Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

Business Organizations Law

Taxation

Institution
Publication Year
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 61

Full-Text Articles in Law

Transaction-Specific Tax Reform In Three Steps: The Case Of Constructive Ownership, Thomas J. Brennan, David M. Schizer Jan 2024

Transaction-Specific Tax Reform In Three Steps: The Case Of Constructive Ownership, Thomas J. Brennan, David M. Schizer

Faculty Scholarship

Similar investments are often taxed differently, rendering our system less efficient and fair. In principle, fundamental reforms could solve this problem, but they face familiar obstacles. So instead of major surgery, Congress usually responds with a Band-Aid, denying favorable treatment to some transactions, while preserving it for others. These loophole-plugging rules have become a staple of tax reform in recent years. But unfortunately, they often are ineffective or even counterproductive. How can Congress do better? As a case study, we analyze Section 1260, which targets a tax-advantaged way to invest in hedge funds. This analysis is especially timely because a …


Made Crypto Losses? Don't Assume The Taxman Will Subsidise You, Vincent Ooi, Vincent Ooi Jun 2022

Made Crypto Losses? Don't Assume The Taxman Will Subsidise You, Vincent Ooi, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The key points we made in the article are as follows:1) One might think that because income from transactions involving cryptocurrencies is taxable, the losses from such transactions would also be deductible. Unfortunately, the situation is not quite so straightforward.2) The key question is whether it is possible to establish that there was a trade or business (in trading cryptocurrencies). If so, then the deduction rules are a lot more generous. Otherwise, there will be quite a few restrictions:a) Losses from cryptocurrency transactions are unlikely to be useable to be set off against income from other sources.b) The losses will …


An Automation Tax- Adopt With Caution, Vincent Ooi Jun 2022

An Automation Tax- Adopt With Caution, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The post highlights three main issues that may result from the rapid and widespread automation of jobs: 1) declining tax revenues; 2) inequitable distribution of gains and losses from automation; and 3) social costs of job displacement, such as social support and retraining programmes for displaced workers.An automation tax may be imposed on a temporary basis to manage (slow) the rate of displacement of workers due to the adoption of automation technologies, but should not be a permanent feature. Otherwise, there will be a risk of loss of competitiveness in the long-term, possibly resulting in even greater economic harm.One main …


New Assets, (Largely) Same Old Rules: The Taxation Of Digital Tokens, Vincent Ooi May 2022

New Assets, (Largely) Same Old Rules: The Taxation Of Digital Tokens, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In this blog post, I highlight the fact that across jurisdictions, tax provisions specifically drafted to address the taxation of digital tokens are still quite rare, meaning that existing orthodox tax rules will have to be applied. However, care must be taken when applying tax provisions and one must be aware of the limits of "reasoning by analogy".Some tax provisions make reference to specific assets or asset classes and it cannot be assumed that digital tokens which look very similar to these assets will inevitably fall under those provisions. For example, no matter how much a digital payment token looks …


The Taxation Of Cryptocurrency Gains, Vincent Ooi Jul 2021

The Taxation Of Cryptocurrency Gains, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Taking Singapore as an example, this article lays out a series of tests for determining whether gains arising from the disposal of cryptocurrencies are trade or business income, “all other income” or capital gains. It also considers the possibility of a presumption that individuals engaging in such transactions are gambling.


Singapore’S Special Insolvency Scheme For Small Companies, Vincent Ooi, Aurelio Gurrea-Martinez May 2021

Singapore’S Special Insolvency Scheme For Small Companies, Vincent Ooi, Aurelio Gurrea-Martinez

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In this article, the authors examine a temporary program in Singapore to help micro and small businesses facing insolvency amid the COVID-19 crisis.


Singapore Property Tax Law As It Stands: The Rebus Sic Stantibus Principle And The Statutory Formula, Vincent Ooi Aug 2020

Singapore Property Tax Law As It Stands: The Rebus Sic Stantibus Principle And The Statutory Formula, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The Singapore jurisprudence appears to have adopted the proposition that the rebus sic stantibus principle is to be disapplied where section 2(3) of the Singapore Property Tax Act (“PTA”) (the “Statutory Formula”) is applied. This article argues that this proposition perhaps ought to be stated more precisely. The principle is only disapplied where section 2(3)(b) is applied because it would run contrary to the statutory fiction imposed by section 2(3)(b) that the land is to be valued as if it were vacant land. There should be no disapplication of the principle where section 2(3)(a) is applied due to the absence …


Law School News: Remembering Rwu Laws Founding Dean 9-10-2019, Roger Williams University School Of Law Sep 2019

