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Twenty Years After Krieger V Law Society Of Alberta: Law Society Discipline Of Crown Prosecutors And Government Lawyers, Andrew Flavelle Martin Oct 2023

Twenty Years After Krieger V Law Society Of Alberta: Law Society Discipline Of Crown Prosecutors And Government Lawyers, Andrew Flavelle Martin

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Krieger v. Law Society of Alberta held that provincial and territorial law societies have disciplinary jurisdiction over Crown prosecutors for conduct outside of prosecutorial discretion. The reasoning in Krieger would also apply to government lawyers. The apparent consensus is that law societies rarely exercise that jurisdiction. But in those rare instances, what conduct do Canadian law societies discipline Crown prosecutors and government lawyers for? In this article, I canvass reported disciplinary decisions to demonstrate that, while law societies sometimes discipline Crown prosecutors for violations unique to those lawyers, they often do so for violations applicable to all lawyers — particularly …


Connecting The Dots To Reveal A New Picture: A Report On Indian Act By-Law Enforcement Issues Faced By First Nations In Nova Scotia And Beyond, Naiomi Metallic, Roy Stewart, Ashley Hamp-Gonsalves Jan 2023

Connecting The Dots To Reveal A New Picture: A Report On Indian Act By-Law Enforcement Issues Faced By First Nations In Nova Scotia And Beyond, Naiomi Metallic, Roy Stewart, Ashley Hamp-Gonsalves

Reports & Public Policy Documents

This report originated as a request by the Mi’kmaq-Nova Scotia-Canada Tripartite Forum to research the challenges facing First Nations in Nova Scotia in assuming jurisdictional control through Indian Act by-laws. In undertaking this research, we identified significant uncertainty, misconceptions and confusion around Indian Act by-laws from all parties with a stake in this issue, including federal and provincial government representatives (Indigenous Services, Department of Justice, Public Safety), the police, the public and First Nations representatives. Consequently, we felt it necessary to comprehensively unpack the various issues relating to Indian Act by-laws, from their nature and legal effect, to their development, …


Checking Our Attachment To The Charter And Respecting Indigenous Legal Orders: A Framework For Charter Application To Indigenous Governments, Naiomi Metallic Jun 2022

Checking Our Attachment To The Charter And Respecting Indigenous Legal Orders: A Framework For Charter Application To Indigenous Governments, Naiomi Metallic

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom looms large in our national identity. As a constitutional law professor at a Canadian law school, my experience is that most students and lawyers see the Charter as intrinsically tied to fundamental notions of justice and fairness in our country. Because of this, Canadian lawyers and judges, who believe the Charter to be inherently good, may find it hard to understand why Indigenous peoples resist application of the Charter to their own institutions. But Canadian jurists’ attachment to the Charter, if not kept in check, can easily lead to dismissing important objections …


Understanding Chilling Effects, Jonathon Penney Jan 2022

Understanding Chilling Effects, Jonathon Penney

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

With digital surveillance and censorship on the rise, the amount of data available online unprecedented, and corporate and governmental actors increasingly employing emerging technologies like artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, and facial recognition technology (FRT) for surveillance and data analytics, concerns about “chilling effects”, that is, the capacity for these activities “chill” or deter people from exercising their rights and freedoms have taken on greater urgency and importance. Yet, there remains a clear dearth in systematic theoretical and empirical work point. This has left significant gaps in understanding. This article has attempted to fill that void, synthesizing theoretical and empirical …


Judicial Workbook On Bill C-92 — An Act Respecting First Nations, Inuit And Métis Children, Youth And Families, Hadley Friedland, Naiomi Metallic, Koren Lightning-Earle Jan 2022

Judicial Workbook On Bill C-92 — An Act Respecting First Nations, Inuit And Métis Children, Youth And Families, Hadley Friedland, Naiomi Metallic, Koren Lightning-Earle

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Objective: Based on the purpose, history, textual wording and relevant interpretative principles, these are the approaches to the provisions of the Act that we believe will best achieve its purpose, which Canada has identified as “to protect and ensure the well-being of Indigenous children, families and communities by promoting culturally sensitive child welfare services, with the goal of putting an end to the overrepresentation of Indigenous children in child and family services systems."


