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Full-Text Articles in Law

Exploring The Interfaces Between Big Data And Intellectual Property Law, Daniel J. Gervais Oct 2019

Exploring The Interfaces Between Big Data And Intellectual Property Law, Daniel J. Gervais

Daniel J Gervais

This article reviews the application of several IP rights (copyright, patent, sui generis database right, data exclusivity and trade secret) to Big Data. Beyond the protection of software used to collect and process Big Data corpora, copyright’s traditional role is challenged by the relatively unstructured nature of the non-relational (noSQL) databases typical of Big Data corpora. This also impacts the application of the EU sui generis right in databases. Misappropriation (tort-based) or anti-parasitic behaviour protection might apply, where available, to data generated by AI systems that has high but short-lived value. Copyright in material contained in Big Data corpora must …


W(H)Ither Warranty: The B(L)Oom Of Products Liability Theory In Cases Of Deficient Software Design, Peter A. Alces Sep 2019

W(H)Ither Warranty: The B(L)Oom Of Products Liability Theory In Cases Of Deficient Software Design, Peter A. Alces

Peter A. Alces

No abstract provided.


When Y2k Causes "Economic Loss" To "Other Property", Peter A. Alces, Aaron S. Book Sep 2019

When Y2k Causes "Economic Loss" To "Other Property", Peter A. Alces, Aaron S. Book

Peter A. Alces

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Satellites And Smart Devices: Data Surprises And Security, Privacy, And Regulatory Challenges, Anne T. Mckenna, Amy C. Gaudion, Jenni L. Evans Jul 2019

The Role Of Satellites And Smart Devices: Data Surprises And Security, Privacy, And Regulatory Challenges, Anne T. Mckenna, Amy C. Gaudion, Jenni L. Evans

Anne T. McKenna

Strava, a popular social media platform and mobile app like Facebook but specifically designed for athletes, posts a “heatmap” with consensually-obtained details about users’ workouts and geolocation. Strava’s heatmap depicts aggregated data of user location and movement by synthesizing GPS satellite data points and movement data from users’ smart devices together with satellite imagery. In January of 2018, a 20-year-old student tweeted that Strava’s heatmap revealed U.S. forward operating bases. The tweet revealed a significant national security issue and flagged substantial privacy and civil liberty concerns.

Smart devices, software applications, and social media platforms aggregate consumer data from multiple data …


The Role Of Satellites And Smart Devices: Data Surprises And Security, Privacy, And Regulatory Challenges, Anne T. Mckenna, Amy C. Gaudion, Jenni L. Evans Jul 2019

The Role Of Satellites And Smart Devices: Data Surprises And Security, Privacy, And Regulatory Challenges, Anne T. Mckenna, Amy C. Gaudion, Jenni L. Evans

Amy C. Gaudion

Strava, a popular social media platform and mobile app like Facebook but specifically designed for athletes, posts a “heatmap” with consensually-obtained details about users’ workouts and geolocation. Strava’s heatmap depicts aggregated data of user location and movement by synthesizing GPS satellite data points and movement data from users’ smart devices together with satellite imagery. In January of 2018, a 20-year-old student tweeted that Strava’s heatmap revealed U.S. forward operating bases. The tweet revealed a significant national security issue and flagged substantial privacy and civil liberty concerns.

Smart devices, software applications, and social media platforms aggregate consumer data from multiple data …


Data Devolution: Corporate Information Security, Consumers, And Future Of Regulation, Andrea M. Matwyshyn Jul 2019

Data Devolution: Corporate Information Security, Consumers, And Future Of Regulation, Andrea M. Matwyshyn

Andrea Matwyshyn

No abstract provided.


