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Uniform Commercial Code

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Autistic Contracts (Symposium), James J. White Jan 2000

Autistic Contracts (Symposium), James J. White

Articles

In this paper I address the question whether the law should affirm the offeror's inference and should bind the offeree to the terms proposed by the offeror even in circumstances where the offeree may not intend to accept those terms and where an objective observer might not draw the inference of agreement from the offeree's act. Modem practice and current proposals concerning contract formation in Revised Article 2 and in the Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act (nee Article 2B) press these issues on us more forcefully than old practices and different law did. 1 But contractual autism is not new; …


Privately Legislated Intellectual Property Rights: Reconciling Freedom Of Contract With Public Good Uses Of Information, J.H. Reichman, Jonathan A. Franklin Jan 1999

Privately Legislated Intellectual Property Rights: Reconciling Freedom Of Contract With Public Good Uses Of Information, J.H. Reichman, Jonathan A. Franklin

Librarians' Articles

In an age of omnipresent clickwrap licenses, we acknowledge the need for a uniform set of default rules that would validate non-negotiable licenses as a mechanism for minimizing transaction costs likely to hinder economic development in a networked environment. However, we contend that any model of contract formation not driven by the traditional norms of mutual assent requires specially formulated doctrinal tools to avoid undermining long-established public good uses of information for such purposes as education and research, technical innovation, free speech, and the preservation of free competition.

With the convergence of digital and telecommunications technologies, creators and innovators who …


The Tentative Case Against Flexibility In Commercial Law, Omri Ben-Shahar Jan 1999

The Tentative Case Against Flexibility In Commercial Law, Omri Ben-Shahar

Articles

Well-rooted in modern commercial law is the idea that the law and the obligations that it enforces should reflect the empirical reality of the relationship between the contracting parties. The Uniform Commercial Code ("Code") champions this tradition by viewing the performance practices formed among the parties throughout their interaction as a primary source for interpreting and supplementing their explicit contracts. The generous recognition of waiver and modifications, as well as the binding force the Code accords to course of performance, course of dealings, and customary trade usages, effectively permits unwritten commercial practices to vary and to erode explicit contractual provisions.


Replacing Strict Liability With A Contract-Based Products Liability Regime, Richard C. Ausness Jul 1998

Replacing Strict Liability With A Contract-Based Products Liability Regime, Richard C. Ausness

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

When strict products liability first appeared on the scene some thirty-five years ago, it was heralded as a boon to consumers whose claims to compensation had hitherto been frustrated by the law of sales. Warranty law, it was said, worked fairly well in purely "commercial" transactions, but tort law did a better job in cases where ordinary consumers suffered personal injuries or property damage from defective products. To be sure, defenders of warranty law pointed out that the newly-drafted Uniform Commercial Code (the "Code" or "U.C.C.") was much more consumer friendly than the old Uniform Sales Act. Nevertheless, the proponents …


Freeing The Tortious Soul Of Express Warranty Law, James J. White Jan 1998

Freeing The Tortious Soul Of Express Warranty Law, James J. White

Articles

I suspect that most American lawyers and law students regard express warranty as neither more nor less than a term in a contract, a term that is subject to conventional contract rules on formation, interpretation, and remedy. Assume, for example, that a buyer sends a purchase order to a seller and the purchase order specifies the delivery of 300 tons of "prime Thomas cold rolled steel." The acknowledgment also describes the goods to be sold as "prime Thomas cold rolled steel." Every American lawyer would agree that there is a contract to deliver such steel and furthermore would conclude that …


Form Contracts Under Revised Article 2 (Symposium: Consumer Protection And The Uniform Commercial Code), James J. White Jan 1997

Form Contracts Under Revised Article 2 (Symposium: Consumer Protection And The Uniform Commercial Code), James J. White

Articles

The current draft of section 2-206 in Revised Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code ("UCC") entitled "Consumer Contract: Standard Form"1 presents a unique and threatening challenge to the drafters of consumer form contracts. In earlier drafts, one part of the section applied to both to commercial contracts and consumer contracts. It required that "one manifest assent" to any form contract, commercial or consumer, in order for it to be binding.2 Bowing to commercial opposition in the most recent version, the drafters have omitted all reference to commercial contracts. As the section stands, it applies only to consumer contracts.


