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Comparative and Foreign Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Truth Commissions And Reparations: A Framework For Post-Conflict Justice In Argentina, Chile Guatemala, And Peru, Anthony Chen May 2021

Truth Commissions And Reparations: A Framework For Post-Conflict Justice In Argentina, Chile Guatemala, And Peru, Anthony Chen

Honors Theses (PPE)

This paper seeks to gauge the effectiveness of truth commissions and their links to creating material reparations programs through two central questions. First, are truth commissions an effective way to achieve justice after periods of conflict marked by mass or systemic human rights abuses by the government or guerilla groups? Second, do truth commissions provide a pathway to material reparations programs for victims of these abuses? It will outline the conceptual basis behind truth commissions, material reparations, and transitional justice. It will then engage in case studies and a comparative analysis of truth commissions and material reparations programs in four ...


Secured Transactions Law Reform In Japan: Japan Business Credit Project Assessment Of Interviews And Tentative Policy Proposals, Megumi Hara, Kumiko Koens, Charles W. Mooney Jr. Apr 2021

Secured Transactions Law Reform In Japan: Japan Business Credit Project Assessment Of Interviews And Tentative Policy Proposals, Megumi Hara, Kumiko Koens, Charles W. Mooney Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article summarizes key findings from the Japan Business Credit Project (JBCP), which involved more than 30 semi-structured interviews conducted in Japan from 2016 through 2018. It was inspired by important and previously unexplored questions concerning secured financing of movables (business equipment and inventory) and claims (receivables)—“asset-based lending” or “ABL.” Why is the use of ABL in Japan so limited? What are the principal obstacles and disincentives to the use of ABL in Japan? The interviews were primarily with staff of banks, but also included those of government officials and regulators, academics, and law practitioners. The article proposes reforms ...


The New Managerialism: Courts, Positive Duties, And Economic And Social Rights, Katharine G. Young Apr 2021

The New Managerialism: Courts, Positive Duties, And Economic And Social Rights, Katharine G. Young

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

An inseparable component of liberal constitutionalism is the respect accorded to so-called negative rights, which rest on duties of government restraint. But just as governments must have their hands tied, in this model, they must also work to secure rights, by actively and effectively planning, regulating, budgeting, and monitoring. These positive duties are particularly pronounced for so-called positive rights, which guarantee access to goods, services and opportunities such as social security, education, health care, land, food, water, sanitation, or to a clean environment. Of course, it is clear that so-called negative rights require both duties of commission and restraint; just ...


The Canons Of Social And Economic Rights, Katharine G. Young Apr 2021

The Canons Of Social And Economic Rights, Katharine G. Young

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Social and economic rights occupy an unsettled place in any global canon of constitutional democracy and human rights. This Article, appearing in a collection of Global Canons in an Age of Uncertainty (S. Choudhry, M. Hailbronner & M. Kumm, eds., OUP) recommends a contender for canonical status, at the same time as it problematizes the search. Insofar as the search for a canon reveals the boundaries of what may be considered exemplary claims of constitutional and democratic practice, the 2000 South African case of Republic of South Africa v. Grootboom is canonical for its treatment of social and economic rights. This ...


The Impact Of Covid-19 On Immigration Detention, Fatma Marouf Apr 2021

The Impact Of Covid-19 On Immigration Detention, Fatma Marouf

Faculty Scholarship

COVID-19 has spread quickly through immigration detention facilities in the United States. As of December 2, 2020, there have been over 7,500 confirmed COVID-19 cases among detained noncitizens. This Article examines why COVID-19 spread rapidly in immigration detention facilities, how it has transformed detention and deportation proceedings, and what can be done to improve the situation for detained noncitizens. Part I identifies key factors that contributed to the rapid spread of COVID-19 in immigration detention. While these factors are not an exhaustive list, they highlight important weaknesses in the immigration detention system. Part II then examines how the pandemic ...