Breathing Life Into Our Living Tree And Strengthening Our Constitutional Roots: The Promise Of The United Nations Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples Act, Naiomi Metallic Jan 2022

Breathing Life Into Our Living Tree And Strengthening Our Constitutional Roots: The Promise Of The United Nations Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples Act, Naiomi Metallic

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In 2015, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (“TRC”) suggested that, despite over 30 years of interpretation in the courts, section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, which “recognizes and affirms” the Aboriginal and treaty rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada, is not achieving meaningful reconciliation. The TRC defined reconciliation as being about “establishing and maintaining a mutually respectful relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples in this country.” According to the TRC, the “reconciliation vision that lies behind Section 35 should not be seen as a means to subjugate Aboriginal peoples to an absolute sovereign Crown,” implying this …


Aboriginal Rights, Legislative Reconciliation And Constitutionalism, Naiomi Metallic Jan 2022

Aboriginal Rights, Legislative Reconciliation And Constitutionalism, Naiomi Metallic

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This paper sketches out the idea of ‘legislative reconciliation’ – governments in Canada using their legislative powers to recognize and protect the inherent rights of Indigenous peoples. Legislative reconciliation is needed because the existing approaches to the implementation of inherent rights—negotiation and constitutional litigation—have been insufficient on their own to bring about a mutually respectful relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Despite the entrenchment of s 35, state governments have not seen themselves as having a role in its implementation in the same way they do for Charter rights. In particular, Canadian governments have not felt compelled to legislate to …


Animal Rights Activism And The Constitution: Are Ag-Gag Laws Justifiable Limits?, Jodi Lazare Jan 2022

Animal Rights Activism And The Constitution: Are Ag-Gag Laws Justifiable Limits?, Jodi Lazare

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Forthcoming in the Osgoode Hall Law Journal (2022).

It is a troubling time to be an animal rights activist in Canada. Recently, Alberta adopted legislation to create harsh penalties for trespassing onto private property, for obtaining permission to enter private property based on false pretences, and for interfering with vehicles on public highways. These laws relate to agricultural lands, to private property generally, and, where roads are concerned, to public property. Ontario, for its part, has adopted similar legislation aimed specifically at agricultural property. The legislation in both provinces purports to protect the security of farmers, their families, and rural …


Ag-Gag Illustrated, Jodi Lazare, Petroglyph Comics Nov 2021

Ag-Gag Illustrated, Jodi Lazare, Petroglyph Comics

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In February 2021, Professor Jodi Lazare was contacted by Petroglyph Comics, a social justice comic studio, that wanted to turn her research on Canadian ag-gag legislation into a comic, accessible to all. The resulting comic is based on two articles by Prof. Lazare, the first published in the Alberta Law Journal and the second currently under review at a second Canadian law journal. Both articles combine her interests in animal law and constitutional law to suggest that recently adopted legislation limiting access to and information about industrially farmed animals in Canada constitutes an unjustified limit to the constitutional right …


R. C. Bissonnette And The (Un)Constitutionality Of Consecutive Periods Of Parole Ineligibility For A Life Sentence: Why The Qcca Got It Right And Why Section 745.51 Should Never Be Re-Written, Adelina Iftene Sep 2021

R. C. Bissonnette And The (Un)Constitutionality Of Consecutive Periods Of Parole Ineligibility For A Life Sentence: Why The Qcca Got It Right And Why Section 745.51 Should Never Be Re-Written, Adelina Iftene

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This article reviews the constitutional arguments upheld by the QCCA in Bissonnette and weighs them against the challenges that trial judges have encountered in applying s. 745.51 since 2012. By drawing on a qualitative review of cases in which s. 745.51 has been applied, as well as Charter principles, sentencing case law, and international practices, this article posits that the QCCA was correct in its approach to s. 745.51, both in finding it unconstitutional and in finding that the provision should not be read down to render it constitutional. This article advances the central argument that, in the context of …


International Decision Commentary: Houngue Éric Noudehouenou V. Republic Of Benin, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Apr 2021

International Decision Commentary: Houngue Éric Noudehouenou V. Republic Of Benin, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The judgment in Houngue Éric Noudehouenou v. Republic of Benin adds to the growing body of human rights jurisprudence on national electoral processes in Africa’s international courts. The decision demonstrates the growing importance of Africa’s regional and sub-regional courts as an alternative venue for opposition politicians, activists, and citizens to mobilize and challenge election processes and constitutional amendment processes where the playing field in their state is uneven. In turn, it reinforces the pivotal role of the regional and sub-regional courts in consolidating democratic governance in Africa, and reveals the limits of assessing the performance of Africa’s international courts solely …


Wolastoqiyik And Mi’Kmaq Grandmothers - Land/Water Defenders Sharing And Learning Circle: Generating Knowledge For Action, Sherry Pictou, Janet Conway, Angela Day Jan 2021

Wolastoqiyik And Mi’Kmaq Grandmothers - Land/Water Defenders Sharing And Learning Circle: Generating Knowledge For Action, Sherry Pictou, Janet Conway, Angela Day

Reports & Public Policy Documents

This report is a summary of the Grandmothers/Defenders’ stories and are interwoven with corresponding news articles, press releases, and other public documents. This is followed by an overview of some of the critical common issues and importantly, strategies for moving forward proposed by the Grandmothers/Defenders.

