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The Overlooked Victim Right: According Victim-Survivors A Right Of Access To Restorative Justice, Lynn S. Branham Jan 2021

The Overlooked Victim Right: According Victim-Survivors A Right Of Access To Restorative Justice, Lynn S. Branham

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In recent years, states have accorded victim-survivors more expansive legal rights and made it easier for them to invoke those rights. Conspicuously absent from the litany of victims’ rights enumerated in the law is the right to be afforded access to restorative justice processes. This Article challenges this systemic failure to understand and respond to the full spectrum of victim-survivors’ needs. First, the Article provides three examples of core needs of victim-survivors that are largely disregarded by criminal justice systems and profiles how restorative justice equips criminal justice systems to better meet those needs. The Article then spotlights pertinent research ...


Abolish Municipal Courts: A Response To Professor Natapoff, Brendan Roediger Jan 2021

Abolish Municipal Courts: A Response To Professor Natapoff, Brendan Roediger

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If we are serious about disrupting the generational reproduction of the racial social order, we are going to have to learn to let go. Taking up the legacy of criminal municipal courts and racial control, this Response argues against the practice of prescribing from the traditional “medication list” of liberal reforms (substantive, procedural, and “democratizing”) without grappling with whether a system or apparatus is so inextricably bound up with the maintenance of race and class hierarchy that it should be demolished. I assert that we should always ask whether something is redeemable before we ask whether it is reformable. In ...


“Stealing Conflicts” No More?: The Gaps And Anti-Restorative Elements In States’ Restorative-Justice Laws, Lynn S. Branham Jan 2020

“Stealing Conflicts” No More?: The Gaps And Anti-Restorative Elements In States’ Restorative-Justice Laws, Lynn S. Branham

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This Article first profiles key findings emanating from a statutory analysis of the close to two hundred criminal-justice-related, as well as juvenile-justice-related, statutory provisions in the United States that pertain to restorative justice and practices (RJ/RP). This section of the Article unveils significant gaps and other substantial problems in states’ restorative-justice laws, including ways in which some of them conflict with core restorative tenets. The Article then proffers seven recommended statutory provisions for states’ consideration when enacting or amending their own RJ/RP laws. These recommended provisions, combined with fidelity in their implementation, would help remedy or avert the ...


'Terroristic Threats' And Covid-19: A Guide For The Perplexed, Chad Flanders, Courtney Federico, Eric Harmon, Lucas Klein Jan 2020

'Terroristic Threats' And Covid-19: A Guide For The Perplexed, Chad Flanders, Courtney Federico, Eric Harmon, Lucas Klein

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The first few months of the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States saw the rise of a troubling sort of behavior: people would cough or spit on people or otherwise threaten to spread the COVID-19 virus, resulting in panic and sometimes thousands of dollars’ worth of damages to businesses. Those who have been caught doing this — or have filmed themselves doing it — have been charged under so-called “terroristic threat” statutes. But what is a terroristic threat, and is it an appropriate charge in these cases? Surprisingly little has been written about these statutes given their long history and regular use ...


The Undeserving Rich: Can They Be Redeemed? Policy Options For Curbing Illegal Wealth, James F. Gilsinan, James E. Fisher, Muhammad Islam, Henry Ordower, Wassim Shahin Jan 2020

The Undeserving Rich: Can They Be Redeemed? Policy Options For Curbing Illegal Wealth, James F. Gilsinan, James E. Fisher, Muhammad Islam, Henry Ordower, Wassim Shahin

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Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of various policy options for curbing the accumulation of illegal wealth and suggest ways to close the increasing wealth inequality gap.

Design/methodology/approach – The paper begins with a historical/literary analysis of the place of wealth in American Society and the ambivalent cultural attitudes toward wealth. Different policy approaches that seek to limit wealth inequality and the illegal accumulation of wealth are then examined. Finally, the current policy climate in the USA is reviewed to determine the likelihood of meaningful reform.

Findings – In Europe, the BASEL accords show ...


Freedom And Prison: Putting Structuralism Back Into Structural Inequality, Anders Walker Jan 2019

Freedom And Prison: Putting Structuralism Back Into Structural Inequality, Anders Walker

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Critics of structural racism frequently miss structuralism as a field of historical inquiry. This essay reviews the rise of structuralism as a mode of historical analysis and applies it to the mass incarceration debate in the United States, arguing that it enriches the work of prevailing scholars in the field.


