseph Marrone, John Halliday, Michael Tashjian, Martha Klemm, Susan Stoddard, Susan M. Foley

All Institute for Community Inclusion Publications

In 2005, the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) awarded the VR Rehabilitation Research and Training Center (RRTC) to the Institute for Community Inclusion (ICI) at the University of Massachusetts Boston and its partners, InfoUse in Berkeley, California and the Center for the Advancement and Study of Disability Policy. In 2010, NIDRR provided supplemental funds to the ICI so that the VR-RRTC could include a focus on the provision of supported employment (SE) services. This SE research would focus on vocational rehabilitation (VR)agency partnerships with other state entities, and sources and models for long-term funding (extended services). The …


Institute Brief: Effective Training For Employment Consultants: Job Development And Support Strategies, Amy Gelb, Derek Nord, Alberto Migliore, John Butterworth Apr 2012

Institute Brief: Effective Training For Employment Consultants: Job Development And Support Strategies, Amy Gelb, Derek Nord, Alberto Migliore, John Butterworth

The Institute Brief Series, Institute for Community Inclusion

This Institute Brief summarizes the key elements of a training and support approach designed to improve job development practices. Employment Consultants who participated supported more individuals to enter employment, and supported people to achieve higher-quality jobs with more hours and higher levels of pay, than a control group who had not yet received training.


Legal Issues For Treatment Providers And Evaluators, Jeannette Cox Apr 2012

Legal Issues For Treatment Providers And Evaluators, Jeannette Cox

School of Law Faculty Publications

Patients with intellectual disability (ID) can benefit from the full range of mental health services. To ensure that psychiatric assessment, diagnosis and treatment interventions are relevant and effective; individuals with ID should be evaluated and treated within the context of their developmental framework. Behavior should be viewed as a form of communication. This chapter provides a summary of legal issues for ID treatment providers and evaluators.


Data Note: State Intellectual And Developmental Disability Agencies’ Service Trends, Jean E. Winsor Mar 2012

Data Note: State Intellectual And Developmental Disability Agencies’ Service Trends, Jean E. Winsor

Data Note Series, Institute for Community Inclusion

In FY2010, an estimated 566,188 individuals received day or employment supports from state intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) agencies. This number grew from 458,650 in FY1999, a 23.4 percent increase. The estimated number of individuals supported in integrated employment services increased from 108,296 in FY1999 to 113,937 in FY2010, a 5.2% increase. State investment in supports continues to emphasize facility-based and non-work services rather than integrated employment services.


Data Note: Vr Outcome Trends And The Recent Decline In Employment For Vr Customers With Intellectual Disabilities, Frank A. Smith, John Butterworth, Daria Domin, Allison Cohen Hall Feb 2012

Data Note: Vr Outcome Trends And The Recent Decline In Employment For Vr Customers With Intellectual Disabilities, Frank A. Smith, John Butterworth, Daria Domin, Allison Cohen Hall

Data Note Series, Institute for Community Inclusion

Most people with intellectual disabilities (ID) aspire to gainful employment. To assist them with this goal, state vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies offer employment services based upon Individualized Plans for Employment (IPEs). A commonly used measure of outcomes is the rehabilitation rate, defined as the percentage of individuals who achieve employment out of all individuals whose cases were closed after receiving services. This indicator, however, neglects to consider that not all eligible individuals progress to receive services. This Data Note explores trends in VR closure status for individuals with ID.