Cyber!, Andrea M. Matwyshyn Jul 2019

Cyber!, Andrea M. Matwyshyn

Andrea Matwyshyn

This Article challenges the basic assumptions of the emerging legal area of “cyber” or “cybersecurity.” It argues that the two dominant “cybersecurity” paradigms—information sharing and deterrence—fail to recognize that corporate information security and national “cybersecurity” concerns are inextricable. This problem of “reciprocal security vulnerability” means that in practice our current legal paradigms channel us in suboptimal directions. Drawing insights from the work of philosopher of science Michael Polanyi, this Article identifies three flaws that pervade the academic and policy analysis of security, exacerbating the problem of reciprocal security vulnerability—privacy conflation, incommensurability, and internet exceptionalism. It then offers a new paradigm—reciprocal …


The Human Element: The Under-Theorized And Underutilized Component Vital To Fostering Blockchain Development, Joshua A.T. Fairfield Jul 2019

The Human Element: The Under-Theorized And Underutilized Component Vital To Fostering Blockchain Development, Joshua A.T. Fairfield

Joshua A.T. Fairfield

This Article constitutes a lightly edited transcription of Joshua Fairfield's oral remarks at the April 6, 2018 Cleveland State Law Review Symposium on Blockchain Law and Technology.

The author posits that there is a tendency to think that technology will emerge triumphant in resolving physical problems, including banking and transactional recording; that there is sort of a "tech-bro utopianism," epitomized by Mark Zuckerberg, suggesting that what we need is a technological, not a human, solution. He states that one major problem is that social technologists, psychologists, historians, linguists, and cultural anthropologists are not on the development teams that are building …


Legal Personhood For Artificial Intelligence, Tyler Jaynes Jun 2019

Legal Personhood For Artificial Intelligence, Tyler Jaynes

Tyler Jaynes

The concept of artificial intelligence is not new nor is the notion that it should be granted legal protections given its influence on human activity. What is new, on a relative scale, is the notion that artificial intelligence can possess citizenship—a concept reserved only for humans, as it presupposes the idea of possessing civil duties and protections. Where there are several decades’ worth of writing on the concept of the legal status of computational artificial artefacts in the USA and elsewhere, it is surprising that law makers internationally have come to a standstill to protect our silicon brainchildren. In this …


Workplace Privacy And Monitoring: The Quest For Balanced Interests , Ariana R. Levinson Jun 2019

Workplace Privacy And Monitoring: The Quest For Balanced Interests , Ariana R. Levinson

Ariana R. Levinson

We can see in 2001 that 77 percent of employers were engaged in monitoring. This may have increased slightly or decreased slightly, but whatever has happened, we know that this is a significant amount of employers--much greater than a majority--that are engaging in monitoring of their employees. We can also see the great rise in monitoring of computers and electronic files in a ten-year period between 1997 and 2007. Finally, we can see some of the newer technologies. In 2007, twelve percent of the reporting employers were monitoring the blogosphere, eight percent were monitoring GPS vehicle tracking, and ten percent …


Trademark Issues Relating To Digitalized Flavor, John T. Cross Apr 2019

Trademark Issues Relating To Digitalized Flavor, John T. Cross

John Cross

Over the past three decades, most people have become accustomed to dealing with music, film, photography, and other expressive media stored in digital format. However, while great strides have been made in digitalizing what we see and hear, there has been far less progress in digitalizing the other senses. This lack of progress is especially evident for the chemical senses of smell and taste. However, all this may soon change. Recently, several groups of researchers have commenced various projects that could store odors and flavors in a digital format, and replicate them for humans.


Dead Ends And Dirty Secrets: Legal Treatment Of Negative Information, 25 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 619 (2008), John T. Cross Apr 2019

Dead Ends And Dirty Secrets: Legal Treatment Of Negative Information, 25 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 619 (2008), John T. Cross

John Cross

This article discusses the process of innovation and releasing so-called negative information to help others in the process to innovate. The article focuses on patent law and asks the questions: Why do people innovate? Does the legal system really reflect how the process of innovation actually occurs?


