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Full-Text Articles in Law

Grand-Vision: An Intelligent System For Optimized Deployment Scheduling Of Law Enforcement Agents, Jonathan Chase, Tran Phong, Kang Long, Tony Le, Hoong Chuin Lau Jun 2021

Grand-Vision: An Intelligent System For Optimized Deployment Scheduling Of Law Enforcement Agents, Jonathan Chase, Tran Phong, Kang Long, Tony Le, Hoong Chuin Lau

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Law enforcement agencies in dense urban environments, faced with a wide range of incidents to handle and limited manpower, are turning to data-driven AI to inform their policing strategy. In this paper we present a patrol scheduling system called GRAND-VISION: Ground Response Allocation and Deployment - Visualization, Simulation, and Optimization. The system employs deep learning to generate incident sets that are used to train a patrol schedule that can accommodate varying manpower, break times, manual pre-allocations, and a variety of spatio-temporal demand features. The complexity of the scenario results in a system with real world applicability, which we demonstrate through simulation ...


Administrative Law In The Automated State, Cary Coglianese Apr 2021

Administrative Law In The Automated State, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In the future, administrative agencies will rely increasingly on digital automation powered by machine learning algorithms. Can U.S. administrative law accommodate such a future? Not only might a highly automated state readily meet longstanding administrative law principles, but the responsible use of machine learning algorithms might perform even better than the status quo in terms of fulfilling administrative law’s core values of expert decision-making and democratic accountability. Algorithmic governance clearly promises more accurate, data-driven decisions. Moreover, due to their mathematical properties, algorithms might well prove to be more faithful agents of democratic institutions. Yet even if an automated ...


Law Library Blog (January 2021): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Jan 2021

Law Library Blog (January 2021): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Vaccine Clinical Trials And Data Infrastructure, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

Vaccine Clinical Trials And Data Infrastructure, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

We find ourselves at a momentous turn in the history of vaccines. The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a quasi-global vaccine race that not only compressed vaccine research and development (R&D) timelines, but also paved the way for the administration of a new type of vaccine technology – mRNA vaccines, which work in substantially different ways from the vaccines in use before the pandemic.

While the process of bringing emerging COVID-19 vaccines to market has taken place in an unusually short timeframe, it was largely predicated on the same scientific and regulatory processes that govern the development, approval and deployment of new ...


Contracting For Algorithmic Accountability, Cary Coglianese, Erik Lampmann Jan 2021

Contracting For Algorithmic Accountability, Cary Coglianese, Erik Lampmann

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

As local, state, and federal governments increase their reliance on artificial intelligence (AI) decision-making tools designed and operated by private contractors, so too do public concerns increase over the accountability and transparency of such AI tools. But current calls to respond to these concerns by banning governments from using AI will only deny society the benefits that prudent use of such technology can provide. In this Article, we argue that government agencies should pursue a more nuanced and effective approach to governing the governmental use of AI by structuring their procurement contracts for AI tools and services in ways that ...


Law Library Blog (November 2020): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Nov 2020

Law Library Blog (November 2020): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


The Internet Never Forgets: Image-Based Sexual Abuse And The Workplace, John Schriner, Melody Lee Rood Oct 2020

The Internet Never Forgets: Image-Based Sexual Abuse And The Workplace, John Schriner, Melody Lee Rood

Publications and Research

Image-based sexual abuse (IBSA), commonly known as revenge pornography, is a type of cyberharassment that often results in detrimental effects to an individual's career and livelihood. Although there exists valuable research concerning cyberharassment in the workplace generally, there is little written about specifically IBSA and the workplace. This chapter examines current academic research on IBSA, the issues with defining this type of abuse, victim blaming, workplace policy, and challenges to victim-survivors' redress. The authors explore monetary motivation for websites that host revenge pornography and unpack how the dark web presents new challenges to seeking justice. Additionally, this chapter presents ...


