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Full-Text Articles in Law

Equal Injustice For All: High Quality Self-Representation Does Not Ensure A Matter Is “Fairly Heard”, Jona Goldschmidt May 2021

Equal Injustice For All: High Quality Self-Representation Does Not Ensure A Matter Is “Fairly Heard”, Jona Goldschmidt

Seattle University Law Review SUpra

No abstract provided.


International Decision Commentary: Houngue Éric Noudehouenou V. Republic Of Benin, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Apr 2021

International Decision Commentary: Houngue Éric Noudehouenou V. Republic Of Benin, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Blogs

The judgment in Houngue Éric Noudehouenou v. Republic of Benin adds to the growing body of human rights jurisprudence on national electoral processes in Africa’s international courts. The decision demonstrates the growing importance of Africa’s regional and sub-regional courts as an alternative venue for opposition politicians, activists, and citizens to mobilize and challenge election processes and constitutional amendment processes where the playing field in their state is uneven. In turn, it reinforces the pivotal role of the regional and sub-regional courts in consolidating democratic governance in Africa, and reveals the limits of assessing the performance of Africa’s ...


Digital Cluster Markets, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Apr 2021

Digital Cluster Markets, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper considers the role of “cluster” markets in antitrust litigation, the minimum requirements for recognizing such markets, and the relevance of network effects in identifying them.

One foundational requirement of markets in antitrust cases is that they consist of products that are very close substitutes for one another. Even though markets are nearly always porous, this principle is very robust in antitrust analysis and there are few deviations.

Nevertheless, clustering noncompeting products into a single market for purposes of antitrust analysis can be valuable, provided that its limitations are understood. Clustering contributes to market power when (1) many customers ...


The Insights, Uses, And Ethics Of Social Neuroscience In Anti-Discrimination Law, Susan Carle Apr 2021

The Insights, Uses, And Ethics Of Social Neuroscience In Anti-Discrimination Law, Susan Carle

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

The article explores the uses in anti-discrimination law of social neuroscience—a broad interdisciplinary field that draws on the insights of brain science, medicine, epidemiology, social psychology, behavioral economics, moral cognitive neuroscience and many other experimentally based disciplines. It discusses the promising uses of social neuroscience findings from all these subfields on such matters as the irrational biases of “fast” thinking processes in general, and implicit biases against “out” groups more specifically, as well as group conformity, the black sheep effect, and more. The article traces a few of the ways these insights can help inform anti-discrimination law in both ...


Confrontation's Multi-Analyst Problem, Paul F. Rothstein, Ronald J. Coleman Apr 2021

Confrontation's Multi-Analyst Problem, Paul F. Rothstein, Ronald J. Coleman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The Confrontation Clause in the Sixth Amendment affords the “accused” in “criminal prosecutions” the right “to be confronted with the witnesses against” them. A particular challenge for courts over at least the last decade-plus has been the degree to which the Confrontation Clause applies to forensic reports, such as those presenting the results of a DNA, toxicology, or other CSI-type analysis. Should use of forensic reports entitle criminal defendants to confront purportedly “objective” analysts from the lab producing the report? If so, which analyst or analysts? For forensic processes which require multiple analysts, should the prosecution be required to produce ...


Brief Of Amicus Curiae Professor Susan Carle In Support Of The Plaintiffs Arguing For Affirmance In Johnson And Tinker V. City Of Boston, Ma, Susan Carle Apr 2021

Brief Of Amicus Curiae Professor Susan Carle In Support Of The Plaintiffs Arguing For Affirmance In Johnson And Tinker V. City Of Boston, Ma, Susan Carle

Amicus Briefs

This brief is being submitted by a law professor, Susan D. Carle, with more than 30 years of expertise in federal employment and antidiscrimination law, and especially the history and purposes of disparate impact law. She submits this brief to share her expertise with this Court. She is currently Professor of Law and Vice Dean of American University Washington College of Law (organizational affiliation is offered for identification purposes only).


Vertical Control, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Mar 2021

Vertical Control, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Antitrust litigation often requires courts to consider challenges to vertical “control.” How does a firm injure competition by limiting the behavior of vertically related firms? Competitive injury includes harm to consumers, labor, or other suppliers from reduced output and higher margins.

Historically antitrust considers this issue by attempting to identify a market that is vertically related to the defendant, and then consider what portion of it is “foreclosed” by the vertical practice. There are better mechanisms for identifying competitive harm, including a more individualized look at how the practice injures the best placed firms or bears directly on a firm ...


Self-Determination In American Discourse: The Supreme Court’S Historical Indoctrination Of Free Speech And Expression, Jarred Williams Mar 2021

Self-Determination In American Discourse: The Supreme Court’S Historical Indoctrination Of Free Speech And Expression, Jarred Williams

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Within the American criminal legal system, it is a well-established practice to presume the innocence of those charged with criminal offenses unless proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Such a judicial framework-like approach, called a legal maxim, is utilized in order to ensure that the law is applied and interpreted in ways that legislative bodies originally intended.