Advancing Fundamental Principles Through Doctrine And Practice: Comments On Darryl Robinson, Justice In Extreme Cases, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt Apr 2021

Advancing Fundamental Principles Through Doctrine And Practice: Comments On Darryl Robinson, Justice In Extreme Cases, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

I am honored to comment on Darryl Robinson's terrific new book which makes an extraordinary contribution to the literature on international criminal law (ICL). Already an admirer of Robinson's work, I learned a lot from reading his book and find his approach convincing. Broadly speaking, there is not much, if anything, on which I disagree with Robinson. I share his criticisms of international criminal tribunal reasoning. I welcome the call for greater attention to deontic considerations. I agree on the importance of the fundamental principles that Robinson identifies, and I also agree that justifying these principles does not ...


Lifting Labor’S Voice: A Principled Path Toward Greater Worker Voice And Power Within American Corporate Governance, Leo E. Strine Jr., Aneil Kovvali, Oluwatomi O. Williams Feb 2021

Lifting Labor’S Voice: A Principled Path Toward Greater Worker Voice And Power Within American Corporate Governance, Leo E. Strine Jr., Aneil Kovvali, Oluwatomi O. Williams

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In view of the decline in gain sharing by corporations with American workers over the last forty years, advocates for American workers have expressed growing interest in allowing workers to elect representatives to corporate boards. Board level representation rights have gained appeal because they are a highly visible part of codetermination regimes that operate in several successful European economies, including Germany’s, in which workers have fared better.

But board-level representation is just one part of the comprehensive codetermination regulatory strategy as it is practiced abroad. Without a coherent supporting framework that includes representation from the ground up, as is ...


Armed Conflicts In Outer Space: Which Law Applies?, Frans G. Von Der Dunk Jan 2021

Armed Conflicts In Outer Space: Which Law Applies?, Frans G. Von Der Dunk

Space, Cyber, and Telecommunications Law Program Faculty Publications

I. Introduction

II. Space Law versus the Law of Armed Conflict ... A. The Essentials of Space Law … B. Space Law and the Threat or Use of Force in Outer Space … C. The Essentials of the Law of Armed Conflict ... D. The Law of Armed Conflict and the Threat or Use of Force in Outer Space

III. Conflicts of Application: A Few Key Examples ... A. Unraveling the Prioritization Issue: The Lex Specialis and Lex Posterior Principles ... B. Unraveling the Prioritization Issue: The U.N. Charter and Treaty Interpretation ... C. Unraveling the Prioritization Issue: Pacta Sunt Servanda, Third States, and Neutrals

IV ...


Two Steps Forward, One Step Back? An Attempt To Cure Due Process Paranoia, Louis Yi Hang Lau Jan 2021

Two Steps Forward, One Step Back? An Attempt To Cure Due Process Paranoia, Louis Yi Hang Lau

Singapore Law Journal (Lexicon)

Time, cost and quality. These are the qualities that an efficient arbitration must have. In recent times, however, the arbitral process has struggled to maintain this balance, with the efficiency of the arbitral process rated among the top five worst characteristics of international arbitration. The fact that parties may resort to a curial review of arbitral awards in an annulment or refusal of enforcement action merely adds on to this delay.


Administrative Law In A Time Of Crisis: Comparing National Responses To Covid-19, Cary Coglianese, Neysun A. Mahboubi Jan 2021

Administrative Law In A Time Of Crisis: Comparing National Responses To Covid-19, Cary Coglianese, Neysun A. Mahboubi

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Beginning in early 2020, countries around the world successively and then together faced the same rapidly emerging threats from the COVID-19 virus. The shared experience of this global pandemic affords scholars and policymakers a comparative lens through which to view how differences in countries’ governance structures and administrative responses affected their ability to manage the various crisis posed by the pandemic. This article introduces a special series of essays in the Administrative Law Review written by leading administrative law experts across the globe. Case studies focus on China, Chile, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States, as ...


Decolonizing Indigenous Migration, Angela R. Riley, Kristen A. Carpenter Jan 2021

Decolonizing Indigenous Migration, Angela R. Riley, Kristen A. Carpenter

Articles

As global attention turns increasingly to issues of migration, the Indigenous identity of migrants often remains invisible. At the U.S.-Mexico border, for example, a significant number of the individuals now being detained are people of indigenous origin, whether Kekchi, Mam, Achi, Ixil, Awakatek, Jakaltek or Qanjobal, coming from communities in Venezuela, Honduras, Guatemala and other countries. They may be leaving their homelands precisely because their rights as Indigenous Peoples, for example the right to occupy land collectively and without forcible removal, have been violated. But once they reach the United States, they are treated as any other migrants ...