Revisiting The Law Of Confidence In Singapore And A Proposal For A New Tort Of Misuse Of Private Information, Cheng Lim Saw, Zheng Wen Samuel Chan, Wen Min Chai Oct 2020

Revisiting The Law Of Confidence In Singapore And A Proposal For A New Tort Of Misuse Of Private Information, Cheng Lim Saw, Zheng Wen Samuel Chan, Wen Min Chai

Research Collection School Of Law

This article critically examines the recent Court of Appeal decision in I-Admin (Singapore) Pte Ltd v Hong Ying Ting [2020] 1 SLR 1130 and its implications for the law of confidence. The article begins by setting out the decision at first instance, and then on appeal. It argues that the Court of Appeal’s “modified approach” fails to meaningfully engage the plaintiff ’s wrongful gain interest and places the law’s emphasis primarily, if not wholly, on the plaintiff ’s wrongful loss interest. The new framework also appears to have been influenced by English jurisprudence, which has had a long ...


Rethinking Mistake In The Age Of Algorithms: Quoine Pte Ltd V B2c2 Ltd, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh Sep 2020

Rethinking Mistake In The Age Of Algorithms: Quoine Pte Ltd V B2c2 Ltd, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh

Research Collection School Of Law

Good traders remove emotion from the decision-making process. Automated trading algorithms have enabled this, allowing one to trade round the clock, and without the constant need to monitor one’s investments. But software has gremlins. Given the vast amounts of money involved in such trades, it was only a matter of time before disputes involving automated trading software came before the courts. The decision in Quoine v B2C2 (“Quoine”) represents the first time an apex court in the Commonwealth has ruled on the applicability of contractual principles to situations involving automated trading software.


Coronavirus: Pandemics, Artificial Intelligence And Personal Data: How To Manage Pandemics Using Ai And What That Means For Personal Data Protection, Warren B. Chik Sep 2020

Coronavirus: Pandemics, Artificial Intelligence And Personal Data: How To Manage Pandemics Using Ai And What That Means For Personal Data Protection, Warren B. Chik

Research Collection School Of Law

This chapter discusses the hearing of essential and urgent court matters in the Singapore courts during the COVID-19 pandemic. On 27 march 2020, the Singapore judiciary notified courst users that remote hearings were to be implemented for certain types of hearings by means of video and telephone conferencing facilities. Court users were also provided with indicative lists of matters which might be considered essential and urgent.


Coronavirus: Pandemics, Artificial Intelligence And Personal Data: How To Manage Pandemics Using Ai And What That Means For Personal Data Protection, Warren B. Chik Sep 2020

Coronavirus: Pandemics, Artificial Intelligence And Personal Data: How To Manage Pandemics Using Ai And What That Means For Personal Data Protection, Warren B. Chik

Research Collection School Of Law

This chapter discusses the hearing of essential and urgent court matters in the Singapore courts during the COVID-19 pandemic. On 27 march 2020, the Singapore judiciary notified courst users that remote hearings were to be implemented for certain types of hearings by means of video and telephone conferencing facilities. Court users were also provided with indicative lists of matters which might be considered essential and urgent.


An Ecosystem Approach To Ethical Ai And Data Use: Experimental Reflections, Mark Findlay, Josephine Seah Sep 2020

An Ecosystem Approach To Ethical Ai And Data Use: Experimental Reflections, Mark Findlay, Josephine Seah

Research Collection School Of Law

While we have witnessed a rapid growth of ethics documents meant to guide artificial intelligence (AI) development, the promotion of AI ethics has nonetheless proceeded with little input from AI practitioners themselves. Given the proliferation of AI for Social Good initiatives, this is an emerging gap that needs to be addressed in order to develop more meaningful ethical approaches to AI use and development. This paper offers a methodology-a 'shared fairness' approach-aimed at identifying AI practitioners' needs when it comes to confronting and resolving ethical challenges and to find a third space where their operational language can be married with ...


Research 4.0: Research In The Age Of Automation, Rob Procter, Ben Glover, Elliot Jones Sep 2020

Research 4.0: Research In The Age Of Automation, Rob Procter, Ben Glover, Elliot Jones

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Executive Summary

There is a growing consensus that we are at the start of a fourth industrial revolution, driven by developments in Artificial Intelligence, machine learning, robotics, the Internet of Things, 3-D printing, nanotechnology, biotechnology, 5G, new forms of energy storage and quantum computing. This wave of technical innovations is already having a significant impact on how research is conducted, with dramatic change across research methods in recent years within some disciplines, as this project’s interim report set out.

Whilst there are a wide range of technologies associated with the fourth industrial revolution, this report primarily seeks to understand ...