Article 5 - Recent Developments, James J. White Jan 1997

Article 5 - Recent Developments, James J. White

Other Publications

I. Mitigation in Letter of Credit Transactions Assume a Buyer has procured a letter of credit to pay for contracted goods but no longer wants the goods. The Buyer and the Issuer would like to force the Beneficiary to mitigate. Assume that both the Issuer and Applicant repudiate their obligation or that the Applicant has failed and the Issuer repudiates its obligation to pay under the letter of credit. At the moment of repudiation the price for a gallon of the underlying oil that is the subject of the letter of credit is $.75 and that the letter of credit …


On Parol: The Construction And Interpretation Of Written Agreements And The Role Of Extrinsic Evidence In Contract Litigation, Keith A. Rowley Jan 1997

On Parol: The Construction And Interpretation Of Written Agreements And The Role Of Extrinsic Evidence In Contract Litigation, Keith A. Rowley

Scholarly Works

As a general rule, extrinsic evidence, whether written or oral, is not admissible to prove either the intent of the parties to a contract or the meaning of contractual terms when the parties have executed an unambiguous, fully-integrated (i.e., final and all-inclusive) written agreement. The trial court may consider various types of extrinsic evidence, however, in determining whether a particular agreement is fully integrated or ambiguous, and even in choosing among rival interpretations of an agreement where ambiguity is not present. If the trial court determines that an agreement is not fully integrated, then the trier of fact may consider …


The Intersection Of Articles 2 And 9, Steven L. Harris, James J. White Jan 1996

The Intersection Of Articles 2 And 9, Steven L. Harris, James J. White

Other Publications

I. Standard Form Contracts II. Buyer in Ordinary Course; Prepaying Buyer III. Consignments IV. Seller's Right to Reclaim Delivered Goods


They Came From "Beyond The Pale": Security Interests In Tort Claims, Harold R. Weinberg Jan 1995

They Came From "Beyond The Pale": Security Interests In Tort Claims, Harold R. Weinberg

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

"[B]eyond the pale" is how the drafters of Article Nine of the Uniform Commercial Code regarded tort claims. They considered tort claims to be noncommercial assets inappropriate for inclusion as collateral within the scope of a commercial financing statute. Tort claims may not be out-of-bounds much longer. The Article Nine Study Committee of the Permanent Editorial Board for the Uniform Commercial Code recommends expansion of the Article's scope to encompass security interests in claims arising out of tort. This recommendation is significant. Tort causes of action comprise an ever-expanding universe of civil wrongs for which courts afford redress. The owners …


The Intersections Of Articles 2 And 9: Recommendations For Clarification And Revisions, Richard E. Speidel, James J. White Jan 1995

The Intersections Of Articles 2 And 9: Recommendations For Clarification And Revisions, Richard E. Speidel, James J. White

Other Publications

Both Article 2, Sales and Article 9, Secured Transactions are under revision. The process of coordination is underway, but there is still much work to do. The following materials identify the major issues at the intersections and some tentative solutions. All references are to the 1990 Official Text of the Uniform Commercial Code unless otherwise stated. When stated, references are to the October, 1995 Draft of Article 2 and the July, 1995 Draft of Article 9.