Common-Law Interpretation Of Appropriate Education: The Road Not Taken In Rowley, Mark Weber Jan 2012

Common-Law Interpretation Of Appropriate Education: The Road Not Taken In Rowley, Mark Weber

College of Law Faculty

Thirty years old in 2012, Board of Education v. Rowley is the case that established a some-benefit or floor-of-opportunity standard for the services public school districts must provide to children who have disabilities. But the some-benefit approach is by no means the only one the Court could have adopted. It could have endorsed the view of the lower courts that each child with a disability must be given the opportunity to achieve his or her potential commensurate with the opportunity offered other children. Or it could have adopted a standard based on achievement of the child’s full potential or the …


Data Note: Growth In Community-Based Non-Work, Jean Winsor, John Butterworth Jan 2012

Data Note: Growth In Community-Based Non-Work, Jean Winsor, John Butterworth

Data Note Series, Institute for Community Inclusion

Understanding the role of community-based non-work (CBNW) services is complex. While different data sources suggest different levels of investment, there is consistent evidence that the service is being used more frequently. The number of states reporting that they provide CBNW services on the IDD Agency Survey grew from 18 in FY1996 to 30 in FY2010. Nationally, the reported participation in CBNW services has grown steadily for states that report it as a service, from 18.7% in FY1999 to 47% in FY2010.

CBNW services also accounted for 57.7% of state IDD (Intellectual and Developmental Disability) agency expenditures for FY2010, for states …


Health Disparities Experienced By People With Disabilities In The United States: A Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Study, Jennifer Renee Pharr, Timothy J. Bungum Jan 2012

Health Disparities Experienced By People With Disabilities In The United States: A Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Study, Jennifer Renee Pharr, Timothy J. Bungum

Public Health Faculty Publications

The Americans with Disabilities Act became law in 1990; since then research has shown that people with disabilities continue to experience barriers to health care. The purpose of this study was to compare utilization of preventive services, chronic disease rates, and engagement in health risk behaviors of participants with differing severities of disabilities to those without disabilities. This study was a secondary analysis of 2010 data collected in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System national survey in the United States. Rao Chi square test and logistic regression were employed. Participants with disabilities had significantly higher adjusted odds ratios for all …


A Female Disease: The Unintentional Gendering Of Fibromyalgia Social Security Claims, Dara Purvis Jan 2012

A Female Disease: The Unintentional Gendering Of Fibromyalgia Social Security Claims, Dara Purvis

Journal Articles

Social Security disability claims are not supposed to be decided based on the gender of the applicant. Reliance on the apparently neutral mechanism of clinical medical evidence, however, has a disproportionate impact on women bringing disability claims based on fibromyalgia. Recognizing and identifying disability has been delegated by Congress and the Social Security Administration almost entirely to physicians, based upon a misguided and mistaken belief that clinical medical evidence evaluated by a trained physician will answer with certainty whether an individual claimant is capable of working. Fibromyalgia, a diffuse syndrome characterized by excess pain that is overwhelmingly diagnosed in women …


Persons Affected By Traumatic Brain Injury In The Workplace; Implications For Employee Assistance Programs, Dale Margolin Cecka Jan 2012

Persons Affected By Traumatic Brain Injury In The Workplace; Implications For Employee Assistance Programs, Dale Margolin Cecka

Law Faculty Publications

Employee Assistance Programs often provide behavioral health services to employees. The article discusses issues related to employees affected by traumatic brain injury such as psychosocial challenges that may accompany reentry into the workplace. Strategies that employers may utilize to accommodate such challenges are presented. Implications for practitioners are explored within the context of the Americans with Disabilities Act, disability management, and human resources.


Implementing Legal Capacity Under Article 12 Of The Un Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities: The Difficult Road From Guardianship To Supported Decision-Making, Robert Dinerstein Jan 2012

Implementing Legal Capacity Under Article 12 Of The Un Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities: The Difficult Road From Guardianship To Supported Decision-Making, Robert Dinerstein

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


Social Security Disability Law And The Obstacles Facing Claimants With Mental Disabilities, Oren R. Griffin Jan 2012

Social Security Disability Law And The Obstacles Facing Claimants With Mental Disabilities, Oren R. Griffin