Busting Myths And Dispelling Doubts About Covid-19, Mark Findlay Jul 2020

Busting Myths And Dispelling Doubts About Covid-19, Mark Findlay

Research Collection School Of Law

The Centre for AI and Data Governance (CAIDG) at Singapore Management University (SMU) has embarked over past months on a programme of research designed to confront concerns about the pandemic and its control. Our interest is primarily directed to the ways in which AI-assisted technologies and mass data sharing have become a feature of pandemic control strategies. We want to know what impact these developments are having on community confidence and health safety. In developing this work, we have come across many myths that need busting.


Literature Review: How U.S. Government Documents Are Addressing The Increasing National Security Implications Of Artificial Intelligence, Bert Chapman Jun 2020

Literature Review: How U.S. Government Documents Are Addressing The Increasing National Security Implications Of Artificial Intelligence, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

This article emphasizes the increasing importance of artificial intelligence (AI) in military and national security policy making. It seeks to inform interested individuals about the proliferation of publicly accessible U.S. government and military literature on this multifaceted topic. An additional objective of this endeavor is encouraging greater public awareness of and participation in emerging public policy debate on AI's moral and national security implications..


Developing Open Source Software Using Version Control Systems: An Introduction To The Git Language For Documenting Your Computational Research, Jared D. Smith, Jonathan D. Herman Jun 2020

Developing Open Source Software Using Version Control Systems: An Introduction To The Git Language For Documenting Your Computational Research, Jared D. Smith, Jonathan D. Herman

All ECSTATIC Materials

Version control systems track the history of code as it is committed (saved) by any number of developers. Have you made a coding error and cannot debug it? Version control systems allow for resetting code back to when it worked, and show what code has changed since previous commits.

The contents of this lecture provide an introduction to the git version control language, GitHub for cloud hosting open source code repositories, and tutorials that demonstrate common and useful git and GitHub practices. This lecture is intended to be coupled with a discussion on creating reproducible computational research.

The zipped folder ...


Deploying Machine Learning For A Sustainable Future, Cary Coglianese May 2020

Deploying Machine Learning For A Sustainable Future, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

To meet the environmental challenges of a warming planet and an increasingly complex, high tech economy, government must become smarter about how it makes policies and deploys its limited resources. It specifically needs to build a robust capacity to analyze large volumes of environmental and economic data by using machine-learning algorithms to improve regulatory oversight, monitoring, and decision-making. Three challenges can be expected to drive the need for algorithmic environmental governance: more problems, less funding, and growing public demands. This paper explains why algorithmic governance will prove pivotal in meeting these challenges, but it also presents four likely obstacles that ...


Trust In And Ethical Design Of Carebots: The Case For Ethics Of Care, Gary Kok Yew Chan May 2020

Trust In And Ethical Design Of Carebots: The Case For Ethics Of Care, Gary Kok Yew Chan

Research Collection School Of Law

The paper has two main objectives: to examine the challenges arising from the use of carebots as well as to discuss how the design of carebots can deal with these challenges. First, it notes that the use of carebots to take care of the physical and mental health of the elderly, children and the disabled as well as to serve as assistive tools and social companions encounter a few main challenges. They relate to the extent of the care robots’ ability to care for humans, potential deception by robot morphology and communications, (over)reliance on or attachment to robots, and ...


Regulating Personal Data Usage In Covid-19 Control Conditions, Mark Findlay, Nydia Remolina May 2020

Regulating Personal Data Usage In Covid-19 Control Conditions, Mark Findlay, Nydia Remolina

Centre for AI & Data Governance

As the COVID-19 health pandemic ebbs and flows world-wide, governments and private companies across the globe are utilising AI-assisted surveillance, reporting, mapping and tracing technologies with the intention of slowing the spread of the virus. These technologies have capacity to amass and share personal data for community control and citizen safety motivations that empower state agencies and inveigle citizen co-operation which could only be imagined outside times of real and present personal danger. While not cavilling with the short-term necessity for these technologies and the data they control, process and share in the health regulation mission (provided that the technology ...