Warranties And Remedies On Breach: Proposed Revision Of Article 2 And Related Proposals Concerning Products Liability Law, Richard E. Speidel, James J. White Jan 1995

Warranties And Remedies On Breach: Proposed Revision Of Article 2 And Related Proposals Concerning Products Liability Law, Richard E. Speidel, James J. White

Other Publications

The following materials contain (1) the warranty provisions, §§2-313 through 2-318, from the October, 1995 Draft of Revised Article 2, Sales, with selected Reporter's Notes; (2) Discussion questions on warranties; and (3) A comparison of Revised Article 2 and the ALl's Products Liability Restatement (Tent. Draft #2, March 13, 1995), with discussion problems.


How To Negotiate A Sales Contract, James J. White Jan 1995

How To Negotiate A Sales Contract, James J. White

Articles

A. Introduction 1. In my experience, lawyers begin negotiating only after the business people have decided upon the description and quality of the product, the time of delivery, and the mode and amount of payment. The lawyers are left with the pathological problems - who gets what in case of trouble. 2. Most of those pathological problems relate to the seller's responsibility if the product does not conform to the contract or otherwise fails to please the buyer. These failures can cause economic loss to the buyer, economic loss to a remote purchaser, or personal injury or property damage to …


The Influence Of International Practice On The Revision Of Article 5 Of The Ucc, James J. White Jan 1995

The Influence Of International Practice On The Revision Of Article 5 Of The Ucc, James J. White

Articles

The topic of this symposium is the influence that international law has had on domestic law of the United States. I believe that the story of the revision of Article 5 of the Uniform Commercial Code fits here, but some might dispute that. Although it is certainly fair to say that international practice-in a sense international law-was a powerful influence on the revision of Article 5 of the Uniform Commercial Code, that practice, and the way in which that influence was exerted were almost entirely sui generis to the letter of credit law, practice and history.


Standards For Revising Article 2 Of The U.C.C.: The Nom Clause Model, Robert A. Hillman Jul 1994

Standards For Revising Article 2 Of The U.C.C.: The Nom Clause Model, Robert A. Hillman

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Emerging Article 2: Remedies For Breach Of The Contract For Sale, Richard E. Speidel, James J. White Jan 1994

The Emerging Article 2: Remedies For Breach Of The Contract For Sale, Richard E. Speidel, James J. White

Other Publications

Article 2, Sales is being revised by a Drafting Committee of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. To date, the Drafting Committee has held eight meetings and two more are scheduled for early 1995 . The first reading of revised Article 2 occurred at the annual meeting of NCCUSL in August, 1994. A target completion date for the Article 2 project is August, 1996 .


Article 5: Highlights Of The Proposed Revision, James J. White Jan 1994

Article 5: Highlights Of The Proposed Revision, James J. White

Other Publications

I. The Current Status of Article 5: Drafting, Approval and Promulgation--The Most Significant Changes or Clarifications -- II. The Most Contentious Issues in the Revision of Article 5 -- III. More Subtle Questions About Revised Article 5


The Effect Of Section 1-102(3) And 1-103 On Commercial Agreements Involving Ucc Tansactions: Should They Be Revised?, James J. White Jan 1994

The Effect Of Section 1-102(3) And 1-103 On Commercial Agreements Involving Ucc Tansactions: Should They Be Revised?, James J. White

Other Publications

Power to Modify Article 5 Obligations Under 1-102(3) and 1-203. see Sections 5-103(c) and 5-116(c) of Revised Article 5.

Persons speaking for issuing banks argued strongly in the Article 5 revision process that complete freedom of contract should prevail and that no provision should be made invariable . They argued successfully for the removal in current Section 5-109 of references to due care and they argued successfully against the inclusion of any similar obligation elsewhere in Article 5. Consequently Section 1-102(3) has no place to get a grip in Article 5--because no obligations of due care are expressed in the …


The Warranty Of Quality In Sale Of Goods Under The Perspective Of The American And French Law, Renaud Baguenault De Puchesse Jan 1989

The Warranty Of Quality In Sale Of Goods Under The Perspective Of The American And French Law, Renaud Baguenault De Puchesse