The central aim of this piece in relation to the First Amendment of the United States Constitution is to investigate whether the Supreme Court of the United States has utilized a specific legal maxim within cases that dispute government speech or expression regulation ...


Law School News: Rwu Law Alumnae Will Address Ginsburg Legacy, Workplace Gender Equity 03-11-2021, Roger Williams University School Of Law Mar 2021

Law School News: Rwu Law Alumnae Will Address Ginsburg Legacy, Workplace Gender Equity 03-11-2021, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


2nd Annual Women In Law Leadership Lecture: A Fireside Chat With Debra Katz, Esq. 03-03-2021, Roger Williams University School Of Law Mar 2021

2nd Annual Women In Law Leadership Lecture: A Fireside Chat With Debra Katz, Esq. 03-03-2021, Roger Williams University School Of Law

School of Law Conferences, Lectures & Events

No abstract provided.


Santa Fe Reporter Interviews Maryam Ahranjani: Change Of Venue, District Court Judge To Consider Defense’S Argument That A Fair Trial In The Slaying Of Basketball Star Is Impossible In Santa Fe, Maryam Ahranjani, Katherine Lewin Mar 2021

Santa Fe Reporter Interviews Maryam Ahranjani: Change Of Venue, District Court Judge To Consider Defense’S Argument That A Fair Trial In The Slaying Of Basketball Star Is Impossible In Santa Fe, Maryam Ahranjani, Katherine Lewin

Faculty Scholarship

Maryam Ahranjani, a criminal law professor at the University of New Mexico, concedes that the "accessibility" of information is much different now than when the Founding Fathers ratified the Sixth Amendment (the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury), but that the original idea of that section of the Constitution stemmed from the belief trials are best held in the community in which they occurred.

"Certainly judges are willing to change venues sometimes, consistent with that original idea that the local community is what defines the crime and so they're the ones who should determine ...


The Moral Ambiguity Of Public Prosecution, Gabriel S. Mendlow Mar 2021

The Moral Ambiguity Of Public Prosecution, Gabriel S. Mendlow

Articles

Classic crimes like theft and assault are in the first instance wrongs against individuals, not against the state or the polity that it represents. Yet our legal system denies crime victims the right to initiate or intervene in the criminal process, relegating them to the roles of witness or bystander—even as the system treats prosecution as an institutional analog of the interpersonal processes of moral blame and accountability, which give pride of place to those most directly wronged. Public prosecution reigns supreme, with the state claiming primary and exclusive moral standing to call offenders to account for their wrongs ...


Antitrust Antitextualism, Daniel A. Crane Mar 2021

Antitrust Antitextualism, Daniel A. Crane

Articles

Judges and scholars frequently describe antitrust as a common-law system predicated on open-textured statutes, but that description fails to capture a historically persistent phenomenon:judicial disregard of the plain meaning of the statutory texts and manifest purposes of Congress. This pattern of judicial nullification is not evenly distributed: when the courts have deviated from the plain meaning or congressional purpose, they have uniformly done so to limit the reach of antitrust liability or curtail the labor exemption to the benefit of industrial interests. This phenomenon cannot be explained solely or even primarily as a tug-of-war between a progressive Congress and ...


The Jury Trial Reinvented, Christopher Robertson, Michael Shammas Mar 2021

The Jury Trial Reinvented, Christopher Robertson, Michael Shammas

Faculty Scholarship

The Framers of the Sixth and Seventh Amendments to the United States Constitution recognized that jury trials were essential institutions for maintaining democratic legitimacy and avoiding epistemic crises. As an institution, the jury trial is purpose-built to engage citizens in the process of deliberative, participatory democracy with ground rules. The jury trial provides a carefully constructed setting aimed at sorting truth from falsehood.

Despite its value, the jury trial has been under assault for decades. Concededly, jury trials can sometimes be inefficient, unreliable, unpredictable, and impractical. The Covid-19 pandemic rendered most physical jury trials unworkable, but spurred some courts to ...


A Remedy For The Least Well Off: The Case For Preliminary Damages, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein Feb 2021

A Remedy For The Least Well Off: The Case For Preliminary Damages, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Historically, the law helped impecunious plaintiffs overcome their inherent disadvantage in civil litigation. Unfortunately, this is no longer the case: modern law has largely abandoned the mission of assisting the least well off. In this Essay, we propose a new remedy that can dramatically improve the fortunes of poor plaintiffs and thereby change the errant path of the law: preliminary damages. The unavailability of preliminary damages has dire implications for poor plaintiffs, especially those wronged by affluent individuals and corporations. Resource constrained plaintiffs cannot afford prolonged litigation on account of their limited financial means. Consequently, they are forced to either ...