Taking Psychological Torture Seriously: The Torturous Nature Of Credible Death Threats And The Collateral Consequences For Capital Punishment, John Bessler Jan 2019

Taking Psychological Torture Seriously: The Torturous Nature Of Credible Death Threats And The Collateral Consequences For Capital Punishment, John Bessler

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This article explores how the death penalty and the indefinite nature of death row in the United States creates a constant threat of death, which can violate the United Nations Convention Against Torture’s prohibitions on death threats.


The Marquis Beccaria: An Italian Penal Reformer’S Meteoric Rise In The British Isles In The Transatlantic Republic Of Letters, John Bessler Jan 2019

The Marquis Beccaria: An Italian Penal Reformer’S Meteoric Rise In The British Isles In The Transatlantic Republic Of Letters, John Bessler

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This article traces the reception of Cesare Beccaria’s book, Dei delitti e delle pene (1764), in Britain and in colonial and early America. That book, first translated into English as An Essay on Crimes and Punishments (1767), catalyzed penal reform and the anti-gallows movement on both sides of the Atlantic. As the first Enlightenment text to make a comprehensive case against capital punishment, On Crimes and Punishments became a bestseller, appearing in multiple English-language editions and attracting much public attention. Widely read by an array of British and American lawmakers and other civic-minded penal reformers, On Crimes and Punishments ...


Eradicating The Label “Offender” From The Lexicon Of Restorative Practices And Criminal Justice, Lynn S. Branham Jan 2019

Eradicating The Label “Offender” From The Lexicon Of Restorative Practices And Criminal Justice, Lynn S. Branham

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This Essay enumerates three reasons for abandoning the prevailing practice of utilizing the label “offender” when referring to a person who has committed a crime. The Essay next identifies and debunks reasons that have been cited for persisting in referring to a person as an “offender.” The Essay then explores the question of what term or terms could supplant this label and profiles signs of emerging support for desisting from the convention of calling people “offenders.” One of the themes that permeates this Essay is that the language we use when referring to people can thwart systemic and cultural change ...


What Makes The Death Penalty Arbitrary? (And Does It Matter If It Is?), Chad Flanders Jan 2019

What Makes The Death Penalty Arbitrary? (And Does It Matter If It Is?), Chad Flanders

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A common objection to the death penalty is that it is arbitrarily imposed. Indeed, the Supreme Court in the 1970s held the death penalty as it was then administered to be unconstitutional precisely because the states seemed to have no clear standards for who got death and who did not. In the most famous passage in that opinion (Furman v. Georgia), Justice Stewart wrote that the death penalty was cruel and unusual in the same way that being struck by lightning was cruel and unusual.

It is thus surprising that the Court and those scholars who push this objection have ...


What Makes The Death Penalty Arbitrary? (And Does It Matter If It Is)?, Chad Flanders Jan 2019

What Makes The Death Penalty Arbitrary? (And Does It Matter If It Is)?, Chad Flanders

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A common objection to the death penalty is that it is “arbitrarily” imposed. Indeed, the Supreme Court in the 1970s held the death penalty as it was then administered to be unconstitutional precisely because the states seemed to have no clear standards for who got death and who did not. In the most famous passage in that opinion (Furman v. Georgia), Justice Stewart wrote that the death penalty was “cruel and unusual” in the same way that being “struck by lightning” was “cruel and unusual.”

It is thus surprising that the Court and those scholars who push this objection have ...


Liability For Mass Sexual Abuse, Tsachi Keren-Paz, Richard Wright Mar 2018

Liability For Mass Sexual Abuse, Tsachi Keren-Paz, Richard Wright

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When harm is caused to victims by multiple injurers, difficult issues arise indetermining causation of, legal responsibility for, and allocation of liability forthose harms. Nowhere is this truer than in child pornography and sex traffickingcases, in which individuals have been victimized over extended periods oftime by hundreds or even many thousands of injurers, with multiple and oftenoverlapping victims of each injurer. Courts (and lawyers) struggle with thesesituations for a simple reason: they insist on applying tests of causation thatfail when the effect was over-determined by multiple conditions. The failure toproperly understand the causation issue has exacerbated failures to properlyunderstand and ...