The Grandmother’s Report is a collection of stories told by Wolastoqiyik Grandmother/Defenders against the Sisson Mine in New Brunswick and Mi’kmaq Grandmothers against the Alton Gas project in Nova Scotia at the event, Indigenous Grandmothers Sharing and Learning Circle: Generating Knowledge for Action, held at the Tatamagouche Centre in Nova Scotia, January 26 to 27, …


An Abortion Law Preformed, Joanna Erdman Jan 2021

An Abortion Law Preformed, Joanna Erdman

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This article engages the transcribed testimony of Carolyn Egan and Janice Patricia Tripp in R v Morgentaler as a critical moment of lawmaking. There is something revealing, often amusing, and sometimes devastating, when a lawyer asks a non-lawyer, in this case, a social worker: “What is the law?” The article focuses on those moments in their testimony when Egan and Tripp answered questions about the 1969 abortion law that made the law itself, its rules and procedures, the subject of examination, and in doing so, constructed new meanings of the law and social action in relation to it in the …


Private Records, Sexual Activity Evidence, And The Charter Of Rights And Freedoms, Elaine Craig Jan 2021

Private Records, Sexual Activity Evidence, And The Charter Of Rights And Freedoms, Elaine Craig

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In December 2018, Parliament amended the Criminal Code to add a new regime dictating the process and admissibility criteria for private records in the possession of an accused in a sexual assault proceedings. The legislation also includes new procedural requirements for applications to introduce evidence of a complainant’s other sexual activity under section 276 of the Criminal Code. Several courts have concluded that various parts of these new provisions – which some have nicknamed the Ghomeshi Rules – are unconstitutional. The problem with these decisions is that, in each one, the court has failed to properly balance the competing …


Wrongful Extradition: Reforming The Committal Phase Of Canada’S Extradition Law, Robert Currie Jan 2021

Wrongful Extradition: Reforming The Committal Phase Of Canada’S Extradition Law, Robert Currie

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

There has recently been an upswing in interest around extradition in Canada, particularly in light of the high-profile and troubling case of Hassan Diab who was extradited to France on the basis of what turned out to be an ill-founded case. Diab’s case highlights some of the problems with Canada’s Extradition Act and proceedings thereunder. This paper argues that the “committal stage” of extradition proceedings, involving a judicial hearing into the basis of the requesting state’s case, is unfair and may not be compliant with the Charter and that the manner in which the Crown conducts these proceedings contributes to …


Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Nov 2020

Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement (AfCFTA) will add a new dispute settlement system to the plethora of judicial mechanisms designed to resolve trade disputes in Africa. Against the discontent of Member States and limited impact the existing highly legalized trade dispute settlement mechanisms have had on regional economic integration in Africa, this paper undertakes a preliminary assessment of the AfCFTA Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM). In particular, the paper situates the AfCFTA-DSM in the overall discontent and unsupportive practices of African States with highly legalized dispute settlement systems and similar WTO-Styled DSMs among other shortcomings. Notwithstanding the transplantation of …


Ag-Gag Laws, Animal Rights Activism, And The Constitution: What Is Protected Speech?, Jodi Lazare Nov 2020

Ag-Gag Laws, Animal Rights Activism, And The Constitution: What Is Protected Speech?, Jodi Lazare

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This article examines the constitutionality of ag-gag legislation that has recently been adopted by two Canadian provinces and is on the horizon in others. Ag-gag legislation prohibits activities such as trespass onto agricultural animal operations, gaining entry onto agriculture operations using false pretences, and interfering with the transport of farmed animals to slaughter. The analysis draws on case law and literature interpreting section 2(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and engages with scholarship related to animal rights activism, American ag-gag legislation, and feminist animal studies to argue that ag-gag laws violate the fundamental freedoms protected by the …


Folk Hero Or Legal Pariah? A Comment On The Legal Ethics Of Edgar Schmidt And Schmidt V Canada (Attorney General), Andrew Flavelle Martin Jan 2020

Folk Hero Or Legal Pariah? A Comment On The Legal Ethics Of Edgar Schmidt And Schmidt V Canada (Attorney General), Andrew Flavelle Martin

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In Schmidt v Canada (Attorney General), government lawyer Edgar Schmidt sought a declaration that the Department of Justice and the Minister of Justice were misinterpreting legislation requiring the Minister to inform the House of Commons if government bills are inconsistent with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Schmidt was one of the lawyers who made recommendations under that legislation. Schmidt thus presents an unusual case study in legal ethics: what should, or can, a lawyer do when a client rejects the lawyer’s advice? What if the client is the government, and the advice is about fundamental rights? This …


Constitutional Law, Jodi Lazare Jan 2020

Constitutional Law, Jodi Lazare

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The materials below are the study outlines from the July 2020 and January 2021 Bar Examinations. The materials are not intended to provide legal advice, and should not be relied upon by articled clerks, transfer applicants, lawyers or members of the public as a current statement of the law.