The Constitution And Democracy In Troubled Times, John M. Greabe Feb 2021

The Constitution And Democracy In Troubled Times, John M. Greabe

Law Faculty Scholarship

Does textualism and originalism approach positively impact democracy?


Designing Legal Experiences, Maximilian A. Bulinski, J.J. Prescott Feb 2021

Designing Legal Experiences, Maximilian A. Bulinski, J.J. Prescott

Book Chapters

Technological advancements are improving how courts operate by changing the way they handle proceedings and interact with litigants. Court Innovations is a socially minded software startup that enables citizens, law enforcement, and courts to resolve legal matters through Matterhorn, an online communication and dispute resolution platform. Matterhorn was conceived at the University of Michigan Law School and successfully piloted in two Michigan district courts beginning in 2014. The platform now operates in over 40 courts and in at least eight states, and it has facilitated the resolution of more than 40,000 cases to date. These numbers will continue to ...


California V. Texas: The Role Of Congressional Procedure In Severability Doctrine, Mary Leto Pareja Feb 2021

California V. Texas: The Role Of Congressional Procedure In Severability Doctrine, Mary Leto Pareja

Faculty Scholarship

The United States Supreme Court is once again considering a case that challenges the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act (“ACA”). In this round of litigation, plaintiffs argue that because Congress lowered the individual mandate tax penalty to zero in the 2017 Tax Act that makes the individual mandate itself unconstitutional and that, furthermore, the individual mandate cannot be severed from the rest of the ACA. The District Court agreed with the plaintiffs and struck down the entire ACA, and the Supreme Court granted cert to hear this momentous question. A decision is expected by summer of 2021.

The ACA ...


Class Certification In The U.S. Courts Of Appeals: A Longitudinal Study, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang Jan 2021

Class Certification In The U.S. Courts Of Appeals: A Longitudinal Study, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

There is a vast literature on the modern class action, but little of it is informed by systematic empirical data. Mindful both that there have been few Supreme Court class certification decisions and that they may not provide an accurate picture of class action jurisprudence, let alone class action activity, over time, we created a comprehensive data set of class certification decisions in the United States Courts of Appeals consisting of all precedential panel decisions addressing whether a class should be certified from 1966 through 2017, and of nonprecedential panel decisions from 2002 through 2017.

In Section I, through a ...


Law School News: Professor Gonzalez Is 2020 Rhode Island Lawyer Of The Year 01/11/21, Barry Bridges, Roger Williams University School Of Law Jan 2021

Law School News: Professor Gonzalez Is 2020 Rhode Island Lawyer Of The Year 01/11/21, Barry Bridges, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Form Or Substance? Excluding Liability For Misrepresentation, Zhi Jia Koh Jan 2021

Form Or Substance? Excluding Liability For Misrepresentation, Zhi Jia Koh

Singapore Law Journal (Lexicon)

Exclusion of liability for misrepresentation has long been controversial. There are many ways in which one could go about doing it, namely, through express exclusion of liability clauses, entire agreement clauses, non-reliance clauses, and maybe even basis clauses. The key question is whether such clauses are subject to s 3 of the Misrepresentation Act, which prevents a contracting party from escaping liability when it is unreasonable to do so. Notably, English jurisprudence has taken the view that any term that excludes liability for misrepresentation in effect would be subject to the test of reasonableness. Singapore appears to be moving in ...


The Impossibility Defence, Kwang Chian Lee Jan 2021

The Impossibility Defence, Kwang Chian Lee

Singapore Law Journal (Lexicon)

In Han Fang Guan v Public Prosecutor [2020] SGCA 11, the Court of Appeal (“CA”) clarified the law regarding “impossible attempts”, which are attempts to commit an offence that could not possibly have been consummated in the circumstances. The accused Han Fang Guan (“Han”) was charged with the capital charge of attempting to possess one bundle containing not less than 18.62g of diamorphine (also known as heroin) for the purpose of drug trafficking, an offence under section 5(1)(a) read with section 5(2) and section 12 of the Misuse of Drugs Act (Cap 185, 2008 Rev Ed ...


Two Steps Forward, One Step Back? An Attempt To Cure Due Process Paranoia, Louis Yi Hang Lau Jan 2021

Two Steps Forward, One Step Back? An Attempt To Cure Due Process Paranoia, Louis Yi Hang Lau

Singapore Law Journal (Lexicon)

Time, cost and quality. These are the qualities that an efficient arbitration must have. In recent times, however, the arbitral process has struggled to maintain this balance, with the efficiency of the arbitral process rated among the top five worst characteristics of international arbitration. The fact that parties may resort to a curial review of arbitral awards in an annulment or refusal of enforcement action merely adds on to this delay.