Keeping Ai Under Observation: Anticipated Impacts On Physicians' Standard Of Care, Iria Giuffrida, Taylor Treece Apr 2020

Keeping Ai Under Observation: Anticipated Impacts On Physicians' Standard Of Care, Iria Giuffrida, Taylor Treece

Faculty Publications

As Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools become increasingly present across industries, concerns have started to emerge as to their impact on professional liability. Specifically, for the medical industry--in many ways an inherently "risky" business--hospitals and physicians have begun evaluating the impact of Al tools on their professional malpractice risk. This Essay seeks to address that question, zooming in on how AI may affect physicians' standard of care for medical malpractice claims.


Geopolitics And The Digital Domain: How Cyberspace Is Impacting International Security, Georgia Wood Apr 2020

Geopolitics And The Digital Domain: How Cyberspace Is Impacting International Security, Georgia Wood

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The digital domain is the emerging environment for which the internet and data connectivity exists. This new domain is challenging the traditional place for geopolitics to exist, and creating new challenges to international relations. The use of cyberweapons through direct cyberattacks, such as the possibility of an attack on the U.S. power grid, or misinformation campaigns, such as the one launched by Russia against the 2016 U.S. Presidential election, can expand the international threat landscape. While these new threats increase, states are widely not prepared to address the new challenges in the digital domain. This paper will use ...


Rules As Code - Seven Levels Of Digitisation, Meng Weng (Huang Mingrong) Wong Apr 2020

Rules As Code - Seven Levels Of Digitisation, Meng Weng (Huang Mingrong) Wong

Research Collection School Of Law

A guide intended to accelerate sensemaking in discussions involving Rules as Code.


Scraping Bepress: Downloading Dissertations For Preservation, Stephen Zweibel Feb 2020

Scraping Bepress: Downloading Dissertations For Preservation, Stephen Zweibel

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

This article will describe our process developing a script to automate downloading of documents and secondary materials from our library’s BePress repository. Our objective was to collect the full archive of dissertations and associated files from our repository into a local disk for potential future applications and to build out a preservation system.

Unlike at some institutions, our students submit directly into BePress, so we did not have a separate repository of the files; and the backup of BePress content that we had access to was not in an ideal format (for example, it included “withdrawn” items and did ...


Regulation Of Algorithmic Tools In The United States, Christopher S. Yoo, Alicia Lai Jan 2020

Regulation Of Algorithmic Tools In The United States, Christopher S. Yoo, Alicia Lai

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Policymakers in the United States have just begun to address regulation of artificial intelligence technologies in recent years, gaining momentum through calls for additional research funding, piece-meal guidance, proposals, and legislation at all levels of government. This Article provides an overview of high-level federal initiatives for general artificial intelligence (AI) applications set forth by the U.S. president and responding agencies, early indications from the incoming Biden Administration, targeted federal initiatives for sector-specific AI applications, pending federal legislative proposals, and state and local initiatives. The regulation of the algorithmic ecosystem will continue to evolve as the United States continues to ...


Transactional Scripts In Contract Stacks, Shaanan Cohney, David A. Hoffman Jan 2020

Transactional Scripts In Contract Stacks, Shaanan Cohney, David A. Hoffman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Deals accomplished through software persistently residing on computer networks—sometimes called smart contracts, but better termed transactional scripts—embody a potentially revolutionary contracting innovation. Ours is the first precise account in the legal literature of how such scripts are created, and when they produce errors of legal significance.

Scripts’ most celebrated use case is for transactions operating exclusively on public, permissionless, blockchains: such exchanges eliminate the need for trusted intermediaries and seem to permit parties to commit ex ante to automated performance. But public transactional scripts are costly both to develop and execute, with significant fees imposed for data storage ...


Data Governance And The Emerging University, Michael J. Madison Jan 2020

Data Governance And The Emerging University, Michael J. Madison

Book Chapters

Knowledge and information governance questions are tractable primarily in institutional terms, rather than in terms of abstractions such as knowledge itself or individual or social interests. This chapter offers the modern research university as an example. Practices of data-intensive research by university-based researchers, sometimes reduced to the popular phrase “Big Data,” pose governance challenges for the university. The chapter situates those challenges in the traditional understanding of the university as an institution for understanding forms and flows of knowledge. At a broad level, the chapter argues that the new salience of data exposes emerging shifts in the social, cultural, and ...