Alternative Systems Of Crime Control. National, Transnational, And International Dimensions, Emmanouil Billis, Ulrich Sieber, Valsamis Mitsilegas, Christos Mylonopoulos, Knust Nandor, Lorena Bachmaier Winter, Chrisje Brants, Thierry Delpeuch, Jacqueline E. Ross, Stephen C. Thaman, Niovi Vavoula, John A.E. Vervaele, Philipp Ambach, Nils Andrzejewski, Florian Jessberger, James Stewart, Nikos Theodorakis Jan 2018

Alternative Systems Of Crime Control. National, Transnational, And International Dimensions, Emmanouil Billis, Ulrich Sieber, Valsamis Mitsilegas, Christos Mylonopoulos, Knust Nandor, Lorena Bachmaier Winter, Chrisje Brants, Thierry Delpeuch, Jacqueline E. Ross, Stephen C. Thaman, Niovi Vavoula, John A.E. Vervaele, Philipp Ambach, Nils Andrzejewski, Florian Jessberger, James Stewart, Nikos Theodorakis

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The typical trial-oriented systems of criminal justice that are primarily based on the strict application of substantive criminal law have reached their functional and logistical limits in most parts of the modern legal world. As a result, new sanction models, less formal, administrative, and discretionary case disposals, plea bargaining arrangements, and other alternative procedural and transitional justice mechanisms have emerged at unprecedented levels in national and international legal orders affiliated both with the civil law and the common law tradition. These normative constructs and practices aim at abbreviating, simplifying, or circumventing the conventional criminal investigation and prosecution. They seek to ...


Keeping The Rule Of Law Simple: Comments On Gowder, The Rule Of Law In The Real World, Chad Flanders Jan 2018

Keeping The Rule Of Law Simple: Comments On Gowder, The Rule Of Law In The Real World, Chad Flanders

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Let me start by just stating my experience of reading The Rule of Law in the Real World1 because it will help make sense of the structure of my remarks. The first third of the book: I am utterly convinced, even blown away, by the elegance and persuasiveness of the argument and the analysis; even when there is merely a summary, I am helped and bettered by it. The second third of the book: I am inclined, based on the enormous goodwill generated by the first third of the book to accept-almost uncritically-the historical discussion and the conclusions drawn ...


Innovating Criminal Justice, Natalie Ram Jan 2018

Innovating Criminal Justice, Natalie Ram

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From secret stingray devices that can pinpoint a suspect’s location, to advanced forensic DNA-analysis tools, to recidivism risk statistic software—the use of privately developed criminal justice technologies is growing. So too is a concomitant pattern of trade secret assertion surrounding these technologies. This Article charts the role of private law secrecy in shielding criminal justice activities, demonstrating that such secrecy is pervasive, problematic, and ultimately unnecessary for the production of well-designed criminal justice tools. This Article makes three contributions to the existing literature. First, the Article establishes that trade secrecy now permeates American criminal justice, shielding privately developed ...


How Much Certainty Do We Need To Punish? A Reply To Kolber, Chad Flanders Jan 2018

How Much Certainty Do We Need To Punish? A Reply To Kolber, Chad Flanders

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Scene: Outside Brooklyn Law School, mid-morning. CHADF, a law professor, reads something on his phone while waiting for an Uber. He is holding a cup of coffee in his other hand. KOLBERT, also a law professor, is walking quickly, deep into editing his latest law review article, mostly oblivious to the outside world. KOLBERT collides with CHADF, causing him to spill coffee all over his shirt.


"Dangerous Instruments": A Case Study In Overcriminalization, Chad Flanders, Desiree Austin-Holliday Jan 2018

"Dangerous Instruments": A Case Study In Overcriminalization, Chad Flanders, Desiree Austin-Holliday

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Many states - including Missouri - have provisions that provide greater punishment for some felonies that are committed with, or by the use of, a .. deadly weapon" or "dangerous instrument."1 The definition o f "deadly weapon" tends to be pretty straightforward, usually a list that includes several specific items that just are deadly weapons, such as guns and knives.2 "Dangerous instrument" is deliberately left as a broader, more capacious term - defined not in terms o f a list o f instruments but in terms of those things that could be easily or "readily" used to cause serious physical injury or ...


How Much Certainty Do We Need To Punish? A Reply To Kolber, Chad Flanders Jan 2018

How Much Certainty Do We Need To Punish? A Reply To Kolber, Chad Flanders

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Scene: Outside Brooklyn Law School, mid-morning. CHADF, a law professor, reads something on his phone while waiting for an Uber. He is holding a cup of coffee in his other hand. KOLBERT, also a law professor, is walking quickly, deep into editing his latest law review article, mostly oblivious to the outside world. KOLBERT collides with CHADF, causing him to spill coffee all over his shirt.