Accrual Of Cause Of Action In Negligence: Ipp Financial Advisers Pte V Saimee Bin Jumaat, Gary Kok Yew Chan Jan 2021

Accrual Of Cause Of Action In Negligence: Ipp Financial Advisers Pte V Saimee Bin Jumaat, Gary Kok Yew Chan

Singapore Law Journal (Lexicon)

Damage is the gist of the action in negligence. An action in negligence is said to accrue only when damage arises. The precise timing of the damage is an important factor in an application to strike out a claim in negligence on the ground that it was filed out of time contrary to the Limitation Act. Consequently, the lawsuit may have to be initiated within a specified period from the accrual of the cause of action.


Do Algorithms Dream Of Mistaken Contracts?, Lokman Bin Mohamed Rafi Hakim Jan 2021

Do Algorithms Dream Of Mistaken Contracts?, Lokman Bin Mohamed Rafi Hakim

Singapore Law Journal (Lexicon)

Can an agreement which is formed purely through the operation of algorithms be considered a binding contract? If so, can such a contract be unilaterally cancelled because of a mistake, where such mistake resulted in trades being concluded at 250 times the market rate? This was the question before the Court of Appeal (“CA”) in the case of Quoine Pte Ltd v B2C2 Ltd [2020] SGCA(I) 2.


The Limits To Freedom To Contract, Jia Xin Tan Jan 2021

The Limits To Freedom To Contract, Jia Xin Tan

Singapore Law Journal (Lexicon)

In line with the principle of freedom to contract, the courts will give effect to the intention of the parties in creating their contract, and also hold them to their duty to perform their primary obligations under such contract. However, where the contracting parties agree to vest certain decision-making powers to a specific (non-judicial) entity, to what extent may a court review the exercise of powers by such entity?


The Presumption Of Innocence: A Golden Thread Always To Be Seen, Mark Zi Han Chia Jan 2021

The Presumption Of Innocence: A Golden Thread Always To Be Seen, Mark Zi Han Chia

Singapore Law Journal (Lexicon)

Although the presumption of innocence is fundamental to the modern criminal justice system, there is little clarity on what it is and how it applies. This essay argues that “innocence” in the criminal justice system should be confined to legal innocence and not factual innocence. Accordingly, the presumption of innocence should be confined to presuming the legal innocence of an accused. It follows then that the presumption of innocence cannot apply to any part of the criminal process apart from the trial itself. Further, jurisprudentially, given that the presumption of innocence is best understood as a procedural aspect of the ...


Elections During Covid-19: Welcome Clarifications, Unanswered Questions, Joel Wei Xuan Fun Jan 2021

Elections During Covid-19: Welcome Clarifications, Unanswered Questions, Joel Wei Xuan Fun

Singapore Law Journal (Lexicon)

On 10th July 2020, Singapore held its Parliamentary Elections, while in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Elections have been similarly held elsewhere during this pandemic, and suffice to say that the pandemic, and its resulting implications, have raised various interesting legal questions in some of these jurisdictions.1 To that end, a wide range of regulations and rules pertaining to elections have also been passed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In some jurisdictions, such as certain states in the United States, voting by mail was allowed with no excuse required, so as to prevent the further spread of ...


Fair Questions: A Call And Proposal For Using General Verdicts With Special Interrogatories To Prevent Biased And Unjust Convictions, Charles E. Hintz Jan 2021

Fair Questions: A Call And Proposal For Using General Verdicts With Special Interrogatories To Prevent Biased And Unjust Convictions, Charles E. Hintz

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Bias and other forms of logical corner-cutting are an unfortunate aspect of criminal jury deliberations. However, the preferred verdict system in the federal courts, the general verdict, does nothing to counter that. Rather, by forcing jurors into a simple binary choice — guilty or not guilty — the general verdict facilitates and encourages such flawed reasoning. Yet the federal courts continue to stick to the general verdict, ironically out of a concern that deviating from it will harm defendants by leading juries to convict.

This Essay calls for a change: expand the use of a special findings verdict, the general verdict with ...


Jack Weinstein: Reimagining The Role Of The District Court Judge, Jessica A. Roth Jan 2021

Jack Weinstein: Reimagining The Role Of The District Court Judge, Jessica A. Roth

Articles

This essay, for a symposium issue of the Federal Sentencing Reporter dedicated to the impact of Judge Jack Weinstein on the occasion of his retirement from the federal bench, highlights how Judge Weinstein has re-imagined the role of the district court judge. Through his judicial opinions, extrajudicial writings and speeches, and his innovative use of the court’s supervisory authority, Judge Weinstein has challenged, and in some cases altered, the status quo in the realm of criminal sentencing. In doing so, he has established a forceful example of how district court judges can use their position to advocate for and ...