Please note: The Bar Review Materials are updated every three years. They were last updated on May 1, 2020.


Nil/Tu,O Child And Family Services Society V. B.C. Government And Service Employees’ Union’ And Communications, Energy And Paperworkers Union Of Canada V. Native Child And Family Services Of Toronto, Naiomi Metallic Jan 2020

Nil/Tu,O Child And Family Services Society V. B.C. Government And Service Employees’ Union’ And Communications, Energy And Paperworkers Union Of Canada V. Native Child And Family Services Of Toronto, Naiomi Metallic

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In NIL/TU,O and Native Child, the Supreme Court of Canada held that unions applying for certification to represent employees of Indigenous-run child and family agencies ought to be certified under provincial labour relations legislation. The majority in both cases applied a presumptive rule that labour relations are generally provincial matters. This presumption was not displaced by the fact that both agencies were Indigenous-run organizations. The Indigenous nature of the organizations, their clientele, staff, and governance, or their own preferences for labour regimes made no difference to the Court’s analysis.

Held: Appeals Allowed.

1.

The appeals should be allowed. Treating Indigenous …


Does The Attorney General Have A Duty To Defend Her Legislature’S Statutes? A Comment On The Reference Re Genetic Non-Discrimination Act, Andrew Martin Jan 2020

Does The Attorney General Have A Duty To Defend Her Legislature’S Statutes? A Comment On The Reference Re Genetic Non-Discrimination Act, Andrew Martin

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The Reference Re Genetic Non-Discrimination Act was unusual because the Attorney General for Canada argued that federal legislation was unconstitutional. In this comment, I explore the implications of this choice for the role of the Attorney General and her relationship with Parliament. I argue that the Attorney General has a duty not to defend legislation, including legislation that began as a private member’s bill, that she reasonably believes to be unconstitutional – and that if Parliament wants to defend such legislation, it should do so itself instead of relying on the Attorney General. If Parliament does not do so, the …


Unconstitutional Or Just Unworkable? The Life And Death Of A Prohibition On Floor-Crossing In Fletcher V The Government Of Manitoba, Andrew Martin Oct 2019

Unconstitutional Or Just Unworkable? The Life And Death Of A Prohibition On Floor-Crossing In Fletcher V The Government Of Manitoba, Andrew Martin

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Fletcher v the Government of Manitoba is the first reported challenge to a floor-crossing prohibition under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. This case comment begins with the legislative history of the challenged provision and then provides an overview and critique of the reasons in Fletcher. Against this backdrop, it then reflects on the lessons of the case in two respects. The first is the difficulty in translating a policy idea into legislation – specifically, defining the conduct to be prohibited and determining the appropriate deterrent or penalty for breach. The second respect is the government’s role in …


Extradition And Trial Delays: Recent Developments (And Lessons?) From Canada, Robert Currie, Laura Ellyson Jan 2019

Extradition And Trial Delays: Recent Developments (And Lessons?) From Canada, Robert Currie, Laura Ellyson

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Extradition – the formal rendition of criminal fugitives between states – is well-known to be a time-consuming process that often has impacts, minor or major, on the ability of states to complete prosecution in a timely manner. Thus, the extradition process can sometimes be at odds with the right to trial within a reasonable time, which is part of the overall package of fair trial rights enshrined in international human rights law. In Canada, this right is implemented by paragraph 11(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In recent years Canadian courts have developed a series of principles …


Proceedings Of Expert Forum On First Nations Social Assistance Reform, September 3, 2019, Naiomi Metallic, Fred Wien Jan 2019

Proceedings Of Expert Forum On First Nations Social Assistance Reform, September 3, 2019, Naiomi Metallic, Fred Wien

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Social assistance, whether directed to the mainstream population or to First Nations, is not – according to Forum participants -- a sexy topic. Specifically, with respect to First Nation persons living on reserve in Canada, it has been largely a neglected field except for those directly responsible for administering it. Despite its substantive importance, it has not received a lot of attention from the academic research community, for example, nor is it usually near the top of the list of priorities for political leaders and governments.