The Ai Author In Litigation, Yvette Joy Liebesman, Julie Cromer Young Jan 2020

The Ai Author In Litigation, Yvette Joy Liebesman, Julie Cromer Young

All Faculty Scholarship

Many scholars have posited whether a computer possessing Artificial Intelligence (AI) could be considered an author as defined per the Copyright Act of 1976. What was once a thought experiment is now becoming reality. To date, scholarship has focused primarily been on whether an AI meets the requirements of authorship from a purely objective legal framework or whether an AI could be an author based on the doctrines of incentives, independent creation, and creativity.

However, a burden inherent in the rights and liabilities of authorship is the ability to be held liable if that author’s expressive work is infringing ...


The Trust Principles For Digital Repositories, Dawei Lin, Jonathan Crabtree, Ingrid Dillo, Robert R. Downs, Rorie Edmunds, David Giaretta, Marisa De Giusti, Hervé L'Hours, Wim Hugo, Reyna Jenkyns, Varsha Khodiyar, Maryann E. Martone, Mustapha Mokrane, Vivek Navale, Jonathan Petters, Barbara Sierman, Dina V. Sokolova, Martina Stockhause, John Westbrook Jan 2020

The Trust Principles For Digital Repositories, Dawei Lin, Jonathan Crabtree, Ingrid Dillo, Robert R. Downs, Rorie Edmunds, David Giaretta, Marisa De Giusti, Hervé L'Hours, Wim Hugo, Reyna Jenkyns, Varsha Khodiyar, Maryann E. Martone, Mustapha Mokrane, Vivek Navale, Jonathan Petters, Barbara Sierman, Dina V. Sokolova, Martina Stockhause, John Westbrook

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

As information and communication technology has become pervasive in our society, we are increasingly dependent on both digital data and repositories that provide access to and enable the use of such resources. Repositories must earn the trust of the communities they intend to serve and demonstrate that they are reliable and capable of appropriately managing the data they hold.

Following a year-long public discussion and building on existing community consensus , several stakeholders, representing various segments of the digital repository community, have collaboratively developed and endorsed a set of guiding principles to demonstrate digital repository trustworthiness. Transparency, Responsibility, User focus, Sustainability ...


Hacking For Intelligence Collection In The Fight Against Terrorism: Israeli, Comparative, And International Perspectives, Asaf Lubin Jan 2020

Hacking For Intelligence Collection In The Fight Against Terrorism: Israeli, Comparative, And International Perspectives, Asaf Lubin

Articles by Maurer Faculty

תקציר בעברית: הניסיון של המחוקק הישראלי להביא להסדרה מפורשת של סמכויות השב״כ במרחב הקיברנטי משקף מגמה רחבה יותר הניכרת בעולם לעיגון בחקיקה ראשית של הוראות בדבר פעולות פצחנות מצד גופי ביון ומודיעין ורשויות אכיפת חוק למטרות איסוף מודיעין לשם סיכול עבירות חמורות, ובייחוד עבירות טרור אם בעבר היו פעולות מסוג אלה כפופות לנהלים פנימיים ומסווגים, הרי שהדרישה לשקיפות בעידן שלאחר גילויי אדוארד סנודן מחד והשימוש הנרחב בתקיפות מחשב לביצוע פעולות חיפוש וחקירה לסיכול טרור מאידך, מציפים כעת את הדרישה להסמכה מפורשת. במאמר זה אבקש למפות הן את השדה הטכנולוגי והן את השדה המשפטי בכל האמור בתקיפות מחשבים למטרות ריגול ...


Smart Contracts: A Catalyst Of The Next Global Financial Crisis?, Randall Duran, Paul Robert Griffin Dec 2019

Smart Contracts: A Catalyst Of The Next Global Financial Crisis?, Randall Duran, Paul Robert Griffin

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

Purpose: This paper aims to examine the risks associated with smart contracts, a disruptive financial technology (FinTech) innovation, and assesses how in the future they could threaten the integrity of the global financial system. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative approach is used to identify risk factors related to the use of new financial innovations, by examining how over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives contributed to the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) which occurred during 2007 and 2008. Based on this analysis, the potential for similar concerns with smart contracts are evaluated, drawing on the failure of The DAO on the Ethereum blockchain, which involved ...