Left Behind: How The Absence Of A Federal Vacatur Law Disadvantages Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson, Alison Aminzadeh Oct 2017

Left Behind: How The Absence Of A Federal Vacatur Law Disadvantages Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Jessica Emerson, Alison Aminzadeh

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After a hamstring injury in October of 2004 forced her to surrender her athletic scholarship at St. John's University, Shamere McKenzie chose to spend her winter break working in order to save the money she needed to pay the remainder of her tuition. In January of 2005, Shamere met a man named Corey Davis, who expressed an interest in dating her. After getting to know him for several weeks, she eventually shared with him the challenges she was having earning the money she needed to continue her enrollment in college. Davis encouraged her to consider exotic dancing as a ...


Is Having Too Many Aggravating Factors The Same As Having None At All?: A Comment On The Hidalgo Cert. Petition, Chad Flanders Oct 2017

Is Having Too Many Aggravating Factors The Same As Having None At All?: A Comment On The Hidalgo Cert. Petition, Chad Flanders

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While the Court does not dispute that at first blush the defendant's argument appears logical, it is disturbed by the prospect of how one determines the point at which the number of aggravating circumstances causes the death penalty statute to be generally unconstitutional. Is the Court to engage in some mathematical calculation as to who might be covered by the statute and who is not; and if so, what would be reasonable and logical factors to include in the formula? Can the Court arbitrarily declare that fifty aggravating circumstances is too many but forty-nine is permissible? Even assuming one ...


The International Criminal Court In Africa: Impartiality, Politics, Complementarity And Brexit, Bartram Brown Jan 2017

The International Criminal Court In Africa: Impartiality, Politics, Complementarity And Brexit, Bartram Brown

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I have known and been inspired by Henry J. Richardson III and his scholarship for many years. A hallmark of his work has been his focus upon African-American interests in international law and also upon the rights and interests of African states. In acknowledgement of that intellectual debt, it is my honor to dedicate the following article to this festschrift celebrating his life and work.


Punishment, Liberalism, And Public Reason, Chad Flanders Jan 2017

Punishment, Liberalism, And Public Reason, Chad Flanders

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The article argues for a conception of the justification of punishment that is compatible with a modern, politically liberal regime. Section I deals with what some have thought are the obvious social interests society has in punishing criminals, and tries to develop those possible interests somewhat sympathetically. Section II suggests that many of those reasons are not good ones if punishment is regarded (as it should be) from the perspective of political philosophy. Social responses to bad things happening to people cannot be grounded in controversial metaphysical views about what is good for people or what people deserve, but many ...


The Use Of Information And Communications Technology In Criminal Procedure In The Usa, Stephen C. Thaman Jan 2017

The Use Of Information And Communications Technology In Criminal Procedure In The Usa, Stephen C. Thaman

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In this chapter, the author discusses the three types of criminal surveillance and the subsequent data mining used to synthesize and compare the results of surveillance techniques. In addition, the author examines how the aforementioned procedures should be viewed in light of United States case law involving the privacy of American citizens.


A Comparison Of Defendants With Mental Illness Represented By Public Defenders And Private Attorneys: An Analysis Of Court-Ordered Pretrial Psychiatric Evaluations, Donald M. Linhorst, P. Ann Dirks-Lindhorst, Susan Mcgraugh, Lauren Choate, Sarah Riley Jan 2017

A Comparison Of Defendants With Mental Illness Represented By Public Defenders And Private Attorneys: An Analysis Of Court-Ordered Pretrial Psychiatric Evaluations, Donald M. Linhorst, P. Ann Dirks-Lindhorst, Susan Mcgraugh, Lauren Choate, Sarah Riley

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This study compared the characteristics and court-ordered evaluation questions and responses among 4,430 defendants to determine if differences existed between those represented by public defenders and private attorneys when receiving trial competency or responsibility psychiatric evaluations from a state department of mental health. Defendants represented by public defenders were more likely to be younger, to have less education, to have psychotic disorders, to have a history of inpatient psychiatric treatment, to live in urban or rural counties, and to be jailed at the time of the evaluation. In addition, defendants represented by public defenders were less likely to have ...