Why is this the case? Perhaps it has to do with the history of …


The Canadian Legal System: An Introduction For Regulated Professions, Steve Coughlan, Dale Darling Jan 2019

The Canadian Legal System: An Introduction For Regulated Professions, Steve Coughlan, Dale Darling

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

To understand the influence of law on any regulated profession, one must first understand the influences on the creation of law. This introductory paper sets the context for that discussion of law by explaining the structural aspects of the legal system. Those aspects include the sources of law in Canada, the forms that law can take, and the parties who are primarily responsible for creating and shaping the law. This paper is structured around the discussion of four things: constitutional law, non-constitutional law, decision-makers in the legal system and, finally, a case study illustrating those features in action.


The Spousal Support Advisory Guidelines, Soft Law, And The Procedural Rule Of Law, Jodi Lazare Jan 2019

The Spousal Support Advisory Guidelines, Soft Law, And The Procedural Rule Of Law, Jodi Lazare

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The Spousal Support Advisory Guidelines facilitate discretionary spousal support determinations under the Divorce Act. Non-binding in nature, they are expected to restore some transparency to an uncertain and unpredictable remedy and to benefit dependent spouses who might previously have been deterred from claiming support. They may thus be seen as an important tool for advancing economic justice at family breakdown and promoting substantive economic gender equality. Several Canadian appellate courts have enthusiastically endorsed them. Others object to their application, grounding their resistance in their unofficial and non-binding character. This paper responds to that objection, based on the constitutional separation of …


The Science, Law, And Politics Of Canada's Pathways To Paris: Introduction To Ubc Law Review's Special Section On Climate Change And Canada, Jason Maclean, Meinhard Doelle, Chris Tollefson Jan 2019

The Science, Law, And Politics Of Canada's Pathways To Paris: Introduction To Ubc Law Review's Special Section On Climate Change And Canada, Jason Maclean, Meinhard Doelle, Chris Tollefson

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This brief essay introduces two articles comprising a special section of the UBC Law Review on climate change law and policy in Canada.


When Law Frees Us To Speak, Danielle Citron, Jonathon Penney Jan 2019

When Law Frees Us To Speak, Danielle Citron, Jonathon Penney

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

A central aim of online abuse is to silence victims. That effort is as regrettable as it is successful. In the face of cyber harassment and sexual privacy invasions, women and marginalized groups retreat from online engagement. These documented chilling effects, however, are not inevitable. Beyond its deterrent function, law has an equally important expressive role. In this article, we highlight law’s capacity to shape social norms and behavior through education. We focus on a neglected dimension of law’s expressive role—its capacity to empower victims to express their truths and engage with others. Our argument is theoretical and empirical. We …


Legal Ethics And The Political Activity Of Government Lawyers, Andrew Martin May 2018

Legal Ethics And The Political Activity Of Government Lawyers, Andrew Martin

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The ability to engage in political activity is an essential feature of a democratic society. However, the ability of government lawyers to do so is unclear. While most governments have passed legislation identifying permissible political activity of their employees, it is unclear how the professional obligations of lawyers apply in this context and how these professional obligations interact with this legislation. This article answers these questions. The duty of loyalty to the client requires most government lawyers to refrain from all political activity at the same level of government. The special professional obligations of Crown prosecutors require these lawyers to …


Nova Scotia Home For Colored Children Restorative Inquiry: Council Of Parties Second Public Report, Jennifer Llewellyn, Jean Flynn, Chief Judge Pam Williams, Deborah Emmerson, Michael Dull, Dean Smith, Wayn Hamilton, George Gray, Tony Smith, Gerald Morrison, Joan Jones Jan 2018

Nova Scotia Home For Colored Children Restorative Inquiry: Council Of Parties Second Public Report, Jennifer Llewellyn, Jean Flynn, Chief Judge Pam Williams, Deborah Emmerson, Michael Dull, Dean Smith, Wayn Hamilton, George Gray, Tony Smith, Gerald Morrison, Joan Jones

Reports & Public Policy Documents

The Nova Scotia Home for Colored Children Restorative Inquiry was established following a 17-year journey for justice by former residents of the Nova Scotia Home for Colored Children (NSHCC, or the Home). It was established under the authority of the Public Inquiries Act following a collaborative design process involving former residents, Government, and community members.

This public inquiry was the first of its kind in Canada to take a restorative approach. The Inquiry was a part of the Government of Nova Scotia’s commitment to respond to the institutional abuse and other failures of care experienced by former residents of the …