Law School News: Remembering Rwu Laws Founding Dean 9-10-2019, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Producing Better Mileage: Advancing The Design And Usefulness Of Hybrid Vehicles For Social Business Ventures, John E. Tyler, Evan Absher, Kathleen Garman, Anthony J. Luppino Jan 2015

Producing Better Mileage: Advancing The Design And Usefulness Of Hybrid Vehicles For Social Business Ventures, John E. Tyler, Evan Absher, Kathleen Garman, Anthony J. Luppino

Faculty Works

Since 2008 approximately half of the states in the U.S. have enacted statutes permitting “hybrid” business forms that blend aspects of traditional for-profit ventures with characteristics normally associated with traditional non-profit entities. This article analyzes theoretical, academic, practical, legal, and regulatory questions regarding the extent to which the existing hybrids are suited to achieving social purposes objectives, including in comparison to modified traditional forms of business organization. Finding the current fleet of hybrids an innovative, useful start, but with need to evolve, this article proposes statutory language (set forth in a detailed appendix, and summarized in the article text), and …


Integrating Subchapters K And S And Beyond, Walter D. Schwidetzky Oct 2014

Integrating Subchapters K And S And Beyond, Walter D. Schwidetzky

All Faculty Scholarship

This Article builds upon a similar, lengthier effort that I published in the Tax Lawyer in 2009. While there is overlap, this Article contains much new material. Important case law and tax proposals from the House Ways and Means Committee have come out in the interim. Due to space limitations, unlike my Tax Lawyer effort, this Article attempts to avoid prolixity. It assumes the reader has good knowledge of both Subchapters S and K and the tax entity selection process. If you are not that reader, a review of my Tax Lawyer article or Professor Mann's article in this symposium …


Pass-Through Entity Reform: Is A Major Overhaul Necessary?, Walter D. Schwidetzky Mar 2014

Pass-Through Entity Reform: Is A Major Overhaul Necessary?, Walter D. Schwidetzky

All Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


I Want Out – Tax Considerations In Exiting A Partnership, James B. Sowell Nov 2013

I Want Out – Tax Considerations In Exiting A Partnership, James B. Sowell

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Partnership Current Developments, Robert J. Crnkovich, Steven M. Friedman Nov 2013

Partnership Current Developments, Robert J. Crnkovich, Steven M. Friedman

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Introduction To M&A Tax: S Corporations And Section 336(E), Robert G. Mcelroy, William M. Richardson Nov 2013

Introduction To M&A Tax: S Corporations And Section 336(E), Robert G. Mcelroy, William M. Richardson

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Economic Justice And The Internal Point Of View, Adam J. Macleod Jan 2013

Economic Justice And The Internal Point Of View, Adam J. Macleod

Faculty Articles

The West is in a tumult about money. In the United States, the Tea Party movement and the Occupy Wall Street movement captured the public's attention, sounding themes of fiscal irresponsibility and material inequality, respectively. Political negotiations over the so-called "fiscal cliff," the debt ceiling, taxes, and entitlement spending, have kept these themes before the public eye. In Europe, the protests have been more dramatic, and the declarations of national leaders that the European Union is in no danger of disintegrating have sounded at times suspiciously forceful.

Despite all of the exhortations that lawmakers should do something, the public debates …


Wage Taxes And Compensating S Corporation Officers And Members Of Llcs And Llps, John W. Lee Nov 2011

Wage Taxes And Compensating S Corporation Officers And Members Of Llcs And Llps, John W. Lee

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


Compensating Employees And Employee Owners, And Avoiding Problems With Payroll Tax And Executive Compensation Audits, Mary B. Hevener Nov 2011

Compensating Employees And Employee Owners, And Avoiding Problems With Payroll Tax And Executive Compensation Audits, Mary B. Hevener

William & Mary Annual Tax Conference

No abstract provided.


A Preface To Neoclassical Legal Thought, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jun 2011

A Preface To Neoclassical Legal Thought, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

All Faculty Scholarship

Most legal historians speak of the period following classical legal thought as “progressive legal thought.” That term creates an unwarranted bias in characterization, however, creating the impression that conservatives clung to an obsolete “classical” ideology, when in fact they were in many ways just as revisionist as the progressives legal thinkers whom they critiqued. The Progressives and New Deal thinkers whom we identify with progressive legal thought were nearly all neoclassical, or marginalist, in their economics, but it is hardly true that all marginalists were progressives. For example, the lawyers and policy makers in the corporate finance battles of the …


Déjà Vu All Over Again? Reflections On Auerbach's 'Modern Corporate Tax', Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Dec 2010

Déjà Vu All Over Again? Reflections On Auerbach's 'Modern Corporate Tax', Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Law & Economics Working Papers

This paper comments on Alan Auerbach's "A Modern Corporate Tax" (Hamilton Project/CAP, December 2010) and argues that it is not a significant improvement over previous proposals to replace the corporate tax with a cash flow tax.