LLM Theses and Essays

While the United States’ common law system is characterized by diversity due to each state having its own set of rules, in certain areas there are nationwide legislative attempts of unification and standardization. One such attempt is the adoption of the Uniform Commercial Code which governs the sale of goods law in the United States. The French civil law system generally differs greatly from the American system in that it is primarily based upon statutes and codes. However, the American Uniform Commercial Code and the French Civil Code provide tangible, comparable bases to assess similarities and differences between American and …


Efficient Remedies For Breach Of Warranty, Kenneth Chapman, Michael J. Meurer Jan 1989

Efficient Remedies For Breach Of Warranty, Kenneth Chapman, Michael J. Meurer

Faculty Scholarship

This article attempts to suggest valuable refinements and extensions of the economic theory of warranty by explicitly considering the choice of remedies for breach of warranty in conjunction with the choice of warranty protection itself. In particular, it offers explanations for the prevalence of replacement terms rather than refund terms in warranties. Economists studying the general issue of breach of contract have noted that the choice of remedy has important implications for risk sharing, renegotiation, transaction-specific investment, and the incentive to breach.5 This article derives much of its insight from the recognition that work on the economics of contract breach …


Remedies For Breach Of Contract Under The Uniform Commercial Code, The General Conditions Of Delivery Of Goods Of The Council For Mutual Economic Assistance And The United Nations Convention On Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods, Hasan T. Choudhury Jan 1988

Remedies For Breach Of Contract Under The Uniform Commercial Code, The General Conditions Of Delivery Of Goods Of The Council For Mutual Economic Assistance And The United Nations Convention On Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods, Hasan T. Choudhury

LLM Theses and Essays

This thesis attempts to examine and compare an important component of any law of contract for the sale of goods, namely, the remedies available to an aggrieved party following a breach of contract. The first part of the thesis deals with the historical background of the uniform laws, their scope and specific characteristics. The following chapters examine the status, role and significance of the two major remedies - the damages and specific performance, in the major legal systems and the uniform laws. In addition, it compares the remaining remedial provisions and concludes that, although the major legal systems of the …


Article 29(2) Of The United Nations Convention On Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods: A New Effort At Clarifying The Legal Effect Of "No Oral Modification" Clauses, Robert A. Hillman Jan 1988

Article 29(2) Of The United Nations Convention On Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods: A New Effort At Clarifying The Legal Effect Of "No Oral Modification" Clauses, Robert A. Hillman

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Decline Of The Contract Market Damage Model, James J. White Jan 1988

The Decline Of The Contract Market Damage Model, James J. White

Articles

In law school every American lawyer learns that the conventional measure of damages for breach of a sales contract is the difference between the contract price and the market price. Even before these rules were embodied in the Uniform Sales Act and the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), they were a staple of Anglo-American common law. They remain the rules with which a court would determine damage liability not only for the sale of goods, but also for the sale of real estate and securities.


Promise Fulfilled And Principle Betrayed, James J. White Jan 1988

Promise Fulfilled And Principle Betrayed, James J. White

Articles

My responsibility in this paper is to address three questions. (1) How has the legal realist body of thought affected contract law and its application? (2) How will contract law and its application be affected in the future by realist thinking? (3) If the realist viewpoint were fully accepted, what kind of system would result and how would contract law be affected? Because my focus is upon a principal legislative monument to realism, Article Two of the Uniform Commercial Code (the "U.C.C."), and upon its drafter, Karl Llewellyn, I will not answer any of the three questions explicitly. By focusing …


Article Two Warranties In Commercial Transactions: An Update, Kathryn L. Moore, Debra L. Goetz, Douglas E. Perry, David S. Rabb Sep 1987

Article Two Warranties In Commercial Transactions: An Update, Kathryn L. Moore, Debra L. Goetz, Douglas E. Perry, David S. Rabb

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In 1978 the Cornell Law Review published a Special Project devoted to Article Two commercial warranties. Nine years have since elapsed, and we have decided to update and reassess this important area of the law. We have discovered that although judicial treatment of many aspects of Article Two warranty law has remained stable, in some instances the courts' treatment has progressed and in other instances it has become unclear. This Special Project is our attempt to assemble these changes, interpret the progress, and suggest new lines of analysis to clarify areas of conflict.