Age Verification In The 21st Century: Swiping Away Your Privacy, 23 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 363 (2005), John T. Cross Apr 2019

Age Verification In The 21st Century: Swiping Away Your Privacy, 23 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 363 (2005), John T. Cross

John Cross

Today a lot of private businesses have adopted the practice of driver's license swiping where proof of age or security issues arise. This practice has beneficial uses for both private entities, in identifying underage persons and those with fake identification, and law enforcement. However, the problem arise when the private sector, businesses are not using the information to merely identify underage customers or those with fake identification but store the information encoded on the barcode in a computer database. No federal laws and very few state laws regulate the collection and use of this information while the private sector is …


Topic Modeling The President: Conventional And Computational Methods, J.B. Ruhl, John Nay, Jonathan Gilligan Mar 2019

Topic Modeling The President: Conventional And Computational Methods, J.B. Ruhl, John Nay, Jonathan Gilligan

J.B. Ruhl

Legal and policy scholars modeling direct actions into substantive topic classifications thus far have not employed computational methods. To compare the results of their conventional modeling methods with the computational method, we generated computational topic models of all direct actions over time periods other scholars have studied using conventional methods, and did the same for a case study of environmental-policy direct actions. Our computational model of all direct actions closely matched one of the two comprehensive empirical models developed using conventional methods. By contrast, our environmental-case-study model differed markedly from the only empirical topic model of environmental-policy direct actions using …


Unsolicited Commercial E-Mail And The Telephone Consumer Protection Act Of 1991, David E. Sorkin Sep 2018

Unsolicited Commercial E-Mail And The Telephone Consumer Protection Act Of 1991, David E. Sorkin

David E. Sorkin

No abstract provided.


Sharing Stupid $H*T With Friends And Followers: The First Amendment Rights Of College Athletes To Use Social Media, Mary Margaret Meg Penrose Jul 2018

Sharing Stupid $H*T With Friends And Followers: The First Amendment Rights Of College Athletes To Use Social Media, Mary Margaret Meg Penrose

Meg Penrose

No abstract provided.


Computer As Confidant: Digital Investment Advice And The Fiduciary Standard, Nicole G. Iannarone Mar 2018

Computer As Confidant: Digital Investment Advice And The Fiduciary Standard, Nicole G. Iannarone

Nicole G. Iannarone

Digital investment advisers are the fastest growing segment of financial technology (fintech) and are disrupting traditional investment advisory delivery models. The computer-led investment advisory service model may be growing particularly quickly due to a confluence of social and political factors. Politicians and regulators have increasingly focused on the standards of care applicable to investment advice providers. Fewer Americans are ready for retirement and many lack access to affordable investment advice. At the same time, comfort with digital platforms have increased, with some preferring electronic interaction over human interaction. Claiming that they can democratize retirement service by pro- viding advice meeting …


United States V. Hubbell: Encryption And The Discovery Of Documents, Gregory S. Sergienko Mar 2018

United States V. Hubbell: Encryption And The Discovery Of Documents, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

Five years ago, in a contribution to these pages, I suggested that the Supreme Court's oldest precedents and the original intent of the framers of the Constitution precluded the use of evidence produced under a grant of immunity against the producer, even though the material produced included documents that the producer had not been compelled to write. This implied that information concealed with a cryptographic key could not be used in a criminal prosecution against someone from whom the key had been obtained under a grant of immunity. The issue, however, was doubtful given the tendency of the Court to …


Self Incrimination And Cryptographic Keys, Gregory S. Sergienko Mar 2018

Self Incrimination And Cryptographic Keys, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

Modern cryptography can make it virtually impossible to decipher documents without the cryptographic key thus making the availability of the contents of those documents depend on the availability of the key. This article examines the Fourth and Fifth Amendments' protection against the compulsory production of the key and the scope of the Fifth Amendment immunity against compelled production. After analyzing these questions using prevailing Fourth and Fifth Amendment jurisprudence, I shall describe the advantages of a privacy-based approach in practical and constitutional terms. [excerpt]