Business Taxes And International Competitiveness: Understanding How Taxes Can Distort Capital Ownership And Designing A Nondistortive International Tax System, Michael S. Knoll Jul 2010

Business Taxes And International Competitiveness: Understanding How Taxes Can Distort Capital Ownership And Designing A Nondistortive International Tax System, Michael S. Knoll

All Faculty Scholarship

Around the world, policymakers are obsessed with the competitiveness of their domestic companies and domestically based multinational corporations (MNCs). Such concerns frequently influence policy, especially tax policy. In this paper, I develop a theory of how taxes affect the international competitiveness of businesses. I then use that theory to evaluate basic tax policy decisions, such as the choice between residence- and source-based taxation and the level of tax rates, and to understand the impact various provisions in the U.S. Internal Revenue Code are likely to have on the competitiveness of U.S.-based corporations and MNCs.


The Redemption Puzzle, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah Jul 2010

The Redemption Puzzle, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Law & Economics Working Papers

Following the adoption of partial integration in 2003, there was only a modest increase in dividends during the period 2004-7, from about 300 to about 500 (if 1987 levels are set at 100). Redemptions, however, showed a remarkable increase, jumping from about the same as dividends (300) to 1,800. This, therefore, leads to a new puzzle: Why the sudden sharp increase in redemptions following 2003?

Like the dividend puzzle, the redemption puzzle is susceptible to several explanations. For example, Bratton and Wachter note that managers who hold stock options tend to favor redemptions over dividends. But in this case, I …


Integrating Subchapters K And S — Just Do It, Walter D. Schwidetzky Apr 2009

Integrating Subchapters K And S — Just Do It, Walter D. Schwidetzky

All Faculty Scholarship

The Code contains two “pass-through” tax regimes for business entities. One is contained in Subchapter K, which applies to partnerships, the other in Subchapter S, which, unsurprisingly, applies to S corporations. In the main, both Subchapters tax the owners of the entities rather than the entities themselves. Having two pass-through tax regimes creates obvious administrative and other inefficiencies. There was a time when S corporations served a valuable purpose, particularly when taxpayers needed a fairly simple and foolproof pass-through entity that provided a liability shield. But limited liability companies (LLCs), which are usually taxed as partnerships, 1 in most contexts …


Samuel Zell, The Chicago Tribune, And The Emergence Of The S Esop: Understanding The Tax Advantages And Disadvantages Of S Esops, Michael S. Knoll Jan 2009

Samuel Zell, The Chicago Tribune, And The Emergence Of The S Esop: Understanding The Tax Advantages And Disadvantages Of S Esops, Michael S. Knoll

All Faculty Scholarship

Samuel Zell’s acquisition of the Chicago Tribune Company (the Tribune) in December 2007 using a little-known type of Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP) made headlines. In a complicated transaction, which took nearly a year to complete, the Tribune converted from a subchapter C corporation to a subchapter S corporation, established an ESOP that purchased 100 percent of the company’s equity, and sold Zell a call option giving him the right to purchase 40 percent of the company’s equity. Press reports claim that Zell’s novel structure enabled Zell to outbid other suitors. And financial commentators predict that many acquirers will employ …


Allocating Business Profits For Tax Purposes: A Proposal To Adopt A Formulary Profit Split, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Kimberly A. Clausing, Michael C. Durst Dec 2008

Allocating Business Profits For Tax Purposes: A Proposal To Adopt A Formulary Profit Split, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Kimberly A. Clausing, Michael C. Durst

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

The current system of taxing the income of multinational firms in the United States is flawed across multiple dimensions. The system provides an artificial tax incentive to earn income in low-tax countries, rewards aggressive tax planning, and is not compatible with any common metrics of efficiency. The U.S. system is also notoriously complex; observers are nearly unanimous in lamenting the heavy compliance burdens and the impracticality of coherent enforcement. Further, despite a corporate tax rate one standard deviation above that of other OECD countries, the U.S. corporate tax system raises relatively little revenue, due in part to the shifting of …