Articles, Chapters in Books and Other Contributions to Scholarly Works

This Article examines the administrative processes and judicial analytical framework that govern the adjudication of Social Security disability claims for persons suffering with mental disorders. Since the enactment of the Social Security Act as a part of President Roosevelt's "New Deal," the federal government has assumed a significant role in providing a minimum level of support for those citizens beset with unfortunate economic hardship. In 1956, the Social Security Act was expanded to provide disability benefits for those unable to attain gainful employment due to a mental or physical impairment. For the mentally disabled, demonstrating eligibility for disability benefits can …


Confine Is Fine: Have The Non-Dangerous Mentally Ill Lost Their Right To Liberty? An Empirical Study To Unravel The Psychiatrist’S Crystal Ball, Donald H. Stone Jan 2012

Confine Is Fine: Have The Non-Dangerous Mentally Ill Lost Their Right To Liberty? An Empirical Study To Unravel The Psychiatrist’S Crystal Ball, Donald H. Stone

All Faculty Scholarship

This Article will examine the reverse trend in civil commitment laws in the wake of recent tragedies and discuss the effect of broader civil commitment standards on the care and treatment of the mentally ill. The 2007 Virginia Tech shooting, the 2011 shooting of Congresswoman Giffords, and the 2012 Aurora movie theatre shooting have spurred fierce debates about the dangerousness of mentally ill and serve as cautionary tale about what happens when warning signs go unnoticed and opportunities for early intervention missed. This piece will explore the misconception about the role medication and inpatient civil commitments should play in prevention …


The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities: Beginning To Examine The Implications For Canadian Lawyers' Professional Responsiblities, H Archibald Kaiser Jan 2012

The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities: Beginning To Examine The Implications For Canadian Lawyers' Professional Responsiblities, H Archibald Kaiser

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (hereafter the CRPD or the Convention) should herald a new epoch in the way persons with disabilities are treated throughout the world community. The entire panoply of ramifications of this Convention, the purpose of which is “to promote, protect and ensure the full enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity”, (Article 1) is as yet unascertainable. However, States Parties must “take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination by any person, organization or private enterprise” (Article …


The Death Penalty And The Mentally Ill: A Selected And Annotated Bibliography, Jean Mattimoe Jan 2012

The Death Penalty And The Mentally Ill: A Selected And Annotated Bibliography, Jean Mattimoe

Articles

The United States Supreme Court over the last decade has selectively whittled away at the scope and availability of the death penalty by exempting certain groups from execution under the Eighth Amendment. In 2002 the court ruled that executing mentally retarded criminals violates the Constitution's ban on cruel and unusual punishment. In 2005 the court ruled that the Constitution forbids the execution of individuals who were under the age of 18 when they committed their crimes. Currently there is an active debate on whether to extend the categorical exemptions created by the Court to the mentally ill. At the forefront …


A Call For Standards: An Overview Of The Current Status And Need For Guardian Standards Of Conduct And Codes Of Ethics, Karen E. Boxx, Terry W. Hammond Jan 2012

A Call For Standards: An Overview Of The Current Status And Need For Guardian Standards Of Conduct And Codes Of Ethics, Karen E. Boxx, Terry W. Hammond

Articles

The role of trust in guardianships is rarely discussed, perhaps because of the assumption that court supervision of guardians reduces their power to act in any way other than trustworthy. However, as the number of persons needing guardianship protection increases while the resources available to courts to finance supervision decreases, the role of guardian is starting to become a more conventional fiduciary relationship complete with a hallmark downside-lack of supervision. Because of this trend, the concept of delineated standards for performance of a guardian's duties has taken on critical importance.

The 2001 Wingspan Conference, the second national conference on guardianship …


Data Note: Vocational Rehabilitation Employment Outcomes For Transition-Age Youth With Intellectual Disabilities, Agnieszka Zalewska, Jennifer Sullivan Sulewski Jan 2012

Data Note: Vocational Rehabilitation Employment Outcomes For Transition-Age Youth With Intellectual Disabilities, Agnieszka Zalewska, Jennifer Sullivan Sulewski

Data Note Series, Institute for Community Inclusion

As transition services evolve, increased attention is being given to the outcomes of transition-age youth. Since different age groups have different employment support needs and unique circumstances, it is crucial to monitor their outcomes separately and to address their services in a customized manner. This Data Note will focus on employment outcomes of transition-age youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) as compared with older age groups of people with ID. In this analysis, transition-age youth with ID are divided into two groups: ages 16–21 and ages 22–30. They are then compared to all other working-age adults.