Is Having Too Many Aggravating Factors The Same As Having None At All? A Comment On The Hidalgo Cert. Petition, Chad Flanders Jan 2017

Is Having Too Many Aggravating Factors The Same As Having None At All? A Comment On The Hidalgo Cert. Petition, Chad Flanders

All Faculty Scholarship

While the Court does not dispute that at first blush the defendant's argument appears logical, it is disturbed by the prospect of how one determines the point at which the number of aggravating circumstances causes the death penalty statute to be generally unconstitutional. Is the Court to engage in some mathematical calculation as to who might be covered by the statute and who is not; and if so, what would be reasonable and logical factors to include in the formula? Can the Court arbitrarily declare that fifty aggravating circumstances is too many but forty-nine is permissible? Even assuming one ...


Decriminalizing Violence: A Critique Of Restorative Justice And Proposal For Diversionary Mediation, M. Eve Hanan Jan 2016

Decriminalizing Violence: A Critique Of Restorative Justice And Proposal For Diversionary Mediation, M. Eve Hanan

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The movement to reduce over-prosecution and mass incarceration has focused almost exclusively on non-violent offenders despite data showing that over half of all prisoners incarcerated within the United States are sentenced for crimes of violence. As a consequence of the focus on nonviolent offenses, the majority of current and future defendants will not benefit from initiatives offering alternatives to criminal prosecution and incarceration.

A discussion of alternatives to the criminal justice system in cases of violent crime must begin by acknowledging that violent crime is not monolithic. Many incidents meet the statutory elements of a violent crime, that is, the ...


Criminals Behind The Veil: Political Philosophy And Punishment, Chad Flanders Jan 2016

Criminals Behind The Veil: Political Philosophy And Punishment, Chad Flanders

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There is evidence everywhere that our criminal justice system is undergoing a crisis of practice. Increased police violence and the concomitant distrust of police in many communities, fear of aggressive enforcement tactics more generally, worries about widespread governmental surveillance and, above all, a concern with overcriminalization and mass incarceration-these are the dreary and familiar stuff of daily headlines. But, this crisis of practice in tum reflects a deeper crisis of how we theorize about criminal law. We lack, for the most part, any worked-out theory of what the policing and processing of crime should look like. Nor do we have ...


The Inequality Of America's Death Penalty: A Crossroads For Capital Punishment At The Intersection Of The Eighth And Fourteenth Amendments, John Bessler Jan 2016

The Inequality Of America's Death Penalty: A Crossroads For Capital Punishment At The Intersection Of The Eighth And Fourteenth Amendments, John Bessler

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We live in a divided society, from gated communities to cell blocks congested with disproportionate numbers of young African-American men. There are rich and poor, privileged and homeless, Democrats and Republicans, wealthy zip codes and stubbornly impoverished ones. There are committed "Black Lives Matter" protesters, and there are those who—invoking "Blue Lives Matter" demonstrate in support of America‘s hardworking police officers. In her new article, "Matters of Strata: Race, Gender, and Class Structures in Capital Cases," George Washington University law professor Phyllis Goldfarb highlights the stratification of our society and offers a compelling critique of America‘s death ...


Whither Reasonable Suspicion: The Supreme Court's Functional Abandonment Of The Reasonableness Requirement For Fourth Amendment Seizures, Steven P. Grossman Jan 2016

Whither Reasonable Suspicion: The Supreme Court's Functional Abandonment Of The Reasonableness Requirement For Fourth Amendment Seizures, Steven P. Grossman

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Although the United States Supreme Court’s approach to issues governing application of the probable cause requirement of the Fourth Amendment has mutated over the years, at least one aspect of its approach has remained constant. Before information leading to probable cause or its lesser iteration of reasonable suspicion is found to exist, the government must demonstrate in some meaningful way the reliability of the person providing the information or of the information itself. Lacking such reliability, no search or seizure based on probable cause or reasonable suspicion is permitted. In its recent decision in Navarette v. California, the Court ...


Public Wrongs And Public Reason, Chad Flanders Jan 2016

Public Wrongs And Public Reason, Chad Flanders

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The distinction between crimes that involve wrongs in themselves and crimes that are wrong because the law makes them so has long puzzled theorists. This essay argues that the distinction, while getting at something real, is based on a mistake. That mistake is made both by those who see moral wrongness as a necessary condition for criminality and by those who believe merely making something illegal is sufficient to make it criminal. Neither is correct. Rather, what makes something a criminal wrong is that it involves a violation of a law that has been justified in terms of “public reason.”