The Reform Of Corporate Taxation In The European Union, Nina Winkler Apr 2008

The Reform Of Corporate Taxation In The European Union, Nina Winkler

Cornell Law School Inter-University Graduate Student Conference Papers

The Commission of the European Communities is currently drafting a proposal for an EU Directive to implement the first comprehensive corporate tax strategy for the Internal Market. The adoption of a common consolidated corporate tax base for EU multinational enterprises is one of today’s most highly debated issues on Brussels’ political agenda. Since the reform would affect all international companies conducting business in the Internal Market, it should also be of great interest for non-EU corporate and tax law scholars and lawyers. The paper critically evaluates the key advantages and disadvantages of the concept of an EU consolidated tax base …


Does Nonprofit Ownership Matter?, Jill R. Horwitz Jan 2007

Does Nonprofit Ownership Matter?, Jill R. Horwitz

Articles

In recent years, policymakers have increasingly questioned whether nonprofit institutions, particularly hospitals, merit tax exemption. They argue that nonprofit hospitals differ little from their for-profit counterparts in the provision of charity care and, therefore, should either lose their tax-exempt status or adhere to new, strict, and specific requirements to provide free services for the poor. In this Article, I present evidence that hospital ownership-whether it is for-profit, nonprofit, or government owned-has a significant effect on the mix of medical services it offers. Despite notoriously weak enforcement mechanisms, nonprofit hospitals act in the public interest by providing services that are unlikely …


Introduction: Capitalizing On The Success Of Entrepreneurship: Ipos, Private Sales, Tax Aspects, Residual Interest Of Entrepreneurs After Sales Of Ipos, Richard K. Gordon Jan 2007

Introduction: Capitalizing On The Success Of Entrepreneurship: Ipos, Private Sales, Tax Aspects, Residual Interest Of Entrepreneurs After Sales Of Ipos, Richard K. Gordon

Faculty Publications

Panel discussion on "Capitalizing on the Success of Entrepreneurship: IPOS, Private Sales, Tax Aspects, Residual Interest of Entrepreneurs after Sales of IPOS" from the "The Canada-United States Law Institute Conference on Comparative Legal Aspects of Entrepreneurship in Canada and the United States" - Cleveland, Ohio April 13-14, 2007.


An Introduction To The Governance And Taxation Of Not-For-Profit Organizations, Patrick Bolton, Hamid Mehran Jan 2006

An Introduction To The Governance And Taxation Of Not-For-Profit Organizations, Patrick Bolton, Hamid Mehran

Center for Contract and Economic Organization

This paper provides a brief overview of the current state of the not-for-profit sector and discusses specific governance issues in not-for-profit organizations. We offer an in-depth analysis of the issues that arise when not-for-profit organizations compete against for-profit firms in the same markets. We argue that while competition by for-profit firms can discipline not-for-profit firms and mitigate their governance problems, the effects of this competition are distorted by the not-for-profits’ corporate income tax exemptions. Based on a simple general equilibrium analysis, we argue that there is little justification for such exemptions.


Does The Tax Law Discriminate Against The Majority Of American Children: The Downside Of Our Progressive Rate Structure And Unbalanced Incentives For Higher Education?, Lester B. Snyder Oct 2004

Does The Tax Law Discriminate Against The Majority Of American Children: The Downside Of Our Progressive Rate Structure And Unbalanced Incentives For Higher Education?, Lester B. Snyder

University of San Diego Law and Economics Research Paper Series

Our graduate income tax structure provides an incentive to shift income to lower-bracket family members. However, some parents have much more latitude to shift income to their children than do others. Income derived from services and private business-by far the majority of American income-is less favored than income derived from publicly traded securities. The rationale given for this discrimination is that parents in services or private business, as opposed to those in securities, do not actually part with control of their property. This article explores these tax broader (yet subtle) tax benefits and their impact on the majority of children …


Charging Orders And The New Uniform Limited Partnership Act: Dispelling The Rumors Of Disaster, Daniel S. Kleinberger, Carter G. Bishop, Thomas Geu Jan 2004

Charging Orders And The New Uniform Limited Partnership Act: Dispelling The Rumors Of Disaster, Daniel S. Kleinberger, Carter G. Bishop, Thomas Geu

Faculty Scholarship

Last year, an article published in this magazine focused on the charging order as "the Exclusive Remedy Against a Partnership Interest" and announced the "[s]hocking [r]evelation" that ULPA (2001)--the new Uniform Limited Partnership Act--undermines the "exclusive remedy" limitation on charging orders. The authors asserted categorically that, "from an asset protection perspective, the 2001 Act is considerably less protective of a partner's partnership interest than the 1976 Act." Elizabeth M. Schurig & Amy P. Jetel, A Charging Order Is the Exclusive Remedy Against a Partnership Interest: Fact or Fiction?, Prob. & Prop. 57, 58 (Nov./Dec. 2003).

As this article will show, …