La Privatización, La Desregulación Y El Interés Público: Un Análisis Comparado, Alfred C. Aman Jan 2021

La Privatización, La Desregulación Y El Interés Público: Un Análisis Comparado, Alfred C. Aman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This Spanish-language paper analyzes the structural elements of Administrative Law in the United States of America, such as deregulation and privatization, which define the particular relationship between State and Society in that country. The analysis focuses on the limits to privatization in some sectors (prisons, water, health care) using a comparative approach with Spain. From a critical position with the marketization and hegemony of economics, alternatives are proposed for a reform of the Administrative Law that allows a more democratic and inclusive functioning of the governmental institutions.


Appraising The U.S. Supreme Court’S Philipp Decision, Vivian Grosswald Curran Jan 2021

Appraising The U.S. Supreme Court’S Philipp Decision, Vivian Grosswald Curran

Articles

This article assesses the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) after the Supreme Court’s recent decision in Germany v. Philipp. Philipp’s rejection of a genocide exception for a foreign state’s act of property expropriation comports with the absence of such an exception in the FSIA’s text. The article also suggests that the genocide exception as it had been developing was a detrimental development in FSIA interpretation, and was also harmful to international human rights law, inasmuch as it distorted the concept of genocide. The Philipp Court’s renewed focus on the international law of property, rather than ...


The Hague Judgments Convention In The United States: A “Game Changer” Or A New Path To The Old Game?, Ronald A. Brand Jan 2021

The Hague Judgments Convention In The United States: A “Game Changer” Or A New Path To The Old Game?, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

The Hague Judgments Convention, completed on July 2, 2019, is built on a list of “jurisdictional filters” in Article 5(1), and grounds for non-recognition in Article 7. If one of the thirteen jurisdictional tests in Article 5(1) is satisfied, the judgment may circulate under the Convention, subject to the grounds for non-recognition found in Article 7. This approach to Convention structure is especially significant for countries considering ratification and implementation. A different structure was suggested in the initial Working Group stage of the Convention’s preparation which would have avoided the complexity of multiple rules of indirect jurisdiction ...


The Vulnerable Sovereign, Ronald A. Brand Jan 2021

The Vulnerable Sovereign, Ronald A. Brand

Articles

The connection between sovereignty and law is fundamental for both domestic (internal sovereignty) and the international (external sovereignty) purposes. As the dominant forms of government have evolved over time, so has the way in which we think about sovereignty. Consideration of the historical evolution of the concept of sovereignty offers insight into how we think of sovereignty today. A term that was born to represent the relationship between the governor and the governed has become a term that is used to represent the relationships between and among states in the global legal order. This article traces the history of the ...


Anti-Modalities, David E. Pozen, Adam Samaha Jan 2021

Anti-Modalities, David E. Pozen, Adam Samaha

Faculty Scholarship

Constitutional argument runs on the rails of “modalities.” These are the accepted categories of reasoning used to make claims about the content of supreme law. Some of the modalities, such as ethical and prudential arguments, seem strikingly open ended at first sight. Their contours come into clearer view, however, when we attend to the kinds of claims that are not made by constitutional interpreters – the analytical and rhetorical moves that are familiar in debates over public policy and political morality but are considered out of bounds in debates over constitutional meaning. In this Article, we seek to identify the “anti-modalities ...


Doctrinal Conflict In Foreign Investment Regulation In India: ​​Ntt Docomo Vs. Tata Sons And The Case For “Downside Protection”, M. P. Ram Mohan, Nobuhisa Ishizuka, Sidharth Sharma Jan 2021

Doctrinal Conflict In Foreign Investment Regulation In India: ​​Ntt Docomo Vs. Tata Sons And The Case For “Downside Protection”, M. P. Ram Mohan, Nobuhisa Ishizuka, Sidharth Sharma

Faculty Scholarship

The strategic importance of India as an investment destination for foreign investors is highlighted by ongoing tensions in the Indo-Pacific region, and the recognition that a strong economic relationship with India is in the interest of countries seeking a more stable balance of power in the region. From a policy perspective, India has struggled to balance its own economic interests with the commercial requirements of investors. Rules attempting to strike this balance have created uncertainties that have resulted in investors seeking greater protections, which in turn have triggered additional regulatory responses. The prevalent use of put options by foreign investors ...