Strict Liability For Chattel Leasing, Richard C. Ausness Jan 1987

Strict Liability For Chattel Leasing, Richard C. Ausness

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Leasing has become an increasingly popular substitute for outright purchases as a means of acquiring products for use. Few courts and commentators, however, have addressed the question of whether the principles of strict products liability which apply to sellers also apply to lessors. In this Article, Professor Ausness reviews the historical basis for imposing strict liability in tort on sellers and applies these rationales to five basic kinds of lease transactions. He concludes that strict liability should not apply when a product defect arises after the leased product is placed in the hands of the lessee (as contrasted with the …


Modernizing Kentucky's Uniform Commercial Code, Harold R. Weinberg, Louise Everett Graham, Thomas J. Stipanowich Jan 1985

Modernizing Kentucky's Uniform Commercial Code, Harold R. Weinberg, Louise Everett Graham, Thomas J. Stipanowich

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In 1958 Kentucky became the third state to enact the Uniform Commercial Code promulgated by the American Law Institute and the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. The General Assembly stated that this legislation was intended to modernize, clarify and simplify the law of commercial transactions. Enactment of the Code also evidenced the legislature's intent to make Kentucky commercial law uniform with that of the other states. Subsequent General Assemblies further implemented these policies by enacting substantially all of the uniform amendments to the Code proposed by the ALI and NCCUSL through 1964.

Unfortunately, these enactments represent our …


Corporations And Corporate Agents: Liability On Commercial Paper Contracts And Attainment Of Holder Status, Harold R. Weinberg Nov 1984

Corporations And Corporate Agents: Liability On Commercial Paper Contracts And Attainment Of Holder Status, Harold R. Weinberg

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This article focuses on two classes of commercial paper issues. Section I considers the Uniform Commercial Code rules relevant to determining whether a corporation or its agents are bound by contracts made upon a negotiable instrument. Application of these rules continues to be an important and recurrent source of legal disputes. Section II considers the rights of corporations or their agents to obtain holder status prerequisite to enforcing commercial paper contracts. Problems relating to the attainment of this status can result from corporate engagement in joint-enterprise with artificial or natural persons and from the linkage of corporations through common ownership …


Evidentiary Problems In--And Solutions For--The Uniform Commercial Code, Ronald J. Allen, Robert A. Hillman Feb 1984

Evidentiary Problems In--And Solutions For--The Uniform Commercial Code, Ronald J. Allen, Robert A. Hillman

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

The Uniform Commercial Code does not offer a systematic approach to the rules governing the evidentiary relationships of parties to commercial litigation. In this article, Professors Allen and Hillman present a general analytical approach to proof rules, highlight the shortcomings of the Code's evidentiary provisions, and discuss the inevitable confusion in the case law construing the Code. They propose an amendment to the Code designed to clarify and improve the Code approach.


The Efficacy Of Guaranty Contracts In Sophisticated Commercial Transactions, Peter A. Alces Jan 1983

The Efficacy Of Guaranty Contracts In Sophisticated Commercial Transactions, Peter A. Alces

Faculty Publications

Even though contracts of guaranty are not subject to uniform standards of interpretation throughout the states, both case law and statutory development have tended to evidence a strong sympathy for the guarantor. In spite of this trend, Professor Alces suggests that creditors' counsel can, through careful drafting, do much to assure the enforceability of the guaranty contract. A scrupulously structured guaranty contract, one that anticipates possible defenses to liability in explicit terms, may well be upheld, even in cases in which guarantors occupied weak negotiating positions vis-a-vis creditors. Moreover, the attack on the guaranty as a fraudulent conveyance under section …