By Reading This Title, You Have Agreed To Our Terms Of Service, Brian Larson Feb 2018

By Reading This Title, You Have Agreed To Our Terms Of Service, Brian Larson

Brian Larson

By June of 2017, Facebook had two billion (that’s billion, with a ‘b’) users accessing it per month (Balakrishnan 2017). Facebook believes that each of those consumer end-users is bound by its end-user license agreement (EULA), which Facebook calls a “Statement of Rights and Responsibilities,” available to end-users from a small link in light gray text called “Terms” on every Facebook page. EULAs like this, associated with websites, mobile apps, and consumer goods with embedded software, and styled “terms of service,” “terms of use,” etc., may purport to impose a wide variety of contractual obligations on consumers, for example depriving …


A Few Criminal Justice Big Data Rules, Stephen E. Henderson Dec 2017

A Few Criminal Justice Big Data Rules, Stephen E. Henderson

Stephen E Henderson

As with most new things, the big data revolution in criminal justice has historic antecedents—indeed, a 1965 Presidential Commission called for some of the same data analysis that police departments and courts are today developing and implementing.  But there is no doubt we are on the precipice of a criminal justice data revolution, and it is a good time to take stock and to begin developing guidelines so that, as much as possible, criminal justice systems might reap the benefits and avoid the pitfalls of this newly data-centric world.  In that spirit, I propose ten high-level rules to guide criminal …


Blockchain And Smart Contracts: The Missing Link In Copyright Licensing?, Balazs Bodo, Daniel Gervais, Joao Pedro Quintais Dec 2017

Blockchain And Smart Contracts: The Missing Link In Copyright Licensing?, Balazs Bodo, Daniel Gervais, Joao Pedro Quintais

Daniel J Gervais

This article offers a normative analysis of key blockchain technology concepts from the
perspective of copyright law. Some features of blockchain technologies—scarcity, trust,
transparency, decentralized public records and smart contracts—seem to make this
technology compatible with the fundamentals of copyright. Authors can publish works
on blockchain creating a quasi-immutable record of initial ownership, and encode
‘smart’ contracts to license the use of works. Remuneration may happen on online distribution
platforms where the smart contracts reside. In theory, such an automated
setup allows for the private ordering of copyright. Blockchain technology, like Digital
Rights Management 20 years ago, is thus presented …


A Pantomime Of Privacy: Terrorism And Investigative Powers In German Constitutional Law, Russell A. Miller Dec 2017

A Pantomime Of Privacy: Terrorism And Investigative Powers In German Constitutional Law, Russell A. Miller

Russell A. Miller

Germany is widely regarded as a global model for the privacy protection its constitutional regime offers against intrusive intelligence-gathering and law enforcement surveillance. There is some basis for Germany’s privacy “exceptionalism,” especially as the text of the German Constitution (“Basic Law”) provides explicit textual protections that America’s Eighteenth Century Constitution lacks. The German Federal Constitutional Court has added to those doctrines with an expansive interpretation of the more general rights to dignity (Basic Law Article 1) and the free development of one’s personality (Basic Law Article 2). This jurisprudence includes constitutional liberty guarantees such as the absolute protection of a …


Did Russian Cyber Interference In The 2016 Election Violate International Law?, Jens David Ohlin Nov 2017

Did Russian Cyber Interference In The 2016 Election Violate International Law?, Jens David Ohlin

Jens David Ohlin

When it was revealed that the Russian government interfered in the 2016 U.S. presidential election by hacking into the email system of the Democratic National Committee and releasing its emails, international lawyers were divided over whether the cyber-attack violated international law. President Obama seemingly went out of his way to describe the attack as a mere violation of “established international norms of behavior,” though some international lawyers were more willing to describe the cyber-attack as a violation of international law. However, identifying the exact legal norm that was contravened turns out to be harder than it might otherwise appear. To …