Due Process In Antitrust Enforcement: Normative And Comparative Perspectives, Christopher S. Yoo, Yong Huang, Thomas Fetzer, Shan Jiang Dec 2020

Due Process In Antitrust Enforcement: Normative And Comparative Perspectives, Christopher S. Yoo, Yong Huang, Thomas Fetzer, Shan Jiang

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Due process in antitrust enforcement has significant implications for better professional and accurate enforcement decisions. Not only can due process spur economic growth, raise government credibility, and limit the abuse of powers according to law, it also promotes competitive reforms in monopolized sectors and curbs corruption. Jurisdictions learn from the best practices in the investigation process, decisionmaking process, and the announcement and judicial review of antitrust enforcement decisions. By comparing the enforcement policies of China, the European Union, and the United States, this article calls for better disclosure of evidence, participation of legal counsel, and protection of the procedural and ...


Comparative Law As A Way Of Life: For William P. Alford, Paulo Barrozo Dec 2020

Comparative Law As A Way Of Life: For William P. Alford, Paulo Barrozo

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Comparative law presents high order ontological, causal, and epistemological difficulties. Those difficulties come to a head in the design of comparative methods. Indeed, the spatial, temporal and cultural range of the legal phenomenon in all its elements – such as types of legal thinking and discourse, constitutional essentials, infraconstitutional institutions or the meaning-orientation and attitudes of legal agents – often strain the methods of comparative law to a point of rupture.

William P. Alford makes enduring contributions to comparative methods. In particular, this essay focuses on lessons contained in his early work about the limits and possibilities of theoretical approaches to comparative ...


Federal Rule 44.1: Foreign Law In U.S. Courts Today, Vivian Grosswald Curran Nov 2020

Federal Rule 44.1: Foreign Law In U.S. Courts Today, Vivian Grosswald Curran

Articles

This article presents an in-depth analysis of the latent methodological issues that are as much a cause of U.S. federal court avoidance of foreign law as are judicial difficulties in obtaining foreign legal materials and difficulties in understanding foreign legal orders and languages. It explores Rule 44.1’s inadvertent introduction of a civil-law method into a common-law framework, and the results that have ensued, including an incomplete transition of foreign law from being an issue of fact to becoming an issue of law. It addresses the ways in which courts obtain information about foreign law today, suggesting among ...


Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Nov 2020

Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Blogs

The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement (AfCFTA) will add a new dispute settlement system to the plethora of judicial mechanisms designed to resolve trade disputes in Africa. Against the discontent of Member States and limited impact the existing highly legalized trade dispute settlement mechanisms have had on regional economic integration in Africa, this paper undertakes a preliminary assessment of the AfCFTA Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM). In particular, the paper situates the AfCFTA-DSM in the overall discontent and unsupportive practices of African States with highly legalized dispute settlement systems and similar WTO-Styled DSMs among other shortcomings. Notwithstanding the transplantation of ...


The U.S. Sentencing Commission’S Recidivism Studies: Myopic, Misleading, And Doubling Down On Imprisonment, Nora V. Demleitner Oct 2020

The U.S. Sentencing Commission’S Recidivism Studies: Myopic, Misleading, And Doubling Down On Imprisonment, Nora V. Demleitner

Scholarly Articles

Recidivism has now replaced rehabilitation as the guiding principle of punishment. It is increasingly used to steer criminal justice policy despite research limitations. It serves as a stand-in for public safety, even though lengthy incarceration may have criminogenic and other negative ramifications for family members and communities. Yet the U.S. Sentencing Commission emphasizes recidivism. It emphasizes what amounts to preemptive imprisonment for those with long criminal records to prevent future offending.

The Commission’s work should come with a warning label. First, its recidivism studies should not be consumed on their own. Instead they must be read in conjunction ...