Nationally, the percentage of closures …


Data Note: What Are The Employment Experiences Of Youth With Autism After High School?, Alberto Migliore, Agnieszka Zalewska Jan 2012

Data Note: What Are The Employment Experiences Of Youth With Autism After High School?, Alberto Migliore, Agnieszka Zalewska

Data Note Series, Institute for Community Inclusion

As the number of youth diagnosed with autism increases across the nation, there is a growing interest in knowing about their employment experiences after high school. To explore this, we examined the findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2.

As Table 1 shows, over half of youth with autism worked at some point after leaving high school (67%). This figure was greater than for their peers with an intellectual disability (ID) (53%), although smaller compared with their peers with other disabilities (86%). When looking only at those employed at the time of the interview, however, the figures were smaller across …


Data Note: Prevalence Of Youth With Autism Who Received Vocational Rehabilitation Services, Alberto Migliore, Agnieszka Zalewska Jan 2012

Data Note: Prevalence Of Youth With Autism Who Received Vocational Rehabilitation Services, Alberto Migliore, Agnieszka Zalewska

Data Note Series, Institute for Community Inclusion

In 2002, about six children aged eight years per every 1000 people in the general population received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The corresponding figure in 2008 was about 11 children, a 78% increase in just six years1.

To better understand how the increasing population of people with autism may impact adult programs, we examined the number of youth with autism served by state vocational rehabilitation programs in 2010. To account for the states' general population sizes, we reported the number of youth with autism served per 100,000 in the state general population (prevalence).

As Figure …


Pregnancy As 'Disability' And The Amended Americans With Disabilities Act, Jeannette Cox Jan 2012

Pregnancy As 'Disability' And The Amended Americans With Disabilities Act, Jeannette Cox

School of Law Faculty Publications

The recent expansion of the Americans with Disabilities Act’s (ADA) protected class invites reexamination of the assumption that pregnant workers may not use the ADA to obtain workplace accommodations. The ADA’s scope now includes persons with minor temporary physical limitations comparable to pregnancy’s physical effects. Accordingly, the primary remaining justification for concluding that pregnant workers may not obtain ADA accommodations is that pregnancy is a physically healthy condition rather than a physiological defect. Drawing on the social model of disability, this Article challenges the assumption that medical diagnosis of “defect” must be a prerequisite to disability accommodation eligibility. The social …


Overcoming Our Global Disability In The Workforce: Mediating The Dream, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2012

Overcoming Our Global Disability In The Workforce: Mediating The Dream, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

The unparalleled global support for the 2008 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities ("CRPD") highlights the global schism between the public extolling of human rights for individuals with disabilities and the private castigating of such individuals in their daily lives and in the workforce. The CRPD explicitly mandates that work is a right accorded to individuals with disabilities, and global employers are now being challenged to implement that right. Yet, in order to ensure meaningful, universal compliance with its directives, the CRPD imposes affirmative duties on Supporting States to develop a customized, workable plan that effectively …


Understanding Jurors’ Judgments In Cases Involving Juvenile Defendants: Effects Of Confession Evidence And Intellectual Disability, Cynthia J. Najdowski, Bette L. Bottoms Jan 2012

Understanding Jurors’ Judgments In Cases Involving Juvenile Defendants: Effects Of Confession Evidence And Intellectual Disability, Cynthia J. Najdowski, Bette L. Bottoms