Algorithmic Jim Crow, Margaret Hu Nov 2017

Algorithmic Jim Crow, Margaret Hu

Margaret Hu

This Article contends that current immigration- and security-related vetting protocols risk promulgating an algorithmically driven form of Jim Crow. Under the “separate but equal” discrimination of a historic Jim Crow regime, state laws required mandatory separation and discrimination on the front end, while purportedly establishing equality on the back end. In contrast, an Algorithmic Jim Crow regime allows for “equal but separate” discrimination. Under Algorithmic Jim Crow, equal vetting and database screening of all citizens and noncitizens will make it appear that fairness and equality principles are preserved on the front end. Algorithmic Jim Crow, however, will enable discrimination on …


Privacy Vs. Piracy, Sonia K. Katyal Oct 2017

Privacy Vs. Piracy, Sonia K. Katyal

Sonia Katyal

A few years ago, it was fanciful to imagine a world where intellectual property owners - such as record companies, soft ware owners, and publishers - were capable of invading the most sacred areas of the home in order to track, deter, and control uses of their products. Yet, today, strategies of copyright enforcement have rapidly multiplied, each strategy more invasive than the last. This new surveillance exposes the paradoxical nature of the Internet: It offers both the consumer and creator a seemingly endless capacity for human expression - a virtual marketplace of ideas- alongside an insurmountable array of capacities …


Ispy: Threats To Individual And Institutional Privacy In The Digital World, Lori Andrews Apr 2017

Ispy: Threats To Individual And Institutional Privacy In The Digital World, Lori Andrews

Lori B. Andrews

What type of information is collected, who is viewing it, and what law librarians can do to protect their patrons and institutions.


Principles Of The Law Of Software Contracts: Some Highlights, Robert A. Hillman, Maureen O'Rourke Apr 2017

Principles Of The Law Of Software Contracts: Some Highlights, Robert A. Hillman, Maureen O'Rourke

Robert Hillman

The final draft of the Principles of the Law of Software Contracts ("Principles") was unanimously approved by the American Law Institute membership in May of 2009. The goal of the project is to “clarify and unify the law of software transactions.” However, the Principles will not become law in any jurisdiction unless and until a court adopts them, so only time will tell whether the project will accomplish this goal. Nevertheless, one thing is certain. The current law of software transactions, a mish-mash of common law, Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code, and federal intellectual property law, among other …


Contract Law In Context: The Case Of Software Contracts, Robert A. Hillman Apr 2017

Contract Law In Context: The Case Of Software Contracts, Robert A. Hillman

Robert Hillman

The membership of The American Law Institute unanimously approved the “Principles of the Law of Software Contracts” in May of 2009. In this essay for a symposium in the Wake Forest Law Review, I draw on my experience as Reporter on the ALI project to add my perspective on an interesting general question: Is specialization of contract law wise and, if so, in what contexts? I certainly cannot definitively answer the question of whether in the abstract society is better off with general or specialized law, but my experience in drafting the software rules, along with Associate Reporter, Maureen O'Rourke, …


Wiretapping And Eavesdropping: Surveillance In The Internet Age, 3rd Ed., Anne T. Mckenna, Clifford S. Fishman Feb 2017

Wiretapping And Eavesdropping: Surveillance In The Internet Age, 3rd Ed., Anne T. Mckenna, Clifford S. Fishman

Anne T. McKenna

The third edition of the seminal “Fishman & McKenna” Wiretapping treatise analyzes federal and state law and the rapidly evolving civil and criminal legal issues and privacy issues surrounding the Internet, computers, cellular devices, electronic location tracking, drones, and biometrics. Since its publication, this treatise has been cited in multiple published federal and state judicial opinions, including by the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in August 2010 and the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in August 2014. The third edition is a well-known resource for attorneys working in private practice and in …