Women As Judges At International Criminal Tribunals, Milena Sterio Oct 2020

Women As Judges At International Criminal Tribunals, Milena Sterio

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This Article analyzes the presence of female judges within international criminal tribunals, starting with the Yugoslavia and Rwanda Tribunals in the 1990s. In particular, the Article discusses specific numbers of female judges at the Yugoslavia and Rwanda Tribunals, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, the newly created Kosovo Specialist Chambers, and the International Criminal Court.

While the presence of women as prosecutors, defense attorneys, victim representatives, and other professionals at these tribunals is equally important, this Article focuses on the number of female judges, as such data ...


Fraud And Foreign Judgments Under Singapore Law, Adeline Chong Oct 2020

Fraud And Foreign Judgments Under Singapore Law, Adeline Chong

Research Collection School Of Law

A foreign judgment is generally not to be reviewed on the merits at the recognition and enforcement stage. Yet, an exception has always been carved out for fraud under the common law rules on the basis that ‘fraud unravels everything’ (Lazarus Estates Ltd v Beasley [1956] 1 QB 702, 712 per Lord Denning). Thus, English courts allow a judgment debtor to raise fraud at the recognition and enforcement stage even if no new evidence is adduced and fraud had been considered and dismissed by the court of origin (Abouloff v Oppenheimer & Co (1882) 10 QBD 295). This seeming anomaly with ...


Mcswain-Walker Lecture: How Disability Drives Innovation: An Intersectional And Global Perspective, Haben Girma Sep 2020

Mcswain-Walker Lecture: How Disability Drives Innovation: An Intersectional And Global Perspective, Haben Girma

Other Events & Lectures

No abstract provided.


Amicus Curiae Observations By Public International Law & Policy Group, Situation In The Democratic Republic Of The Congo, Milena Sterio, Michael P. Scharf, Paul R. Williams Sep 2020

Amicus Curiae Observations By Public International Law & Policy Group, Situation In The Democratic Republic Of The Congo, Milena Sterio, Michael P. Scharf, Paul R. Williams

Law Faculty Briefs and Court Documents

The Public International Law & Policy Group (“PILPG”) offers the following amicus curiae observations pursuant to the Decision No. ICC-01/04-02/06-2569. PILPG is willing to appear before the Court if it would assist. Prof. Paul R. Williams, Dean Michael P. Scharf, Prof. Milena Sterio, Dr. Brianne McGonigle Leyh, Dr. Julie Fraser, Jonathan Worboys, Eian Katz, Raghavi Viswanath, Nicole Carle, Alexandra Koch, Isabela Karibjanian, and Olivia Wang contributed to these observations.


Resources For Foreign, Comparative, And International Legal Research, Kate E. Britt Sep 2020

Resources For Foreign, Comparative, And International Legal Research, Kate E. Britt

Law Librarian Scholarship

In our increasingly globalized world, a legal issue outside of American domestic law can pop up in a variety of circumstances. Commercial transactions, marriage and custody issues, immigration statuses, and more may involve the law of another nation or be governed by an international treaty. This article outlines some resources to help you tackle foreign, comparative, and international legal issues, whenever they arise.


General Principle, Adeline Chong Sep 2020

General Principle, Adeline Chong

Research Collection School Of Law

As a general proposition and subject to these Principles, a foreign judgment in a commercial matter is entitled to recognition and enforcement. Meaning of “judgment”. For the purposes of these Principles, a judgment means a decision on the merits given by a court or tribunal. Judgments may be given different labels such as decisions, orders or decrees.


Revisiting Individual Rights And Personal Responsibilities Amid Covid-19, Christie Warren Aug 2020

Revisiting Individual Rights And Personal Responsibilities Amid Covid-19, Christie Warren

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Law As Scapegoat, Cary Coglianese Aug 2020

Law As Scapegoat, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Populist nationalist movements have been on the rise around the world in recent years. These movements have tapped into, and fueled, a deep anger among many members of the public. Especially in the face of stagnant or declining economic prospects—as well as expanding inequality—much anger has been directed at minorities and migrants. Politicians with authoritarian tendencies have sought to leverage such public anger by reinforcing tendencies to scapegoat others for their society’s problems. In this paper, I show that laws and regulations—like migrants—can be framed as “the other” too and made into scapegoats. With reference ...