Psychology Faculty Scholarship

Juveniles are at heightened risk for falsely confessing to crimes, particularly if they are intellectually disabled. We conducted a mock trial experiment to investigate the effects of a juvenile defendant’s confession and status as intellectually disabled on jurors’ decision making. As expected, jurors discounted a juvenile’s coerced confession: Jurors’ judgments were similar for a juvenile who was perceived to have confessed under coercion and a juvenile who did not confess. In general, these effects were explained by the fact that, compared to a juvenile who was perceived as having confessed voluntarily, a juvenile who was perceived as having confessed under …


Preventing Sex-Offender Recidivism Through Therapeutic Jurisprudence Approaches And Specialized Community Integration, Heather Cucolo, Michael L. Perlin Jan 2012

Preventing Sex-Offender Recidivism Through Therapeutic Jurisprudence Approaches And Specialized Community Integration, Heather Cucolo, Michael L. Perlin

Articles & Chapters

The public’s panic about the fear of recidivism if adjudicated sex offenders are ever to be released to the community has not subsided, despite the growing amount of information and statistically-reliable data signifying a generally low risk of re-offense. The established case law upholding sex offender civil commitment and containment statutes has rejected challenges of unconstitutionality, and continues to be dominated by punitive undertones. We have come to learn that the tools used to assess offenders for risk and civil commitment are often inaccurate and that meaningful treatment for this population is often unavailable and ineffective. Yet, society continues to …


School Districts And Families Under The Idea: Collaborative In Theory, Adversarial In Fact, Debra Chopp Jan 2012

School Districts And Families Under The Idea: Collaborative In Theory, Adversarial In Fact, Debra Chopp

Articles

To read the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is to be impressed with the ambition and promise of special education. The statute guarantees disabled students a "free appropriate public education" (FAPE) in the "least restrictive environment." At the core of this guarantee lies an entitlement for the parents of a disabled child to collaborate with teachers and school administrators to craft an educational program that is both tailored to the child's unique needs and designed to help her make progress in her education. This entitlement, and the IDEA generally, represents an enormous advance for children with disabilities--a community that, …


The Past And Future Of Deinstitutionalization Litigation, Samuel R. Bagenstos Jan 2012

The Past And Future Of Deinstitutionalization Litigation, Samuel R. Bagenstos

Articles

Two conflicting stories have consumed the academic debate regarding the impact of deinstitutionalization litigation. The first, which has risen almost to the level of conventional wisdom, is that deinstitutionalization was a disaster. The second story challenges the suggestion that deinstitutionalization has uniformly been unsuccessful, as well as the causal link critics seek to draw with the growth of the homeless population. This Article, which embraces the second story, assesses the current wave of deinstitutionalization litigation. It contends that things will be different this time. The particular outcomes of the first wave of deinstitutionalization litigation, this Article contends, resulted from the …


Disabling Attitudes: U.S. Disability Law And The Ada Amendments Act, Elizabeth F. Emens Jan 2012

Disabling Attitudes: U.S. Disability Law And The Ada Amendments Act, Elizabeth F. Emens

Faculty Scholarship

This is a crucial juncture for U.S. disability law. In 2008, Congress passed the ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA), which aims to reverse the courts’ narrowing interpretations of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. This legislative intervention provides an important lens through which to consider attitudes toward disability, both because the success of the ADAAA will depend on judicial attitudes, and because the changes rendered by the ADAAA shed light on pervasive societal attitudes. This Essay makes three main points. First, the ADAAA intervenes in the developing doctrine on disability discrimination in important ways; in so doing, however, the ADAAA …


Framing Disability, Elizabeth F. Emens Jan 2012

Framing Disability, Elizabeth F. Emens

Faculty Scholarship

Mainstream attitudes toward disability lag behind U.S. law. This tension between attitudes and law reflects a wider gap between the ideas about disability pervasive in mainstream society — what this Article calls the "outside" view — and the ideas about disability common within the disability community — what this Article calls the "inside" view. The outside perspective tends to misunderstand and mischaracterize aspects of the experience, theory, and law of disability.

The law can help to close this gap in attitudes by changing the conditions in which attitudes are formed or reinforced. Thus, this Article proposes using framing rules to …